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Author (up) Aertsen, A.; Michiels, C.W. file  url
  Title SulA-dependent hypersensitivity to high pressure and hyperfilamentation after high-pressure treatment of Escherichia coli lon mutants Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Research in Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Res Microbiol  
  Volume 156 Issue 2 Pages 233-237  
  Keywords Colony Count, Microbial; Culture Media; Escherichia coli--genetics, growth & development; Escherichia coli Proteins--genetics, metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; Hydrostatic Pressure; Mutation; Protease La--genetics; SOS Response (Genetics); Ultraviolet Rays  
  Abstract High-pressure treatment (>100 MPa) is known to induce several heat shock proteins as well as an SOS response in Escherichia coli. In the current work, we have investigated properties with respect to high-pressure treatment of mutants-deficient in Lon, a pressure-induced ATP-dependent protease that belongs to the heat shock regulon but that also has a link to the SOS regulon. We report that lon mutants show increased pressure sensitivity and exhibit hyperfilamentation during growth after high-pressure treatment. Both phenotypes could be entirely attributed to the action of the SOS protein SulA, a potent inhibitor of the cell division ring protein FtsZ and a specific target of the Lon protease, since they were suppressed by knock-out of SulA. Introduction of the lexA1 allele, which effectively blocks the entire SOS response, also suppressed the high pressure hypersensitivity of lon mutants, but not their UV hypersensitivity. These results indicate the existence of a SulA-dependent pathway of high-pressure-induced cell filamentation, and suggest involvement of the SOS response, and particularly of SulA, in high-pressure-mediated cell death in E. coli strains which are compromised in Lon function.  
  Call Number Serial 301  
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Author (up) Altman, S.E.; Shankman, S.A. file  url
  Title What is the association between obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders? Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Clinical Psychology Review Abbreviated Journal Clin Psychol Rev  
  Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 638-646  
  Keywords Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Bulimia Nervosa/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Causality; Comorbidity; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diseases in Twins/genetics/psychology; Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/*psychology; Genotype; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/*psychology; Personality Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology  
  Abstract Because eating disorders (EDs) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) co-occur at high rates and can have functionally similar clinical presentations, it has been suggested that both constructs might be part of a common spectrum of disorders. Identifying the relationship between EDs and OCD may lead to the discovery of important shared core disease processes and/or mechanisms for maintenance. The objective of this paper is to understand the relationship between EDs and OCD by systematically reviewing epidemiological, longitudinal and family studies guided by five models of comorbidity posited by Klein and Riso (1993) and others. Though this literature is relatively small, the preponderance of evidence from these studies largely suggests that OCD/ED co-occur because of a shared etiological relationship. Limitations to extant literature, and suggestions for future research are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 1824  
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Author (up) Ambrosone, A.; Costa, A.; Leone, A.; Grillo, S. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Beyond transcription: RNA-binding proteins as emerging regulators of plant response to environmental constraints Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Plant Science : an International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology Abbreviated Journal Plant Sci  
  Volume 182 Issue Pages 12-18  
  Keywords Abscisic Acid/metabolism; Acclimatization/*physiology; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant; Osmotic Pressure/physiology; *Plant Physiological Processes; Plants/genetics; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism/*physiology; Transcription, Genetic  
  Abstract RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) govern many aspects of RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA processing, transport, stability/decay and translation. Although relatively few plant RNA-binding proteins have been characterized genetically and biochemically, more than 200 RBP genes have been predicted in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, suggesting that they might serve specific plant functions. Besides their role in normal cellular functions, RBPs are emerging also as an interesting class of proteins involved in a wide range of post-transcriptional regulatory events that are important in providing plants with the ability to respond rapidly to changes in environmental conditions. Here, we review the most recent results and evidence on the functional role of RBPs in plant adaptation to various unfavourable environmental conditions and their contribution to enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stresses, with special emphasis on osmotic and temperature stress.  
