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Author (up) Ataya, A.F.; Adams, S.; Mullings, E.; Cooper, R.M.; Attwood, A.S.; Munafo, M.R. file  url
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  Title Internal reliability of measures of substance-related cognitive bias Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Drug and Alcohol Dependence Abbreviated Journal Drug Alcohol Depend  
  Volume 121 Issue 1-2 Pages 148-151  
  Keywords  
  Abstract AIMS: There is growing interest in cognitive biases related to substance use, but evidence from the anxiety literature suggests that tasks commonly used to assess these may suffer from low internal reliability. We examined the internal reliability of the visual probe and modified Stroop tasks. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of visual probe and modified Stroop task data collected across seven independent studies. SETTING: Human laboratory study. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy volunteers (n=408 across seven independent studies) recruited from the general population on the basis of alcohol or tobacco use. MEASUREMENTS: Visual probe and modified Stroop task measures of substance-related cognitive bias. FINDINGS: Measures of cognitive bias for substance-related cues, as assayed by the visual probe and the modified Stroop tasks, may not be reliable. In particular, the visual probe task showed poor internal reliability, as did unblocked versions of the modified Stroop task. CONCLUSIONS: The modified Stroop task is preferable to the visual probe task as a measure of substance-related cognitive bias, on the basis of its psychometric properties. Studies using cognitive bias tasks should not assume they are reliable, and should routinely report reliability estimates where possible.

Subject Headings: Adult; Alcohol Drinking/*psychology; Attention/*physiology; Cues; Female; Humans; Male; Neuropsychological Tests; Reaction Time/physiology; Reproducibility of Results; Smoking/*psychology

Keywords: Internal reliability of measures of substance-related cognitive bias
 
  Call Number Serial 2653  
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Author (up) Fergusson, D.M.; Boden, J.M.; Horwood, L.J. file  url
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  Title The developmental antecedents of illicit drug use: evidence from a 25-year longitudinal study Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Drug and Alcohol Dependence Abbreviated Journal Drug Alcohol Depend  
  Volume 96 Issue 1-2 Pages 165-177  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Abuse/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Cohort Studies; Conduct Disorder/epidemiology/psychology; Humans; Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Models, Statistical; New Zealand/epidemiology; Parents/psychology; Peer Group; Prospective Studies; Psychology, Adolescent/statistics & numerical data; Psychology, Child; Regression Analysis; Risk Factors; *Social Adjustment; Street Drugs/*adverse effects; Substance-Related Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: The present study examined the developmental antecedents of illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. METHODS: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measures included assessments of adolescent and young adult illicit drug use and abuse/dependence; cannabis use to age 25; measures of parental adjustment; measures of exposure to childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and interparental violence; novelty-seeking; childhood and early adolescent adjustment and substance use; and affiliation with substance-using peers. RESULTS: Illicit drug use and abuse/dependence from ages 16 to 25 were significantly associated (all p values<.05) with a range of parental adjustment measures; exposure to abuse in childhood; individual factors; and measures of childhood and early adolescent adjustment. Analyses using repeated measures logistic regression models suggested that parental illicit drug use, gender, novelty-seeking, and childhood conduct disorder predicted later illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. Further analyses revealed that these pathways to illicit drug use and abuse/dependence were mediated via cannabis use, affiliation with substance-using peers, and alcohol use during ages 16-25. CONCLUSIONS: The current study suggested that the illicit drug use and abuse/dependence were associated with a range of early life circumstances and processes that put individuals at greater risk of illicit drug use and abuse/dependence. However, the use of cannabis in late adolescence and early adulthood emerged as the strongest risk factor for later involvement in other illicit drugs.  
  Call Number Serial 1682  
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Author (up) Johnson, E.O.; Novak, S.P. file  url
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  Title Onset and persistence of daily smoking: the interplay of socioeconomic status, gender, and psychiatric disorders Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Drug and Alcohol Dependence Abbreviated Journal Drug Alcohol Depend  
  Volume 104 Suppl 1 Issue Pages S50-7  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age of Onset; Aged; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Mental Disorders/*economics/*epidemiology/psychology; Middle Aged; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Sex Factors; Smoking/*economics/*epidemiology/psychology; Smoking Cessation/economics/psychology; Social Class; United States/epidemiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract Gains in reducing the prevalence of smoking observed over the past 40 years have been substantially lower among lower socioeconomic status (SES) groups and women. In parallel, there have been strong and consistent associations of psychiatric disorders with SES, gender, and smoking. Yet few studies have examined the interrelations among these factors to identify their unique and shared contributions. In this study we examine (1) to what degree SES and gender predict new onset of daily smoking and persistence during the current period when rates of smoking have been stable overall; and (2) given the association of psychiatric disorders with gender, SES, and cigarette smoking, to what degree psychiatric disorders explain or alter the associations between gender, SES, and cigarette smoking. METHODS: Longitudinal data for U.S. adults come from Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2003-2004) of the National Epidemiologic Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N=34,653). DSM-IV mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders were assessed with AUDADIS-IV. Logistic regression was used to estimate risk of transitions to daily smoking and persistence over the 3-year follow-up. RESULTS: Gender, education, occupation, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorders (SUDs) independently predicted the onset of daily smoking at W2, with greater gender differences observed at lower levels of education. However, no interactions were found between active psychiatric disorders and either gender or SES in predicting the onset of daily smoking. Only being Native American/Alaskan, having an active SUD, and number of cigarettes smoked per day predicted persistence of daily smoking at W2.  
  Call Number Serial 372  
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