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Author (up) Boggiano, M.M.; Wenger, L.E.; Turan, B.; Tatum, M.M.; Morgan, P.R.; Sylvester, M.D. file  url
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  Title Eating tasty food to cope. Longitudinal association with BMI Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 87 Issue Pages 365-370  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Adult; *Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Bulimia/psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Eating/*psychology; Emotions; Feeding Behavior/psychology; Female; Humans; Linear Models; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Motivation; Obesity/psychology; Overweight/psychology; Reproducibility of Results; Risk Factors; Self Report; Students; Young Adult; Assessment; Binge-eating; Emotions; Motivation; Obesity; Reward  
  Abstract The goals of this study were to determine if a change in certain motives to eat highly palatable food, as measured by the Palatable Eating Motives Scale (PEMS), could predict a change in body mass index (BMI) over time, to assess the temporal stability of these motive scores, and to test the reliability of previously reported associations between eating tasty foods to cope and BMI. BMI, demographics, and scores on the PEMS and the Binge Eating Scale were obtained from 192 college students. Test-retest analysis was performed on the PEMS motives in groups varying in three gap times between tests. Regression analyses determined what PEMS motives predicted a change in BMI over two years. The results replicated previous findings that eating palatable food for Coping motives (e.g., to forget about problems, reduce negative feelings) is associated with BMI. Test-retest correlations revealed that motive scores, while somewhat stable, can change over time. Importantly, among overweight participants, a change in Coping scores predicted a change in BMI over 2 years, such that a 1-point change in Coping predicted a 1.76 change in BMI (equivalent to a 10.5 lb. change in body weight) independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and initial binge-eating status (Cohen's f(2) effect size = 1.44). The large range in change of Coping scores suggests it is possible to decrease frequency of eating to cope by more than 1 scale point to achieve weight losses greater than 10 lbs. in young overweight adults, a group already at risk for rapid weight gain. Hence, treatments aimed specifically at reducing palatable food intake for coping reasons vs. for social, reward, or conformity reasons, should help achieve a healthier body weight and prevent obesity if this motive-type is identified prior to significant weight gain.  
  Call Number Serial 1202  
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Author (up) Elsbernd, S.L.; Reicks, M.M.; Mann, T.L.; Redden, J.P.; Mykerezi, E.; Vickers, Z.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Serving vegetables first: A strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary school cafeterias Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 96 Issue Pages 111-115  
  Keywords Bell peppers; Children; School lunch; Vegetable consumption  
  Abstract Vegetable consumption in the United States is low despite the wealth of evidence that vegetables play an important role in reducing risk of various chronic diseases. Because eating patterns developed in childhood continue through adulthood, we need to form healthy eating habits in children. The objective of this study was to determine if offering vegetables before other meal components would increase the overall consumption of vegetables at school lunch. We served kindergarten through fifth-grade students a small portion (26-33 g) of a raw vegetable (red and yellow bell peppers) while they waited in line to receive the rest of their lunch meal. They then had the options to take more of the bell peppers, a different vegetable, or no vegetable from the lunch line. We measured the amount of each vegetable consumed by each child. Serving vegetables first greatly increased the number of students eating vegetables. On intervention days most of the vegetables consumed came from the vegetables-first portions. Total vegetable intake per student eating lunch was low because most students chose to not eat vegetables, but the intervention significantly increased this value. Serving vegetables first is a viable strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary schools. Long-term implementation of this strategy may have an important impact on healthy eating habits, vegetable consumption, and the health consequences of vegetable intake.  
  Call Number Serial 1258  
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Author (up) English, L.; Lasschuijt, M.; Keller, K.L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Mechanisms of the portion size effect. What is known and where do we go from here? Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 88 Issue Pages 39-49  
  Keywords Cues; *Feeding Behavior; Humans; Portion Size/*psychology; Eating behavior; Mechanisms; Portion size  
  Abstract Childhood obesity is a persistent problem worldwide, and of particular concern in the United States. Clarifying the role of the food environment in promoting overeating is an important step toward reducing the prevalence of obesity. One potential contributor to the obesity epidemic is the increased portion sizes of foods commonly served. Portion sizes of foods served both at home and away from home have dramatically increased over the past 40 years. Consistently, short-term studies have demonstrated that increasing portion size leads to increased food intake in adults and children, a phenomenon known as the portion size effect. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are poorly understood. Understanding these mechanisms could assist in clarifying the relationship between portion size and weight status and help inform the development of effective obesity interventions. First, we review the role of visual cues, such as plate size, unit, and utensil size as a potential moderator of the portion size effect. In addition, we discuss meal microstructure components including bite size, rate, and frequency, as these may be altered in response to different portion sizes. We also review theories that implicate post-ingestive, flavor-nutrient learning as a key moderator of the portion size effect. Furthermore, we present preliminary data from an ongoing study that is applying neuroimaging to better understand these mechanisms and identify modifiable child characteristics that could be targeted in obesity interventions. Our tentative findings suggest that individual differences in cognitive (e.g. loss of control eating) and neural responses to food cues may be critical in understanding the mechanisms of the portion size effect. To advance this research area, studies that integrate measures of individual subject-level differences with assessment of food-related characteristics are needed.  
