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Author (up) Anderson, J.M.
Title Ethnicity and illness experience: Ideological structures and the health care delivery system Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication Social Science & Medicine Abbreviated Journal Social Science & Medicine
Volume 22 Issue 11 Pages 1277-1283
Keywords ethnicity; illness experience; ideology
Abstract This paper analyses the experiences of Anglo-Canadian and immigrant Chinese families with a chronically ill child by using the idea that the social organization and ideology of health care services generate particular illness experiences. Immigrant families find the ideology dissonant with their customs for managing illness. The disjuncture between practices often leads to non-compliance and ineffective treatment. Health professionals explain non-compliance by the obvious facts of cultural differences, but I argue that it should be understood by institutional practices that exclude families from participating in caretaking. I maintain that patients and families should be included in decisions that affect their lives. Pressures from government to economize by increasing home care services, and the increasing number of immigrants may force practitioners to negotiate culturally acceptable care with them.
Call Number Serial 1923
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Author (up) Avery, D.H.; Wildschiodtz, G.; Smallwood, R.G.; Martin, D.; Rafaelsen, O.J.
Title REM latency and core temperature relationships in primary depression Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Acta Psychiatr Scand
Volume 74 Issue 3 Pages 269-280
Keywords Adult; Aged; Aging/physiology; Bipolar Disorder/*physiopathology; *Body Temperature; Circadian Rhythm; Depressive Disorder/*physiopathology; Female; Humans; Male; Menopause; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology; Sleep, REM/*physiology
Abstract REM latency and rectal and ear canal temperature were studied simultaneously in 11 controls and nine depressed patients; seven of the patients were studied when recovered. REM latency was shorter in the depressed group compared with controls and lengthened with recovery. The nocturnal and ear canal temperatures were higher in the depressed group compared with controls and decreased with recovery. REM latency and the nocturnal rectal temperature were negatively correlated when all the nights of the depressed patients were analyzed (r = -0.44) and when all the nights of the subjects were analyzed (r = -0.44). REM latency and nocturnal ear canal temperatures were negatively correlated when all the nights of the control group were analyzed (r = -0.34). The timing of the temperature rhythm did not appear to be correlated with the REM latency.
Call Number Serial 1148
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Author (up) Bliss, R.D.; Platt-Aloia, K.A.; Thomson, W.W.
Title Osmotic sensitivity in relation to salt sensitivity in germinating barley seeds Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication Plant, Cell and Environment Abbreviated Journal Plant Cell Environ
Volume 9 Issue 9 Pages 721-725
Keywords calcium; germination; membrane permeability; salinity
Abstract Abstract Cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were tested for germination sensitivity to progressively higher concentrations of salt, mannitol, and betaine. The three solutes were equally inhibitory at equal osmotic potential, but there was a consistent difference in osmotic sensitivity between two cultivars, CM-67 and Briggs (Briggs was the most sensitive). There was no difference between the two cultivars in salt or water uptake from salt solutions during imbibition. Brief presoaking in water did not improve salt resistance, indicating that a hydration-dependent decrease in membrane permeability is not involved in salt tolerance. The calcium content of Briggs was higher than CM-67. These results suggest that salt inhibits barley germination primarily by osmotic effects, and that salt influx during imbibition does not play a role in this inhibition. A hypothesis regarding salt effects on germination is discussed.
Call Number Serial 1222
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Author (up) Block, J.H.; Block, J.; Gjerde, P.F.
