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Author Gajer, P.; Brotman, R.M.; Bai, G.; Sakamoto, J.; Schutte, U.M.E.; Zhong, X.; Koenig, S.S.K.; Fu, L.; Ma, Z.S.; Zhou, X.; Abdo, Z.; Forney, L.J.; Ravel, J. file  url
Title Temporal dynamics of the human vaginal microbiota Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Science Translational Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sci Transl Med  
Volume 4 Issue 132 Pages 132ra52  
Keywords Bacteria/classification/genetics; Female; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Metabolome; Metabolomics; Metagenome/genetics/*physiology; Models, Biological; Phylogeny; Time Factors; Vagina/*microbiology; Microbiome  
Abstract Elucidating the factors that impinge on the stability of bacterial communities in the vagina may help in predicting the risk of diseases that affect women's health. Here, we describe the temporal dynamics of the composition of vaginal bacterial communities in 32 reproductive-age women over a 16-week period. The analysis revealed the dynamics of five major classes of bacterial communities and showed that some communities change markedly over short time periods, whereas others are relatively stable. Modeling community stability using new quantitative measures indicates that deviation from stability correlates with time in the menstrual cycle, bacterial community composition, and sexual activity. The women studied are healthy; thus, it appears that neither variation in community composition per se nor higher levels of observed diversity (co-dominance) are necessarily indicative of dysbiosis.  
Call Number Serial 2175  
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Author Lal, D.; Keim, P.; Delisle, J.; Barker, B.; Rank, M.A.; Chia, N.; Schupp, J.M.; Gillece, J.D.; Cope, E.K. file  url
Title Mapping and comparing bacterial microbiota in the sinonasal cavity of healthy, allergic rhinitis, and chronic rhinosinusitis subjects Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology Abbreviated Journal Int Forum Allergy Rhinol  
Volume 7 Issue 6 Pages 561-569  
Keywords allergic rhinitis; bacteriology; chronic rhinosinusitis; inferior meatus; microbioata; microbiome; middle meatus; nasal polyposis; regional sinonasal microbiota and rhinosinusitis  
Abstract BACKGROUND: The role of microbiota in sinonasal inflammation can be further understood by targeted sampling of healthy and diseased subjects. We compared the microbiota of the middle meatus (MM) and inferior meatus (IM) in healthy, allergic rhinitis (AR), and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) subjects to characterize intrasubject, intersubject, and intergroup differences. METHODS: Subjects were recruited in the office, and characterized into healthy, AR, and CRS groups. Endoscopically-guided swab samples were obtained from the MM and IM bilaterally. Bacterial microbiota were characterized by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. RESULTS: Intersubject microbiome analyses were conducted in 65 subjects: 8 healthy, 11 AR, and 46 CRS (25 CRS with nasal polyps [CRSwNP]; 21 CRS without nasal polyps [CRSsNP]). Intrasubject analyses were conducted for 48 individuals (4 controls, 11 AR, 8 CRSwNP, and 15 CRSwNP). There was considerable intersubject microbiota variability, but intrasubject profiles were similar (p = 0.001, nonparametric t test). Intrasubject bacterial diversity was significantly reduced in MM of CRSsNP subjects compared to IM samples (p = 0.022, nonparametric t test). CRSsNP MM samples were enriched in Streptococcus, Haemophilus, and Fusobacterium spp. but exhibited loss of diversity compared to healthy, CRSwNP, and AR subject-samples (p < 0.05; nonparametric t test). CRSwNP patients were enriched in Staphylococcus, Alloiococcus, and Corynebacterium spp. CONCLUSION: This study presents the sinonasal microbiome profile in one of the larger populations of non-CRS and CRS subjects, and is the first office-based cohort in the literature. In contrast to healthy, AR, and CRSwNP subjects, CRSsNP MM samples exhibited decreased microbiome diversity and anaerobic enrichment. CRSsNP MM samples had reduced diversity compared to same-subject IM samples, a novel finding.  