  Call Number Serial 1644  
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Author (up) Fisher, J.O.; Birch, L.L. file  url
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  Title Restricting access to foods and children's eating Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 32 Issue 3 Pages 405-419  
  Keywords Child Behavior/*psychology; Child, Preschool; Feeding Behavior/*psychology; Female; Food Preferences; Humans; Male; *Mother-Child Relations; Nutritional Requirements; Obesity/psychology; Sex Factors  
  Abstract This study evaluated maternal restriction of children's access to snack foods as a predictor of children's intake of those foods when they were made freely available. In addition, child and parent eating-related “risk” factors were used to predict maternal reports of restricting access. Participants were 71, 3-to-5-year-old children (36 boys, 35 girls) and their parents. Children's snack food intake was measured immediately following a meal, in a setting offering free access to palatable snack foods. Child and maternal reports of restricting children's access to those snack foods were obtained. In addition, information on child and parent adiposity as well as parents' restrained and disinhibited eating was used to examine “risk” factors for restricting access. For girls only, child and maternal reports of restricting access predicted girls' snack food intake, with higher levels of restriction predicting higher levels of snack food intake. Maternal restriction, in turn, was predicted by children's adiposity. Additionally, parents' own restrained eating style predicted maternal restriction of girls' access to snack foods.  
  Call Number Serial 1690  
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Author (up) Hoefling, A.; Strack, F. file  url
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  Title Hunger induced changes in food choice. When beggars cannot be choosers even if they are allowed to choose Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 54 Issue 3 Pages 603-606  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Female; Food; Food Deprivation/physiology; Food Preferences/*physiology; Humans; Hunger/*physiology; Male; Satiation/physiology; Taste; Time Factors  
  Abstract The present work was to examine the influence of food deprivation on food choice. For this purpose hungry versus satiated subjects were presented with a series of choices between two snacks in a complete block design of pairwise comparisons. Snacks systematically varied with respect to subjects' idiosyncratic taste preferences (preferred versus un-preferred snack), portion size (large portion versus very small portion), and availability in terms of time (immediately available versus available only after a substantial time delay). Food choices were analyzed with a conjoint analysis which corroborated the assumption that food deprivation decreases the relative importance of taste preference and increases the importance of immediate availability of food.  
  Call Number Serial 1262  
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Author (up) Horstmann, A.; Dietrich, A.; Mathar, D.; Possel, M.; Villringer, A.; Neumann, J. file  url
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  Title Slave to habit? Obesity is associated with decreased behavioural sensitivity to reward devaluation Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 87 Issue Pages 175-183  
  Keywords Adaptation, Physiological; Adult; Body Mass Index; Body Weight; Energy Intake; Feeding Behavior/*psychology; Health Behavior; Humans; Hunger; Hyperphagia/psychology; Linear Models; Male; Models, Biological; Motivation; Obesity/*psychology; *Reward; Satiation; Surveys and Questionnaires; Young Adult; Control of food intake; Devaluation; Goal-directed; Habitual; Obesity; Reward sensitivity  
  Abstract The motivational value of food is lower during satiety compared to fasting. Dynamic changes in motivational value promote food seeking or meal cessation. In obesity this mechanism might be compromised since obese subjects ingest energy beyond homeostatic needs. Thus, lower adaptation of eating behaviour with respect to changes in motivational value might cause food overconsumption in obesity. To test this hypothesis, we implemented a selective satiation procedure to investigate the relationship between obesity and the size of the behavioural devaluation effect in humans. Lean to obese men (mean age 25.9, range 19-30 years; mean BMI 29.1, range 19.2-45.1 kg/m(2)) were trained on a free operant paradigm and learned to associate cues with the possibility to win different food rewards by pressing a button. After the initial training phase, one of the rewards was devalued by consumption. Response rates for and wanting of the different rewards were measured pre and post devaluation. Behavioural sensitivity to reward devaluation, measured as the magnitude of difference between pre and post responses, was regressed against BMI. Results indicate that (1) higher BMI compared to lower BMI in men led to an attenuated behavioural adjustment to reward devaluation, and (2) the decrease in motivational value was associated with the decrease in response rate between pre and post. Change in explicitly reported motivational value, however, was not affected by BMI. Thus, we conclude that high BMI in men is associated with lower behavioural adaptation with respect to changes in motivational value of food, possibly resulting in automatic overeating patterns that are hard to control in daily life.  
  Call Number Serial 1264  
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Author (up) Hurling, R.; Shepherd, R. file  url
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  Title Eating with your eyes: effect of appearance on expectations of liking Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 41 Issue 2 Pages 167-174  
  Keywords Animals; Cooking; Female; Fishes; Food; Food Preferences/*psychology; Hot Temperature; Humans; Questionnaires; *Visual Perception  
  Abstract It was hypothesised that consumers' expectations of liking for a food would be affected by its appearance both when raw and when cooked and that the impact of these expectations on actual liking for the product after eating would vary with consumer awareness of internal body states (private body consciousness). We found that consumers' expectations of liking for the food generated by the appearance of the cooked product was related to expectation of liking from viewing the raw product. Under some conditions, consumers liked a food less after consumption if a raw product that generated low expectation of liking had been presented beforehand. There was no evidence that private body consciousness modified the consumers' susceptibility to expectation effects. It was concluded that expectations of liking for a food generated by appearance both when raw and cooked influenced final evaluation of the product during consumption.  
