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Author (up) Bodaly, R.A.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Fudge, R.J.P.; Kelly, C.A. file  url
  Title Mercury Concentrations in Fish Related to Size of Remote Canadian Shield Lakes Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Abbreviated Journal Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.  
  Volume 50 Issue 5 Pages 980-987  
  Abstract Mercury concentrations in planktivorous, omnivorous, and piscivorous fishes were inversely related to lake size in six lakes in northwestern Ontario. The lakes were remote from direct anthropogenic influences and ranged in surface area from 89 to 35 000 ha. Fish mercury concentrations were not related to ratios of drainage basin area to lake size, to ratios of epilimnetic area to lake size, to lake alkalinity, or to the concentration of mercury in lake sediments. Rates of mercury methylation (M) were positively dependent on water temperature whereas rates of methyl mercury demethylation (D) were inversely related to temperature. Thus, M/D was strongly temperature dependent. Mercury concentrations in four fish species were significantly positively correlated with mean epilimnetic water temperatures (r2's ranged from 0.66 to 0.88). This suggested that higher water temperatures in smaller lakes during the open-water season influenced M/D ratios and were the cause of higher fish mercury levels. No lake size related variation was observed in the mercury concentrations in benthivorous fishes. Our hypothesis that epilimnetic temperature affects mercury concentrations in fish deserves further attention, given the possible effects of climate warming on mercury contamination of fishery resources.