  Call Number Serial 1226  
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Author (up) Amici, M.; Eusebi, F.; Miledi, R. file  url
  Title Effects of the antibiotic gentamicin on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Neuropharmacology Abbreviated Journal Neuropharmacology  
  Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 627-637  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents--pharmacology; Cochlea--drug effects; DNA, Complementary--biosynthesis; Electrophysiology; Gentamicins--pharmacology; Humans; Membrane Potentials--drug effects, physiology; Mice; Nicotinic Antagonists; Oocytes--metabolism; Patch-Clamp Techniques; RNA, Complementary--biosynthesis; Receptors, Nicotinic--biosynthesis, drug effects, genetics; Torpedo; Vestibule, Labyrinth--drug effects; Xenopus; alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor  
  Abstract Medical treatment with the aminoglycosidic antibiotic gentamicin may produce side effects that include neuromuscular blockage and ototoxicity; which are believed to result from a dysfunction of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Gentamicin is known to reversibly block ACh-currents generated by the activation of muscle-type alphabetagammadelta-AChR and neuronal alpha9-AChR. We studied the effects of gentamicin on heteromeric alphabetagammadelta-AChR and homomeric alpha7-AChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Prolonged treatment with gentamicin, and other antibiotics, differentially altered alphabetagammadelta- and alpha7-AChR responses. Specifically, gentamicin accelerated desensitization and did not reduce ACh-currents in oocytes expressing alphabetagammadelta-AChRs, whereas ACh-currents were reduced and desensitization was unaltered in oocytes expressing alpha7-AChRs. Moreover, acutely applied gentamicin acted as a competitive antagonist on both types of receptors and increased the rate of desensitization in alphabetagammadelta-AChR while reducing the rate of desensitization in alpha7-AChR. This data helps to better understand the action of gentamicin on muscle and nervous tissues, providing mechanistic insights that could eventually lead to improving the medical use of aminoglycosides.  
  Call Number Serial 445  
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Author (up) Anderson, J.L.; Albergotti, L.; Ellebracht, B.; Huey, R.B.; Phillips, P.C. file  url
  Title Does thermoregulatory behavior maximize reproductive fitness of natural isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication BMC Evolutionary Biology Abbreviated Journal BMC Evol Biol  
  Volume 11 Issue Pages 157  
  Keywords Acclimatization; Animals; Body Temperature Regulation; Caenorhabditis elegans--genetics, physiology; Genetic Fitness; Temperature  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: A central premise of physiological ecology is that an animal's preferred body temperature should correspond closely with the temperature maximizing performance and Darwinian fitness. Testing this co-adaptational hypothesis has been problematic for several reasons. First, reproductive fitness is the appropriate measure, but is difficult to measure in most animals. Second, no single fitness measure applies to all demographic situations, complicating interpretations. Here we test the co-adaptation hypothesis by studying an organism (Caenorhabditis elegans) in which both fitness and thermal preference can be reliably measured. RESULTS: We find that natural isolates of C. elegans display a range of mean thermal preferences and also vary in their thermal sensitivities for fitness. Hot-seeking isolates CB4854 and CB4857 prefer temperatures that favor population growth rate (r), whereas the cold-seeking isolate CB4856 prefers temperatures that favor Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS). CONCLUSIONS: Correlations between fitness and thermal preference in natural isolates of C. elegans are driven primarily by isolate-specific differences in thermal preference. If these differences are the result of natural selection, then this suggests that the appropriate measure of fitness for use in evolutionary ecology studies might differ even within species, depending on the unique ecological and evolutionary history of each population.  
  Call Number Serial 261  
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Author (up) Ardiel, E.L.; Rankin, C.H. file  url
  Title C. elegans: social interactions in a “nonsocial” animal Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Advances in Genetics Abbreviated Journal Adv Genet  
  Volume 68 Issue Pages 1-22  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/*physiology; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics; Ecosystem; Female; Genetics, Behavioral; Male; Pheromones/physiology; Social Behavior  
  Abstract As self-fertilizing nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans do not normally come to mind when one thinks of social animals. However, their reproductive mode is optimized for rapid population growth, and although they do not form structured societies, conspecifics are an important source of sensory input. A pheromone signal underlies multiple complex behaviors, including diapause, male-mating, and aggregation. The use of C. elegans in sociogenetics research allows for the analysis of social interactions at the level of genes, circuits, and behaviors. This chapter describes natural polymorphisms in mab-23, plg-1, npr-1, and glb-5 as they relate to two C. elegans social behaviors: male-mating and aggregation.  