Call Number Serial 2174  
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Author Kramer, A.; Bekeschus, S.; Bröker, B.M.; Schleibinger, H.; Razavi, B.; Assadian, O. file  url
Title Maintaining health by balancing microbial exposure and prevention of infection: the hygiene hypothesis versus the hypothesis of early immune challenge Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Hospital Infection Abbreviated Journal Journal of Hospital Infection  
Volume 83 Issue Pages S29-S34  
Keywords Early immune challenge hypothesis; Household hygiene; Hygiene hypothesis; Immune System; Lifestyle; Microbiome  
Abstract The human immune system is inseparably bonded to an individual's personal micro-biome from birth to death. Since the beginning of life, commensal relationships have ensured the survival of micro- and macro-organisms within complex relationships. However, technological advances and altered lifestyle imposed new rules for this interaction during recent decades. It has been observed that reduced exposure to micro-organisms and parasites results in decreased morbidity and mortality, but is also associated with a rising prevalence of atopic disorders and autoimmune diseases, mostly in industrialized countries. This inverse relationship is described by the “hygiene hypothesis”, put forward in 1989, yet this term only imperfectly describes these observations, as excessive hygiene or hygienic measures may not directly be the central cause. The lack of appropriate immune stimulation during early childhood with the consequence of disturbed alignment in the sequence of encountering self- or non-self-antigens might account in the rise of atopy and autoimmune disease. For this reason we propose the term “early immune challenge hypothesis”. This concept highlights the importance of immune priming in early life in the context of genetic, social, geographic, cultural, and economic background. Moreover, it emphasizes the central role of “training” of regulatory T-cells through sufficient microbial exposure, leading to a robust, healthy balance between inflammation and anti-inflammation or immune tolerance. Insufficient exposure might result in abnormal immune regulatory development. Finally, it incorporates the idea of encountering “old friends”--organisms that shaped our immune system during human phylogeny. This article gives a comprehensive overview of the relationship between microbial exposure, and the incidence of asthma and hay fever is outlined. Although the outcomes of these studies originally were interpreted in the framework of the hygiene hypothesis, they may suit the concept of the hypothesis of early immune challenge even better. Moreover, recent studies have revealed that TH or TReg imbalances in disease may be partially corrected by the administration of helminthic or bacterial extracts.  
Call Number Serial 2099  
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Author Bercik, P. file  url
Title The microbiota-gut-brain axis: learning from intestinal bacteria? Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Gut Abbreviated Journal Gut  
Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 288-289  
Keywords Animals; Bacterial Infections/*psychology; Cognition Disorders/*microbiology; Humans; Intestinal Diseases/microbiology/*psychology; Intestines/*microbiology; Mice; Symbiosis; Microbiome  
Abstract The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem,1 which has developed a mutualistic relationship with its host and plays a crucial role in the development of the host's innate and adaptive immune responses.2 This ecosystem serves the host by protecting against pathogens, harvesting otherwise inaccessible nutrients, aiding in neutralisation of drugs and carcinogens, and affecting the metabolism of lipids.3 Gut bacteria modulate intestinal motility, barrier function and visceral perception.4

An interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system (CNS) may seem difficult to conceive at first sight, but clinicians are well aware of the benefit of oral antibiotics and laxatives in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy.5 Data accumulated from animal studies indicate that there is central sensing of gastrointestinal infections. For example, acute infection with Campylobacter jejuni results in anxiety-like behaviour and rapid activation of vagal pathways prior to onset of immune responses,6 while chronic Helicobacter pylori infection in mice leads to abnormal feeding behaviour and upregulation of tumour necrosis factor &#945; (TNF&#945;) in the median eminence of the hypothalamus.7 Rapid and sustained gut&#65533;brain communication may confer a significant advantage to the host, as central activation in response to changes in commensals or pathogens would allow better control of gut function and immunity.
Call Number Serial 2096  
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Author Turnbaugh, P.J. file  url
Title Microbes and Diet-Induced Obesity: Fast, Cheap, and Out of Control Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Cell Host & Microbe Abbreviated Journal Cell Host Microbe  
Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 278-281  
Keywords Animals; Cytosol/chemistry; Diet/*adverse effects/*methods; Gastrointestinal Microbiome/*drug effects; Humans; *Obesity; cellular memory; diet-induced obesity; gut microbiome; high-fat and high-sugar diets; metabolic disease; metagenomics; metatranscriptomics; microbial dynamics; multi-omics; nutrition  
Abstract Here I revisit our early experiments published in Cell Host & Microbe (Turnbaugh et al., 2008) showing that a diet rich in fat and simple sugars alters the gut microbiome in a manner that contributes to host adiposity, and reflect upon the remarkable advances and remaining challenges in this field.  
Call Number Serial 2090  
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