Subject Headings: Mercury concentrations; Fish; Canadian Shield Lakes
  Call Number Serial 2275  
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Author (up) Bradwejn, J. file  url
  Title Benzodiazepines for the treatment of panic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder: clinical issues and future directions Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie Abbreviated Journal Can J Psychiatry  
  Volume 38 Issue Suppl 4 Pages S109-13  
  Keywords Anti-Anxiety Agents/adverse effects/*therapeutic use; Anxiety Disorders/*drug therapy/physiopathology; Arousal/drug effects/physiology; Benzodiazepines; Brain/drug effects/physiopathology; Humans; Panic Disorder/*drug therapy/physiopathology; Receptors, GABA-A/drug effects/physiology  
  Abstract For several decades, benzodiazepines have shown their effectiveness in the treatment of various manifestations of anxiety. Recent diagnostic systems have divided these manifestations of anxiety into categories and separate pathologies, such as generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. Researchers have studied the use and efficacy of benzodiazepine receptor agonists in patients with these distinct diagnostic categories. Clinical studies on generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder usually suggest equivalent efficacy among benzodiazepine agonists, although truly comparative studies with two or three drugs are scarce. Further work is needed on the differences in side-effects, pharmacokinetics and discontinuation reactions for benzodiazepines. Concerns about benzodiazepine dependency--justified or not--and about discontinuation reactions have motivated the search for newer benzodiazepines without these problems. This paper reviews the efficacy and comparative studies of benzodiazepines that are currently available and discusses recent developments in research on newer benzodiazepines molecules.  
  Call Number Serial 211  
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Author (up) Buttke, T.M.; McCubrey, J.A.; Owen, T.C. file  url
  Title Use of an aqueous soluble tetrazolium/formazan assay to measure viability and proliferation of lymphokine-dependent cell lines Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Journal of Immunological Methods Abbreviated Journal J Immunol Methods  
  Volume 157 Issue 1-2 Pages 233-240  
  Keywords Animals; *Cell Division; Cell Line; *Cell Survival; Colorimetry; Formazans/*analysis; Interleukin-2/analysis/*physiology; Interleukin-3/analysis/*physiology; Mice; Tetrazolium Salts/*pharmacology; Thiazoles/pharmacology  
  Abstract A new tetrazolium compound, MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3- carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt), has recently been described which in the presence of phenazine methosulfate (PMS) is reduced by living cells to yield a formazan product that can be assayed colorimetrically. An important advantage of MTS/PMS over other tetrazolium dyes (e.g., MTT) is the aqueous solubility of the reduced formazan product which eliminates the need for detergent solubilization or organic solvent extraction steps. Its advantages over XTT/PMS, another tetrazolium which yields a water-soluble formazan product, include the absorbance range of color produced (515-580 nm as opposed to 450 nm), the rapidity of color development, and the storage stability of the MTS/PMS reagent solution. In the present study, MTS/PMS was used to assay viability and proliferation of the IL-2-dependent HT-2 and CTLL-2 cell lines and the IL-3-dependent FDC-P1 and FL5.12 cell lines. With each cell line, the amount of formazan product was time-dependent and proportional to the number of viable cells. Furthermore, with both HT-2 and CTLL-2 cells it was found that cultures could be simultaneously labeled with MTS/PMS and [3H]thymidine, with relatively little effect of the dye on uptake of the latter. This feature was further capitalized upon in studies with FDC-P1 cells, in which the co-addition of MTS/PMS and [3H]thymidine was used to distinguish between cell viability and proliferation.  
  Call Number Serial 1376  
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Author (up) Chilamkurti, C.; Milner, J.S. file  url
  Title Perceptions and evaluations of child transgressions and disciplinary techniques in high- and low-risk mothers and their children Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 64 Issue 6 Pages 1801-1814  
  Keywords Child; Child Abuse/diagnosis; Child Behavior/psychology; Cognition; Female; Humans; Imagination; *Interpersonal Relations; Male; Maternal Behavior; *Mother-Child Relations; *Mothers; *Parenting  
  Abstract Perceptions and evaluations of children's transgressions (moral, conventional, personal), parental disciplinary actions (power assertion, love withdrawal, induction), and expected outcomes (compliance) were assessed in matched high- and low-risk (for physical abuse) mothers and their children. High-risk mothers and their children evaluated conventional and personal transgressions as more wrong than low-risk mothers and their children. Although both high- and low-risk mothers and their children varied disciplinary responses according to the type of transgression, high-risk mothers used power assertion (verbal and physical force) more often and induction (reasoning and explanation) less often. High-risk mothers also perceived the use of power assertion by others as more appropriate. With respect to outcomes, high-risk mothers, compared to low-risk mothers, expected less compliance following moral transgressions and more compliance after personal transgressions. Children of both high- and low-risk mothers made compliance predictions following moral and personal transgressions that were similar to the low-risk mothers' predictions.  
  Call Number Serial 1732  
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Author (up) Coccaro, E.F.; Bergeman, C.S.; McClearn, G.E. file  url
  Title Heritability of irritable impulsiveness: a study of twins reared together and apart Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Psychiatry Research Abbreviated Journal Psychiatry Res  
  Volume 48 Issue 3 Pages 229-242  
  Keywords Adult; Aged; Aggression; Environment; Female; Hostility; Humans; Impulsive Behavior/*genetics; Male; Middle Aged; Personality Disorders/diagnosis/*genetics; Personality Inventory; Questionnaires; Receptors, Serotonin/genetics/physiology; Twins/*genetics  
  Abstract The heritability of self-reported personality traits related to impulsiveness, irritability, and the inhibition of assertive or aggressive behavior was examined in up to 500 healthy monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs raised together or apart. Two factors related to “(lack of) assertiveness/aggression” (Factor I) and “impulsive irritability” (Factor II) were examined using traditional and model-fitting procedures. Results of model-fitting procedures were consistent with a genetic, but not a shared environmental, influence for both factors. Further analysis suggested a nonadditive genetic influence for Factor II and an additive influence for Factor I. Bivariate model-fitting analyses suggest that self-reported “irritable impulsiveness” and “(lack of) assertiveness/aggressiveness” show substantial, though different, genetic influences.  
  Call Number Serial 315  
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Author (up) Durden, L.A.; Linthicum, K.J.; Monath, T.P. file  url
  Title Laboratory Transmission of Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus to Chickens by Chicken Mites (Acari: Dermanyssidae) Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Journal of Medical Entomology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Medical Entomology  
  Volume 30 Issue 1 Pages 281-285  
  Keywords Chicken; Mites  
  Abstract Pools of adult female chicken mites, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), were allowed to feed on chicks that had been inoculated with eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus and that had a viremia level of 106.2106.6 plaque-forming units per milliliter of blood. Virus remained detectable by plaque assay in samples of these mites for 30 d after the infectious blood meal. Virus was not recovered from any of 151 progeny of virusexposed female mites. Mites that had fed on viremic chicks were allowed to feed on naive chicks 3,7,11,15, or 30 d later. EEE virus was transmitted to chicks by these mites on days 3 (one transmission in four trials) and 7 (one transmission in four trials). Both transmissions were confirmed by the presence of virus in chick blood 2472 h after mites had fed, and by plaque-reduction neutralization assays of 21-d convalescent chick sera against the original viral strain.  
  Call Number Serial 1388  
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Author (up) Galaburda, A.; Livingstone, M. file  url
  Title Evidence for a Magnocellular Defect in Developmental Dyslexia Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann NY Acad Sci  
  Volume 682 Issue 1 Temporal Info Pages 70-82  
  Abstract Developmental dyslexia is the selective impairment of reading skills despite