  Call Number Serial 1074  
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Author (up) Arias, H.R. file  url
  Title Positive and negative modulation of nicotinic receptors Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology Abbreviated Journal Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol  
  Volume 80 Issue Pages 153-203  
  Keywords Acetylcholine/chemistry/physiology; Allosteric Regulation; Allosteric Site/genetics; Animals; Cholinergic Antagonists/*pharmacology/therapeutic use; Crystallography, X-Ray; Humans; Ion Channel Gating/drug effects; Mice; Nicotinic Agonists/*pharmacology/therapeutic use; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Receptors, Nicotinic/*chemistry/*physiology; Structure-Activity Relationship  
  Abstract Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) are one of the best characterized ion channels from the Cys-loop receptor superfamily. The study of acetylcholine binding proteins and prokaryotic ion channels from different species has been paramount for the understanding of the structure-function relationship of the Cys-loop receptor superfamily. AChR function can be modulated by different ligand types. The neurotransmitter ACh and other agonists trigger conformational changes in the receptor, finally opening the intrinsic cation channel. The so-called gating process couples ligand binding, located at the extracellular portion, to the opening of the ion channel, located at the transmembrane region. After agonist activation, in the prolonged presence of agonists, the AChR becomes desensitized. Competitive antagonists overlap the agonist-binding sites inhibiting the pharmacological action of agonists. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) do not bind to the orthostetic binding sites but allosterically enhance the activity elicited by agonists by increasing the gating process (type I) and/or by decreasing desensitization (type II). Instead, negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) produce the opposite effects. Interestingly, this negative effect is similar to that found for another class of allosteric drugs, that is, noncompetitive antagonists (NCAs). However, the main difference between both categories of drugs is based on their distinct binding site locations. Although both NAMs and NCAs do not bind to the agonist sites, NACs bind to sites located in the ion channel, whereas NAMs bind to nonluminal sites. However, this classification is less clear for NAMs interacting at the extracellular-transmembrane interface where the ion channel mouth might be involved. Interestingly, PAMs and NAMs might be developed as potential medications for the treatment of several diseases involving AChRs, including dementia-, skin-, and immunological-related diseases, drug addiction, and cancer. More exciting is the potential combination of specific agonists with specific PAMs. However, we are still in the beginning of understanding how these compounds act and how these drugs can be used therapeutically.  
  Call Number Serial 1886  
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Author (up) Aveskamp, M.M.; Verkley, G.J.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Murace, M.A.; Perello, A.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W. file  url
  Title DNA phylogeny reveals polyphyly of Phoma section Peyronellaea and multiple taxonomic novelties Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Mycologia Abbreviated Journal Mycologia  
  Volume 101 Issue 3 Pages 363-382  
  Keywords Actins/analysis/genetics; Ascomycota/*classification/cytology/genetics; Biodiversity; DNA, Fungal/*analysis/genetics; DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/analysis/genetics; Genetic Speciation; Genetic Variation; Molecular Sequence Data; *Phylogeny; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Sequence Alignment; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Species Specificity; Tubulin/analysis/genetics  
  Abstract Species of the anamorph genus Phoma are commonly isolated from a wide range of ecological niches. They are notoriously difficult to identify due to the paucity of morphological features and the plasticity of these when cultivated on agar media. Species linked to Phoma section Peyronellaea are typified by the production of dictyochlamydospores and thus have additional characters to use in taxon delineation. However, the taxonomy of this section is still not fully understood. Furthermore the production of such chlamydospores also is known in some other sections of Phoma. DNA sequences were generated from three loci, namely ITS, actin, and 3-tubulin, to clarify the phylogeny of Phoma taxa that produce dictyochlamydospores. Results were unable to support section Peyronellaea as a taxonomic entity. Dictyochlamydospore formation appears to be a feature that developed, or was lost, many times during the evolution of Phoma. Furthermore, based on the multigene analyses, five new Phoma species could be delineated while a further five required taxonomic revision to be consistent with the genetic variation observed.  