Title The personality of children prior to divorce: a prospective study Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev
Volume 57 Issue 4 Pages 827-840
Keywords Adolescent; Child; Child Development; Child, Preschool; *Divorce; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Male; *Personality; Personality Development; Prospective Studies; Sex Factors; Stress, Psychological/psychology
Abstract In a longitudinal study, the personalities of children from intact families at ages 3, 4, and 7 were reliably assessed by independent sets of raters using Q-items reflecting important psychological characteristics of children. A number of these families subsequently experienced divorce. The behavior of boys was found, as early as 11 years prior to parental separation or formal dissolution of marriage, to be consistently affected by what can be presumed to be predivorce familial stress. The behavior of boys from subsequently divorcing families was characterized by undercontrol of impulse, aggression, and excessive energy prior to parental divorce. The behavior of girls from subsequently divorcing families was found to be notably less affected by the stresses in families prior to parental divorce. The prospective relations afforded by the longitudinal analyses suggest that the behavior of conflicting, inaccessible parents during the preseparation period may have serious consequences for personality development, especially for boys. Hence, some characteristics of children commonly seen to be a consequence of divorce may be present prior to marital dissolution.
Call Number Serial 280
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Author (up) Cassell, M.D.; Wright, D.J.
Title Topography of projections from the medial prefrontal cortex to the amygdala in the rat Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication Brain Research Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Brain Res Bull
Volume 17 Issue 3 Pages 321-333
Keywords Amidines; Amygdala/*cytology; Animals; Fluorescent Dyes; Frontal Lobe/*cytology; Gyrus Cinguli/cytology; Horseradish Peroxidase; Limbic System/cytology; Neural Pathways/cytology; Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains; Staining and Labeling; Wheat Germ Agglutinins
Abstract The projections from the rat medial prefrontal cortex to the amygdaloid complex were investigated using retrograde transport of fluorescent dyes and anterograde transport of horseradish peroxidase-WGA. The ventral anterior cingulate, prelimbic, infralimbic and medial orbital areas and the taenia tecta were found to project to the amygdaloid complex. The projections from the prelimbic area arose bilaterally. The medial orbital, prelimbic and anterior cingulate areas send convergent projections to the basolateral nucleus. The prelimbic area has additional projections to the posterolateral cortical nucleus and amygdalo-hippocampal area. The infralimbic area does not project to the basolateral nucleus and cortico-amygdaloid projections from this area are focussed on the anterior cortical nucleus and the anterior amygdaloid area. Both prelimbic and infralimbic areas project to an area situated between the central, medial and basomedial nuclei. Based on similar projections, this area appears to be a caudal continuation of the anterior amygdaloid area. The results indicate that the medial prefrontal component of the “basolateral limbic circuit” is restricted to the anterior cingulate and prelimbic areas. No evidence was obtained to support the existence of a medial prefronto-amygdaloid component of the “visceral forebrain”.
Call Number Serial 146
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Author (up) Credland, P.F.; Dick, K.M.; Wright, A.W.
Title Relationships between larval density, adult size and egg production in the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication Ecological Entomology Abbreviated Journal Ecol Entomol
Volume 11 Issue 1 Pages 41-50
Abstract 1. The eggs of the cowpea seed bettle Callosobruchus maculatus (Fab.) are attached to cowpeas. On hatching, the larvae penetrate the testa and remain in the seed until development is complete and adult eclosion has occurred. The adults do not need to feed and were not allowed to do so.

