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Author (up) Amsden, A.H. file  url
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  Title Why isn't the whole world experimenting with the East Asian model to develop?: Review of the East Asian miracle Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication World Development Abbreviated Journal World Development  
  Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 627-633  
  Keywords World Bank; Micro-institutions; State intervention; East Asia  
  Abstract Like Narcissus, the World Bank sees its own reflection in East Asia's success. It attributes the East Asian miracle to macroeconomic basics–high saving and investment rates, expenditures on education, and exports–but in reality, these are anchored in micro-institutions that exhibit pervasive state intervention. East Asia created competitiveness by subsidizing learning, whereas Bank policy emphasizes methods that effectively cut real wages. The Report is rich in empirical data, but they do not support the Bank's dismissal of industrial policy as “ineffective,” and they are presented in a way that makes it difficult for students to corroborate Bank findings. The greatest disappointment of the Report's market fundamentalism is a failure to study seriously how elements of the East Asian model can be adapted to suit conditions in other countries.  
  Call Number Serial 651  
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Author (up) Anderson, K.J. file  url
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  Title Impulsitivity, caffeine, and task difficulty: A within-subjects test of the Yerkes-Dodson law Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Personality and Individual Differences Abbreviated Journal Personality and Individual Differences  
  Volume 16 Issue 6 Pages 813-829  
  Keywords Yerkes-Dodsonn Law; Performance; Arousal; Task difficulty; Inverted-U  
  Abstract According to the Yerkes-Dodson law, performance is an inverted-U function of arousal with a negative relationship between optimal arousal and task difficulty. Both easy (letter cancellation) and difficult (verbal abilities) tasks were completed during the morning by 100 subjects differing in impulsivity; each subject was tested with five different doses of caffeine. Data were subjected to a traditional analysis of variance; in addition, data from individual subjects were analyzed. Group-level results indicated that performance was an interactive function of task, caffeine, and impulsivity (P<0.05): As predicted by the Yerkes-Dodson law, performance on the easy task tended to improve as caffeine dosage increased, but on the difficult task, (less aroused) impulsive subjects improved while (more aroused) nonimpulsive subjects first improved and then deteriorated. Moreover, analyses of the performance of individual subjects strongly supported the inverted-U hypothesis (P<0.001). The hypothesis that easier tasks require higher levels of arousal for optimal performance than more difficult tasks received limited support at the individual level. Thus, despite methodological and probabilistic biases against the inverted-U and task-difficulty hypotheses, both group and individual level analyses yielded results consistent with the Yerkes-Dodson law.  
  Call Number Serial 780  
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Author (up) Baviskar, A.; Singh, A.K. file  url
openurl 
  Title Malignant growth: The Sardar Sarovar dam and its impact on public health Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Environmental Impact Assessment Review Abbreviated Journal Environmental Impact Assessment Review  
  Volume 14 Issue 5-6 Pages 349-358  
  Keywords Sardar Sarovar; Dam; River; India; Health; Welfare; Indigenous  
  Abstract Large projects associated with industrial and economic growth in most lesser or newly industrialized countries have generally resulted in wide-ranging impacts on local populations. The effects may be direct, due to changes in the physical environment, or indirect, as populations are displaced and traditional lifestyles disrupted. Adverse health effects represent an important dimension, although this is often not reflected in the assessments undertaken during the planning of such projects. This article discusses the impacts of an ongoing massive river project in India on the health and welfare of affected indigenous populations.  
  Call Number Serial 627  
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Author (up) Bell, S.T.; Kuriloff, P.J.; Lottes, I. file  url
openurl 
  Title Understanding Attributions of Blame in Stranger Rape and Date Rape Situations: An Examination of Gender, Race, Identification, and Students' Social Perceptions of Rape Victims1 Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Journal of Applied Social Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Social Pyschol  
  Volume 24 Issue 19 Pages 1719-1734  
  Keywords Rape; Victims; Attribution; Date rape; Perpetrator; Rape prevention; Stranger rape  
  Abstract This study examined factors that may influence attributions of rape victims. Three hundred and three university students completed a questionnaire, which included a measure of dispositional empathy and a vignette depicted either a date rape or a stranger rape situation. Subjects rated the extent that they blamed the rape victim as well as the degree to which they identified with the victim and perpetrator. Results indicated that male students blamed the victim to a greater extent than did female students; students consistently attributed more blame to the victim in date rape situations than they did in stranger rape situations; and, while empathy was not associated with students' attributions, perceptions of similarity to the rape victim and perpetrator were both related to attributions of blame. These findings are consistent with the notion of “judgmental leniency” presented in Shaver's defensive attribution theory (1970). Implications for rape prevention efforts and future research are also discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 853  
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Author (up) Billings, P.C.; Engelsberg, B.N.; Hughes, E.N. file  url
openurl 
  Title Proteins binding to cisplatin-damaged DNA in human cell lines Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Cancer Investigation Abbreviated Journal Cancer Invest  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 597-604  
  Keywords Cell Nucleus/metabolism; Cisplatin/*metabolism/*toxicity; DNA Adducts/*metabolism; *DNA Damage; DNA, Neoplasm/*drug effects/*metabolism; DNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism; HeLa Cells; Humans; Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism; Protein Binding  