  Call Number Serial 159  
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Author (up) Jansen, E.; Mulkens, S.; Emond, Y.; Jansen, A. file  url
openurl 
  Title From the Garden of Eden to the land of plenty. Restriction of fruit and sweets intake leads to increased fruit and sweets consumption in children Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 51 Issue 3 Pages 570-575  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Body Mass Index; Child; Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology; Child, Preschool; Dietary Sucrose/*administration & dosage; Eating/*psychology; Energy Intake/physiology; Female; *Fruit; Humans; *Inhibition (Psychology); Male; Obesity/epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Parent-Child Relations; Parents/*psychology; Psychology, Child; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract Overweight is increasing rapidly in children, compelling researchers to seek for determinants of adverse food intake. In a previous experiment it was found that manipulating the restriction of attractive snacks increased the desirability and intake of these snacks. In the present study, we tested whether this paradoxical restricting effect is also seen in relatively less attractive but healthy food, i.e. fruit. Will fruit become more desirable through restriction, and will children eat more forbidden fruit than non-forbidden fruit? Two groups of young children were forbidden to eat fruits and sweets, respectively, whereas a control group was invited to eat everything. Desire for sweets remained high in the sweets-prohibition condition, whereas it decreased in the fruit-prohibition and no-prohibition conditions. No group differences were found regarding the desire for fruit. With respect to intake, children in both the fruit- and the sweets-prohibition condition consumed more of the formerly forbidden food during a taste session as compared to the no-prohibition condition. In addition, total food intake was higher in the two prohibition conditions than in the no-prohibition condition. These data indicate that the adverse effects of restriction apply to both attractive unhealthy and relatively less attractive but healthy food.  
  Call Number Serial 1691  
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Author (up) Jansen, E.; Mulkens, S.; Jansen, A. file  url
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  Title Do not eat the red food!: prohibition of snacks leads to their relatively higher consumption in children Type
  Year 2007 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 572-577  
  Keywords Child; Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/*physiology; Child, Preschool; Eating/*psychology; Energy Intake/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Obesity/epidemiology/etiology/psychology; Overweight/epidemiology/etiology/*psychology; Parent-Child Relations; Parents/*psychology  
  Abstract Overweight is becoming more prevalent in children. Parents' behaviours play an important role in children's eating behaviour and weight status. In addition to modelling and providing meals, parents also have an influence by using control techniques. One frequently used technique is restriction of intake. In this study, it was tested whether a prohibition of food in the first phase would lead to an increase in desire for the target food and overeating in the second phase. Sure enough, desire increased significantly in the prohibition group, whereas it remained constant in the no-prohibition group. Though no significant differences between groups were found in the absolute consumption of the target food, the proportion of consumed target food (target food intake/total food intake) was significantly higher in the prohibition group. Finally, children whose parents imposed either very little or a lot of restriction at home consumed more kilocalories during the whole experiment, as opposed to children who were exposed to a moderate level of restriction at home. These data indicate that restriction can have adverse effects on children's food preference and caloric intake.  
  Call Number Serial 1941  
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Author (up) Liem, D.G.; Mars, M.; De Graaf, C. file  url
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  Title Sweet preferences and sugar consumption of 4- and 5-year-old children: role of parents Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 235-245  
  Keywords Adult; Child, Preschool; Diet Surveys; Dietary Sucrose/*administration & dosage; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Feeding Behavior/physiology/psychology; Female; Food Preferences/physiology/*psychology; Humans; Male; Parents/*psychology; Surveys and Questionnaires; Taste/physiology  
  Abstract We investigated the relationships in children between rules that restrict consumption of mono- and disaccharides (MDS), consumption of MDS and preferences for sucrose-containing orangeade. The background ideas of restriction rules we also investigated. To this end, 44 children (5.1+/-0.5 years) performed a rank-order and paired-comparison test of preference for five orangeades, which differed in sucrose concentration (0.14, 0.20, 0.29, 0.42, 0.61 M sucrose). Parents filled out a questionnaire concerning restriction rules and their children's consumption of MDS-containing foods. Stronger restriction rules were related to a lower consumption of beverages that contained MDS and to a lower consumption of MDS-containing foods during breakfast and lunch. The most freedom to choose foods that contain MDS was given during the afternoon. Fifty-five percent of the children who were highly restricted showed a preference for the highest concentration of sucrose in orangeade. None of these children preferred the orangeade with the lowest concentration of sucrose. While 19% of the children who were little restricted preferred the beverage with the lowest concentration of sucrose, 33% preferred the beverage with the highest concentration. These parents generally believed that sugar has a bad effect on health and had similar background ideas concerning restriction rules.  
  Call Number Serial 1942  
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