2. Strains from Brazil and Nigeria can produce more than twelve adults from a seed bearing numerous eggs, whereas a strain from the Yemen Republic rarely produced more than three.

3. In all three strains the mean weight of the adults produced from a single cowpea declined with increasing initial larval density in the seed.

4. Egg production by females is positively correlated with their weight at the time of mating, shortly after emergence.

5. Lifetime egg production by females of the Brazilian and Nigerian strains was lower if they came from cowpeas with higher initial larval densities. No such relationship could be demonstrated in the Yemen strain.

6. The fecundity of one generation of these beetles, at least in some geographical strains, is significantly affected by the number of larvae entering the hosts in which the adults of that generation have developed.

Subject headings: Beetle; Cowpeas; Adult eclosion

Keywords: Relationships between larval density, adult size and egg production in the cowpea seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus
Call Number Serial 2134
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Author (up) Ellis, H.M.; Horvitz, H.R.
Title Genetic control of programmed cell death in the nematode C. elegans Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication Cell Abbreviated Journal Cell
Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 817-829
Keywords Alleles; Animals; Caenorhabditis/*cytology/genetics; Cell Differentiation; Cell Division; *Cell Survival; Male; *Mutation; Phenotype; Receptors, Dopamine/analysis; Receptors, Serotonin/analysis
Abstract The wild-type functions of the genes ced-3 and ced-4 are required for the initiation of programmed cell deaths in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The reduction or loss of ced-3 or ced-4 function results in a transformation in the fates of cells that normally die; in ced-3 or ced-4 mutants, such cells instead survive and differentiate, adopting fates that in the wild type and associated with other cells. ced-3 and ced-4 mutants appear grossly normal in morphology and behavior, indicating that programmed cell death is not an essential aspect of nematode development. The genes ced-3 and ced-4 define the first known step of a developmental pathway for programmed cell death, suggesting that these genes may be involved in determining which cells die during C. elegans development.
Call Number Serial 1021
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Author (up) Fudala, P.J.; Iwamoto, E.T.
Title Further studies on nicotine-induced conditioned place preference in the rat Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Biochem Behav
Volume 25 Issue 5 Pages 1041-1049
Keywords Animals; Avoidance Learning/drug effects; Behavior, Animal/*drug effects; Conditioning (Psychology)/*drug effects; Cotinine/pharmacology; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Lobeline/pharmacology; Male; Motor Activity/drug effects; Motor Skills/drug effects; Nicotine/*pharmacology; Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains; Time Factors
Abstract Rats received subcutaneous (SC) injections of either nicotine (NIC, 0.001 to 2.0 mg/kg) or saline (SAL, 1 ml/kg) immediately prior to conditioning sessions in a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. NIC was paired for 3 conditioning sessions with one environment of a 3 compartment CPP apparatus; SAL was paired with another environment. The animals were then tested for place preference by determining the proportion of time spent in each compartment during a 15 min test session. A dose-response curve was obtained for the place conditioning effect of nicotine as measured by its ability to alter baseline preferences calculated from control rats. NIC's place preference, but not place aversion, effect was linearly correlated with respect to dosage within the range of 0.1 to 0.8 mg/kg. NIC, 0.8 mg/kg, induced a place preference when it was administered immediately prior to conditioning sessions, but not when administered 20, 60 or 120 min prior to the sessions. Three repeated conditioning and testing cycles, or the daily administration of NIC for 2 weeks between conditioning and testing cycles had little or no effect on NIC place conditioning. Lobeline (2, 10 and 20 mg/kg) or cotinine (1 to 50 mg/kg) failed to condition a place preference. NIC, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg SC, administered to rat pups on postnatal days 5 through 8, did not alter subsequent place preference (induced by 0.8 mg/kg of NIC) measured at approximately 40 and 70 days of age. Periodic measurements of spontaneous motor activity, forelimb grip strength and negative geotaxis were unaltered by the perinatal exposure to nicotine.
Call Number Serial 233
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Author (up) Gatenby, A.A.; Boccara, M.; Baulcombe, D.C.; Rothstein, S.J.
Title Expression of a wheat alpha-amylase gene in Escherichia coli: recognition of the translational initiation site and the signal peptide Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication Gene Abbreviated Journal Gene
Volume 45 Issue 1 Pages 11-18
Keywords DNA/genetics; Escherichia coli/genetics; Plant Proteins/*biosynthesis/genetics; Protein Biosynthesis; Protein Processing, Post-Translational; Protein Sorting Signals/metabolism; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/*biosynthesis/genetics/secretion; Recombinant Proteins/*biosynthesis; Species Specificity; Triticum/enzymology/genetics; alpha-Amylases/*biosynthesis/genetics/secretion; beta-Lactamases/genetics
Abstract Transcription of a full-length cDNA clone of wheat alpha-amylase using a lac promoter in Escherichia coli results in synthesis of a precursor alpha-amylase polypeptide of the correct size, indicating that translation initiates correctly. Recognition of the plant translational initiation site by E. coli ribosomes is 15-20% as efficient as the ribosome-binding site of the beta-lactamase gene when it is fused to alpha-amylase. The alpha-amylase signal peptide is recognised in E. coli resulting in secretion of the enzyme into the periplasmic space; deletion of the signal peptide prevents secretion. Replacement of the alpha-amylase signal peptide with a beta-lactamase signal peptide also enables the bacterial cell to secrete the enzyme. The presence of the beta-lactamase and the alpha-amylase signal peptides in tandem results in secretion of the enzyme and removal of both signal peptides.
Call Number Serial 498
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Author (up) Gitter, A.H.; Zenner, H.P.; Fromter, E.
Title Membrane potential and ion channels in isolated outer hair cells of guinea pig cochlea Type Journal Article
Year 1986 Publication ORL; Journal for oto-Rhino-Laryngology and its Related Specialties Abbreviated Journal ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec
Volume 48 Issue 2 Pages 68-75
Keywords Animals; Cells, Cultured; Chlorine/metabolism; Guinea Pigs; Hair Cells, Auditory/*physiology/ultrastructure; Ion Channels/*physiology; Membrane Potentials; Potassium/metabolism
Abstract Single outer hair cells from guinea pig cochlea were prepared by microdissection and cultured for several hours in a modified Hanks' medium. Cells, which were viable, judged by morphological criteria, were investigated with the patch-clamp technique. Membrane potentials up to -70 mV could be measured in the cultured cells. Ion channels were found in the basolateral membrane and in the cuticular region of the hair cells. These ion channels could play an important role in transducing sound-induced sterociliary motion into membrane depolarizations, thereby regulating the contractile state of the outer hair cells and in turn the resonance properties of the cochlear amplifier.
Call Number Serial 1998
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