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Author (up) Benowitz, N.L.; Dains, K.M.; Dempsey, D.; Wilson, M.; Jacob, P. file  url
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  Title Racial differences in the relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and nicotine and carcinogen exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Abbreviated Journal Nicotine Tob Res  
  Volume 13 Issue 9 Pages 772-783  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans/psychology; Aged; Carcinogens/analysis; Cotinine/blood; European Continental Ancestry Group/psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nicotine/*blood/urine; Nitrosamines/urine; Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic/urine; Pyridines/urine; San Francisco; Smoking/blood/*ethnology/psychology/urine; Tobacco Use Disorder/blood/*ethnology/psychology/urine; Young Adult  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Black smokers are reported to have higher lung cancer rates and greater tobacco dependence at lower levels of cigarette consumption compared to non-Hispanic White smokers. We studied the relationship between cigarettes per day (CPD) and biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure in Black and White smokers. METHODS: In 128 Black and White smokers, we measured plasma nicotine and its main proximate metabolite cotinine, urine nicotine equivalents, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites. RESULTS: The dose-response between CPD and nicotine equivalents, and NNAL and PAH was flat for Black but positive for White smokers (Race x CPD interaction, all ps < .05). Regression estimates for the Race x CPD interactions were 0.042 (95% CI 0.013-0.070), 0.054 (0.023-0.086), and 0.028 (0.004-0.052) for urine nicotine equivalents, NNAL, and PAHs, respectively. In contrast there was a strong correlation between nicotine equivalents and NNAL and PAH independent of race. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure per individual cigarette was inversely related to CPD. This inverse correlation was stronger in Black compared to White smokers and stronger in menthol compared to regular cigarette smokers (not mutually adjusted). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that Blacks on average smoke cigarettes differently than White smokers such that CPD predicts smoke intake more poorly in Black than in White smokers.  
  Call Number Serial 368  
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Author (up) Piper, M.E.; Cook, J.W.; Schlam, T.R.; Jorenby, D.E.; Smith, S.S.; Bolt, D.M.; Loh, W.-Y. file  url
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  Title Gender, race, and education differences in abstinence rates among participants in two randomized smoking cessation trials Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Abbreviated Journal Nicotine Tob Res  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 647-657  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group; Bupropion/administration & dosage/therapeutic use; *Continental Population Groups; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nicotine/administration & dosage/therapeutic use; Sex Factors; Smoking Cessation/*statistics & numerical data; Young Adult  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Smoking is the leading preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States, but this burden is not distributed equally among smokers. Women, Blacks, and people with low socioeconomic status are especially vulnerable to the health risks of smoking and are less likely to quit. METHODS: This research examined cessation rates and treatment response among 2,850 participants (57.2% women, 11.7% Blacks, and 9.0% with less than a high school education) from two large cessation trials evaluating: nicotine patch, nicotine lozenge, bupropion, bupropion + lozenge, and nicotine patch + lozenge. RESULTS: Results revealed that women, Blacks, and smokers with less education were less likely to quit smoking successfully than men, Whites, and smokers with more education, respectively. Women did not appear to benefit more from bupropion than from nicotine replacement therapy, but women and smokers with less education benefited more from combination pharmacotherapy than from monotherapy. DISCUSSION: Women, Blacks, and smokers with less education are at elevated risk for cessation failure, and research is needed to understand this risk and develop pharmacological and psychosocial interventions to improve their long-term cessation rates.  
  Call Number Serial 375  
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