  Abstract Cisplatin (CDDP) is a highly effective, frequently used cancer chemotherapeutic drug employed in the treatment of several human malignancies including ovarian, testicular, and bladder cancers. A common problem encountered with cisplatin therapy is intrinsic or acquired resistance to this drug. While the mechanisms of resistance to cisplatin, and other chemotherapeutic agents, are not fully understood, one factor affecting the cellular response to CDDP may result from differences in the level of specific proteins that recognize CDDP-damaged DNA. We have developed a damaged DNA affinity precipitation technique that allows the direct visualization and characterization of cellular proteins that bind to cisplatin-damaged DNA. In the present study we have utilized this method to analyze proteins present in several mammalian cell lines that bind to cisplatin-damaged DNA. We demonstrate that HeLa cells, resistant to CDDP cytotoxicity, contain high levels of high-mobility-group proteins 1 and 2, which bind to CDDP-DNA. We also show that xeroderma pigmentosum cells of different genetic complementation groups contain variable levels of a 45-kDa protein that binds to CDDP-DNA. Thus, our results indicate that different human cell lines demonstrate qualitative and quantitative differences in the expression of cisplatin-damaged DNA binding proteins.  
  Call Number Serial 195  
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Author (up) Boix, F.; Pfister, M.; Huston, J.P.; Schwarting, R.K. file  url
openurl 
  Title Substance P decreases extracellular concentrations of acetylcholine in neostriatum and nucleus accumbens in vivo: possible relevance for the central processing of reward and aversion Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 63 Issue 2 Pages 213-219  
  Keywords Acetylcholine/*metabolism; Animals; Appetitive Behavior/*physiology; Avoidance Learning/*physiology; Dopamine/physiology; Extracellular Space/*metabolism; Male; *Motivation; Motor Activity/physiology; Neostriatum/*physiology; Neural Inhibition/physiology; Nucleus Accumbens/*physiology; Opioid Peptides/physiology; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Substance P/*physiology  
  Abstract It has been shown that peripherally administered substance P has reinforcing effects and can promote functional recovery after unilateral partial lesion of the nigrostriatal system. Furthermore, peripheral injection of substance P induces an increase in extracellular striatal dopamine. To obtain further information about the central mechanisms of these properties we used the in vivo microdialysis technique to investigate changes in the extracellular concentrations of acetylcholine in neostriatum and nucleus accumbens after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of substance P or vehicle in freely moving rats. The i.p. administration of 50 micrograms/kg substance P induced a steady, long-lasting decrease in the extracellular concentrations of acetylcholine in neostriatum, while no changes were observed in the nucleus accumbens. In comparison, substance P in a dose of 250 micrograms/kg i.p. acutely decreased the extracellular levels of acetylcholine in both nuclei. Interestingly, after the administration of vehicle, an acute increase in acetylcholine levels was observed in the nucleus accumbens, but not in the neostriatum. This effect did not occur after the injection of substance P indicating that the neurokinin blocked the increase in acetylcholine levels induced by the vehicle injection. These effects of substance P on striatal acetylcholine are discussed with respect to their relationship with dopamine and endogenous opiates, and with respect to the functional role of substance P, such as in reward, aversion, motor activity, and functional recovery.  
  Call Number Serial 319  
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Author (up) Burlina, A.P.; Skaper, S.D.; Mazza, M.R.; Ferrari, V.; Leon, A.; Burlina, A.B. file  url
openurl 
  Title N-acetylaspartylglutamate selectively inhibits neuronal responses to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid in vitro Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Journal of Neurochemistry Abbreviated Journal J Neurochem  
  Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 1174-1177  
  Keywords Animals; Aspartic Acid/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology; Canavan Disease; Cell Survival/drug effects; Cells, Cultured; Cerebellum/cytology/drug effects; Culture Media; Dipeptides/*pharmacology; Kainic Acid/pharmacology; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; N-Methylaspartate/*pharmacology; Neurons/*drug effects/physiology  
  Abstract Canavan's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a deficiency of aspartoacylase and accumulation of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA), leading to a severe leukodystrophy and spongy degeneration of the brain. N-Acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), the presumed product of NAA, also accumulates in this disease. The endogenous dipeptide NAAG has been suggested to have low potency at NMDA receptors. Here we have tested the actions of NAAG and NAA on NMDA-evoked responses in cultured cerebellar granule cells. In differentiating granule cells grown in low-K+ medium, NAAG negated the survival-promoting effects of NMDA but not K+ depolarization. Neither NAAG nor NAA alone promoted cell survival in low-K+ medium. The modest trophic action of 50 microM kainic acid in low-K+ medium was reinforced by the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine maleate and by NAAG. In K(+)-differentiated granule cells, NAAG raised the threshold of NMDA neurotoxicity but not that of kainate. The observed activities of NAAG were overcome by excess NMDA and were not mimicked by NAA. These data raise the possibility that disruption of NMDA receptor processes by NAAG may be of pathophysiological relevance.  
  Call Number Serial 103  
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Author (up) Clendenen, V.I.; Herman, C.P.; Polivy, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Social facilitation of eating among friends and strangers Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 23 Issue 1 Pages 1-13  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Research suggests that meals eaten with other people are larger than meals eaten alone. The effect of group size and acquaintance on consumption was investigated by serving dinner to female subjects alone, in pairs or in groups of four. Subjects dined alone, with friends or with strangers. Subjects in both pairs and groups of four ate more than did subjects alone, suggesting that the mere presence of others is more important in enhancing intake than the specific number of people present. Subjects with friends ate more dessert than subjects with strangers, indicating that the relationship of dining companions is an important factor contributing to social facilitation.

