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Author (up) Alcock, J.; Maley, C.C.; Aktipis, C.A. file  url
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  Title Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Abbreviated Journal Bioessays  
  Volume 36 Issue 10 Pages 940-949  
  Keywords Animals; *Biological Evolution; *Feeding Behavior; Gastrointestinal Tract/*microbiology; Humans; *Microbiota; Models, Biological; Obesity/etiology; Cravings; Evolutionary conflict; Host manipulation; Microbiome; Obesity  
  Abstract Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating.  
  Call Number Serial 2002  
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Author (up) Delattre, M.; Felix, M.A. file  url
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  Title Microevolutionary studies in nematodes: a beginning Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Abbreviated Journal Bioessays  
  Volume 23 Issue 9 Pages 807-819  
  Keywords Animals; *Biological Evolution; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics; Drosophila/genetics; Genetic Techniques; Genetic Variation; Genotype; Mutagenesis; Nematoda/*classification/*genetics; *Polymorphism, Genetic  
  Abstract Comparisons between related species often allow the detailed genetic analysis of evolutionary processes. Here we advocate the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (and several other rhabditid species) as model systems for microevolutionary studies. Compared to Drosophila species, which have been a mainstay of such studies, C. elegans has a self-fertilizing mode of reproduction, a shorter life cycle and a convenient cell-level analysis of phenotypic variation. Data concerning its population genetics and ecology are still scarce, however. We review molecular, behavioral and developmental intraspecific polymorphisms for populations of C. elegans, Oscheius sp. 1 and Pristionchus pacificus. Focusing on vulval development, which has been well characterized in several species, we discuss relationships between patterns of variations: (1) for a given genotype (developmental variants), (2) after mutagenesis (mutability), (3) in different populations of the same species (polymorphisms) and (4) between closely related species. These studies have revealed that evolutionary variations between sister species affect those characters that show phenotypic developmental variants, that are mutable and that are polymorphic within species.  
  Call Number Serial 1024  
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Author (up) Elinson, R.P. file  url
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  Title Microtubules and specification of the dorsoventral axis in frog embryos Type Journal Article
  Year 1989 Publication BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Abbreviated Journal Bioessays  
  Volume 11 Issue 5 Pages 124-127  
  Keywords Animals; Blastocyst/physiology; Cell Differentiation/*physiology; Embryonic Induction/*physiology; Female; Male; Microtubules/*physiology; Notochord/embryology; Sperm-Ovum Interactions/physiology; Xenopus laevis/*embryology  
  Abstract The body plan of the frog is set-up by a rearrangement of the egg cytoplasm shortly after fertilization. Microtubules play several roles in this critical developmental event.  
  Call Number Serial 1173  
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Author (up) Thacker, C.; Rose, A.M. file  url
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  Title A look at the Caenorhabditis elegans Kex2/Subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Abbreviated Journal Bioessays  
  Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages 545-553  
  Keywords Animals; Caenorhabditis elegans/*enzymology/genetics; Genes, Helminth; Humans; Multigene Family; Mutation; Phylogeny; *Proprotein Convertases; *Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins; Subtilisins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism  
  Abstract Significant advances have recently been made in our understanding of the mechanisms of activation of proteins that require processing. Often this involves endoproteolytic cleavage of precursor forms at basic residues, and is carried out by a group of serine endoproteinases, termed the proprotein convertases. In mammals, seven different convertases have been identified to date. These act in both the regulated secretory pathway for the processing of prohormones and proneuropeptides and in the constitutive secretory pathway, in which a variety of proproteins are activated endoproteolytically. The recently completed sequence of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans genome affords a unique opportunity to examine the entire proprotein convertase family in a multicellular organism. Here we review the nature of the family, emphasising the structural features, characteristic of the four nematode genes, that supply all of the necessary functions unique to this group of serine endoproteinases. Studies of the C. elegans genes not only provide important information about the evaluation of this gene family but should help to illuminate the roles of these proteins in mammalian systems. BioEssays 22:545-553, 2000.  
  Call Number Serial 522  
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