normal intelligence, visual acuity, motivation, and instruction. Several lines of evidence suggest that dyslexic subjects process visual information more slowly than

normal subjects. The flicker fusion rate, which is the fastest rate at which a contrast reversal of a stimulus can be seen, is abnormally slow in dyslexic children at low spatial frequencies and low contrasts. Moreover, such visual abnormalities were reported to be found in over 75 percent of the reading-disabled children tested. When two visual stimuli are presented in rapid succession, the two images fuse and appear as a single presentation; the temporal separation necessary to distinguish two presentations measures visual persistence, and this is up to 100 ms longer for dyslexic than for normal children. In contrast, dyslexics perform normally on tests having prolonged stimulus presentations.

Subject Headings: Magnocellular defect; Dyslexia, Developmental
  Call Number Serial 2235  
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Author (up) Greengard, P.; Valtorta, F.; Czernik, A.; Benfenati, F. file  url
  Title Synaptic vesicle phosphoproteins and regulation of synaptic function Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 259 Issue 5096 Pages 780-785  
  Abstract Complex brain functions, such as learning and memory, are believed to involve changes in the efficiency of communication between nerve cells. Therefore, the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that regulate synaptic transmission, the process of intercellular communication, is an essential step toward understanding nervous system function. Several proteins associated with synaptic vesicles, the organelles that store neurotransmitters, are targets for protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. One of these phosphoproteins, synapsin I, by means of changes in its state of phosphorylation, appears to control the fraction of synaptic vesicles available for release and thereby to regulate the efficiency of neurotransmitter release. This article describes current understanding of the mechanism by which synapsin I modulates communication between nerve cells and reviews the properties and putative functions of other phosphoproteins associated with synaptic vesicles.

Subject Headings: Synaptic vesicle; Phosphoproteins; Synaptic function
  Call Number Serial 2216  
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Author (up) Helgeson, V.S.; Taylor, S.E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Social Comparisons and Adjustment Among Cardiac Patients1 Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Journal of Applied Social Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Social Pyschol  
  Volume 23 Issue 15 Pages 1171-1195  
  Keywords Affiliative choices; Cardiac rehabilitation; Downward evaluations  
  Abstract The research examined social comparisons, affiliative choices, and their relation to adjustment among patients in a cardiac rehabilitation program. Consistent with Taylor and Lobel (1989), evaluative and affiliative processes diverged, with patients making downward evaluations (Wills, 1981) but choosing to affiliate with those who were better off than themselves. Consistent with predictions, downward evaluation was associated with better psychological adjustment, supporting the idea that these comparisons meet self-enhancement needs; upward affiliations were associated with hopefulness and inspiration, as well as with the perception that such comparisons provide information that is useful for improving one's own condition. The implications of evaluative comparison and affiliative activities for coping is discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 885  
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Author (up) Horvath, P.; Zuckerman, M. file  url
  Title Sensation seeking, risk appraisal, and risky behavior Type Journal Article
  Year 1993 Publication Personality and Individual Differences Abbreviated Journal Personality and Individual Differences  
  Volume 14 Issue 1 Pages 41-52  
  Abstract This study evaluated the relationships between sensation seeking and impulsivity, appraisal of risk in several areas including crime, financial, social violations, sports, and risk of AIDS from sexual activity, and risky behavior in the same areas. Subjects were 447 undergraduates who were given personality tests, and risk appraisal and risky behavior scales developed from factor analyses. Multiple regression analyses showed perceived peer behavior and sensation seeking to be strong predictors of risky behavior, particularly in the areas of criminal behavior and social violations. Personal risk appraisal was negatively related to risky behavior for all the areas except AIDS risk where it was positively related to risky sexual behavior for men. Structural equation modeling analyses showed that a model specifying that risk appraisal trait is a consequences of risky behavior was superior to a model with risk appraisal as a mediator of the relationship between sensation seeking and risky behavior.

Subject headings: Sensation seeking; Risk; Risky behavior; Impulsivity
  Call Number Serial 2345  
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