Records Links
Author Turnbaugh, P.J. file  url
Title Microbes and Diet-Induced Obesity: Fast, Cheap, and Out of Control Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Cell Host & Microbe Abbreviated Journal Cell Host Microbe  
Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 278-281  
Keywords Animals; Cytosol/chemistry; Diet/*adverse effects/*methods; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*drug effects; Humans; *Obesity; cellular memory; diet-induced obesity; gut microbiome; high-fat and high-sugar diets; metabolic disease; metagenomics; metatranscriptomics; microbial dynamics; multi-omics; nutrition  
Abstract Here I revisit our early experiments published in Cell Host & Microbe (Turnbaugh et al., 2008) showing that a diet rich in fat and simple sugars alters the gut microbiome in a manner that contributes to host adiposity, and reflect upon the remarkable advances and remaining challenges in this field.  
Call Number Serial 2090  
Permanent link to this record

Author Walker, R.W.; Clemente, J.C.; Peter, I.; Loos, R.J.F. file  url
Title The prenatal gut microbiome: are we colonized with bacteria in utero? Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Pediatric Obesity Abbreviated Journal Pediatr Obes  
Volume 12 Suppl 1 Issue Pages 3-17  
Keywords Animals; Bacteria; Delivery, Obstetric; Female; Fetus/*microbiology; *Gastrointestinal Microbiome; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Mothers; Pregnancy; Bacteria; foetal development; gut microbiome; pregnancy  
Abstract The colonization of the gut with microbes in early life is critical to the developing newborn immune system, metabolic function and potentially future health. Maternal microbes are transmitted to offspring during childbirth, representing a key step in the colonization of the infant gut. Studies of infant meconium suggest that bacteria are present in the foetal gut prior to birth, meaning that colonization could occur prenatally. Animal studies have shown that prenatal transmission of microbes to the foetus is possible, and physiological changes observed in pregnant mothers indicate that in utero transfer is likely in humans as well. However, direct evidence of in utero transfer of bacteria in humans is lacking. Understanding the timing and mechanisms involved in the first colonization of the human gut is critical to a comprehensive understanding of the early life gut microbiome. This review will discuss the evidence supporting in utero transmission of microbes from mother to infants. We also review sources of transferred bacteria, physiological mechanisms of transfer and modifiers of maternal microbiomes and their potential role in early life infant health. Well-designed longitudinal birth studies that account for established modifiers of the gut microbiome are challenging, but will be necessary to confirm in utero transfer and further our knowledge of the prenatal microbiome.  
Call Number Serial 2081  
Permanent link to this record

Author West, C.E.; Jenmalm, M.C.; Kozyrskyj, A.L.; Prescott, S.L. file  url
Title Probiotics for treatment and primary prevention of allergic diseases and asthma: looking back and moving forward Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Expert Review of Clinical Immunology Abbreviated Journal Expert Rev Clin Immunol  
Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 625-639  
Keywords Animals; Asthma/*therapy; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*therapy; *Immunity, Mucosal; Meta-Analysis as Topic; *Microbiota; Primary Prevention/trends; Probiotics/*therapeutic use; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; *Diversity; *dysbiosis; *eczema; *gut microbiome; *hygiene hypothesis; *primary prevention; *probiotic  
Abstract Microbial ecosystems cover the surface of the human body and it is becoming increasingly clear that our modern environment has profound effects on microbial composition and diversity. A dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with allergic diseases and asthma in cross-sectional and observational studies. In an attempt to restore this dysbiosis, probiotics have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. Here, we review treatment and primary prevention studies, recent meta-analyses, and discuss the current understanding of the role of probiotics in this context. Many meta-analyses have shown a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, whereas there is less evidence of a benefit for other allergic manifestations. Because of very low quality evidence and heterogeneity between studies, specific advice on the most effective regimens cannot yet be given – not even for eczema prevention. To be able to adopt results into specific recommendations, international expert organizations stress the need for well-designed studies.  
Call Number Serial 1932  
Permanent link to this record