  Call Number Serial 1999  
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Author (up) Baber, M.; Chaudhry, S.; Kelly, L.; Ross, C.; Carleton, B.; Berger, H.; Koren, G. file  url
  Title The pharmacogenetics of codeine pain relief in the postpartum period Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication The Pharmacogenomics Journal Abbreviated Journal Pharmacogenomics J  
  Volume 15 Issue 5 Pages 430-435  
  Keywords Adult; Cesarean Section/adverse effects; Codeine/*administration & dosage; Female; Genotype; Glucuronosyltransferase/*genetics; Humans; Pain/drug therapy/*genetics/pathology; Pain Management; Pharmacogenetics; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Postpartum Period; Pregnancy; Receptors, Opioid, mu/*genetics  
  Abstract The objective of this study was to examine interindividual variability in codeine requirements and pain management by examining select genetic polymorphisms in the codeine pharmacological pathway. The study included a nested cohort of 98 women who were prescribed codeine following cesarean section. Participants were genotyped for select polymorphisms of the COMT, ABCB1, CYP2D6, UGT2B7 and OPRM1 genes and instructed to describe their level of pain using the visual analog scale (mm) 1 h following each dose of codeine. Analysis revealed that reported pain increases with maternal age (P=0.041). Asians required more codeine than Caucasians (P=0.048). Significant differences in mean dose consumption were seen among the genotypic groups of the OPRM1 A118G (P=0.001) and UGT2B7 C802T (P=0.015) variants. These variants were found to predict codeine consumption in the cohort overall (P=0.000) and among Caucasians (P=0.001). These findings will assist in customizing therapy to effectively manage postpartum pain.  
  Call Number Serial 1573  
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Author (up) Backberg, M.; Meister, B. file  url
  Title Abnormal cholinergic and GABAergic vascular innervation in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of obese tub/tub mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Synapse (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Synapse  
  Volume 52 Issue 4 Pages 245-257  
  Keywords Acetylcholine/*metabolism; Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; Animals; Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus/blood supply/*metabolism; Blood Vessels/innervation; Carrier Proteins/metabolism; Glutamate Decarboxylase/metabolism; Immunohistochemistry; *Membrane Transport Proteins; Mice; Mutation; Obesity/*physiopathology; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Presynaptic Terminals/metabolism; Proteins/*genetics; Synaptophysin/metabolism; Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins; *Vesicular Transport Proteins; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/*metabolism  
  Abstract Tubby and tubby-like proteins (TULPs) are encoded by members of a small gene family. An autosomal recessive mutation in the mouse tub gene leads to blindness, deafness, and maturity-onset obesity. The mechanisms by which the mutation causes the obesity syndrome has not been established. We compared obese tub/tub mice and their lean littermates in order to find abnormalities within the mediobasal hypothalamus, a region intimately associated with the regulation of body weight. Using an antiserum to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), a marker for cholinergic neurons, many unusually large VAChT-immunoreactive (-ir) nerve terminals, identified by colocalization with the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin, were demonstrated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of obese tub/tub mice. Double-labeling showed that VAChT-ir nerve endings also contained glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a marker for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. The VAChT- and GAD-ir nerve terminals were in close contact with blood vessels, identified with antisera to platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM; also called CD31), laminin, smooth muscle actin (SMA), and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1). Such large cholinergic and GABAergic nerve terminals surrounding blood vessels were not seen in the arcuate nucleus of lean tub/+ mice. The presence of abnormal cholinergic/GABAergic vascular innervation in the arcuate nucleus suggests that alterations in this region, which contains neurons that receive information from the periphery and which relays information about the energy status to other parts of the brain, may be central in the development of the obese phenotype in animals with an autosomal recessive mutation in the tub gene.  
  Call Number Serial 1460  
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