Subject Headings: Adult; *Eating; Female; Food; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; *Social Facilitation

Keywords: Social facilitation of eating among friends and strangers
 
  Call Number Serial 2625  
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Author (up) Eccleston, C. file  url
openurl 
  Title Chronic pain and attention: a cognitive approach Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication The British Journal of Clinical Psychology Abbreviated Journal Br J Clin Psychol  
  Volume 33 ( Pt 4) Issue Pages 535-547  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The present study draws upon resource-based models of attention in suggesting that the processing of chronic and persistent pain is a task that demands the application of central and executive attention. If a chronic and persistent pain stimulus is demanding of central, attentional resources, it follows that it will compete with a second attention-demanding task for those limited resources. Here it is hypothesized that performance of an attention-demanding interference task will be detrimentally affected by the demands of persistent pain. In Expt 1, patients in high pain, patients in low pain and control subjects without pain performed an attention-demanding numerical interference task. There were no significant differences between any of the groups on any measure of performance. Expt 2 repeated Expt 1 with a more difficult and more complex task. Only when the task was at its most difficult and its most complex (i.e. at the greatest demand of limited resources) did those patients in high levels of pain (i.e. at the greatest demand of limited resources) show performance decrements. The results of both experiments are discussed in relation to the debate concerning the use of cognitive methods for pain control and in relation to the application of cognitive psychology to the study of chronic pain.

Subject Headings: Adult; *Attention; Chronic Disease; Cognition; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Pain/*psychology; Photic Stimulation; Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords: Chronic pain and attention: a cognitive approach
 
  Call Number Serial 2599  
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Author (up) Fuhrman, S.; Palkovits, M.; Cassidy, M.; Neale, J.H. file  url
openurl 
  Title The regional distribution of N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) and peptidase activity against NAAG in the rat nervous system Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Journal of Neurochemistry Abbreviated Journal J Neurochem  
  Volume 62 Issue 1 Pages 275-281  
  Keywords Animals; Brain/*enzymology; Carboxypeptidases/*metabolism; Cell Membrane/enzymology; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid; Dipeptidases/*metabolism; Dipeptides/*analysis/metabolism; Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II; Kinetics; Male; Organ Specificity; Radioimmunoassay; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Spinal Cord/enzymology  
  Abstract N-Acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), a prevalent peptide in the vertebrate nervous system, may be hydrolyzed by extracellular peptidase activity to produce glutamate and N-acetylaspartate. Hydrolysis can be viewed as both inactivating the peptide after synaptic release and increasing synaptic levels of ambient glutamate. To test the hypothesis that NAAG and the peptidase activity that hydrolyzes it coexist as a unique, two-stage system of chemical neurotransmission, 50 discrete regions of the rat CNS were microdissected for assay. In each microregion, the concentration of NAAG was determined by radioimmunoassay and the peptidase activity was assayed using tritiated peptide as substrate. The NAAG concentration ranged from 2.4 nmol/mg of soluble protein in median eminence to 64 in thoracic spinal cord. Peptidase activity against NAAG ranged from 54 pmol of glutamate produced per milligram of membrane protein per minute in median eminence to 148 in superior colliculus. A linear relationship was observed between NAAG peptidase and NAAG concentration in 46 of the 50 areas, with a slope of 2.26 and a correlation coefficient of 0.45. These data support the hypothesis that hydrolysis of NAAG to glutamate and N-acetylaspartate is a consistent aspect of the physiology and metabolism of this peptide after synaptic release. The ratio of peptide concentration to peptidase activity was > 0.3 in the following four areas: ventrolateral medulla and reticular formation where the peptide is concentrated in axons of passage, thoracic spinal cord, where NAAG is concentrated in ascending sensory tracts as well as motoneuron cell bodies, and ventroposterior thalamic nucleus.  
  Call Number Serial 112  
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