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Author (up) A/Rahman, S.H.; Mohamedani, A.A.; Mirgani, E.M.; Ibrahim, A.M. file  url
  Title Gender aspects and women's participation in the control and management of malaria in central Sudan Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 42 Issue 10 Pages 1433-1446  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Consumer Participation--methods, psychology, statistics & numerical data; Cost of Illness; Developing Countries--economics, statistics & numerical data; Diarrhea--epidemiology, prevention & control; Female; Health Education--manpower, methods; Humans; Insecticides--adverse effects; Malaria, Falciparum--economics, epidemiology, prevention & control; Male; Medicine, Traditional; Middle Aged; Mosquito Control--methods; Prevalence; Program Evaluation; Sanitation; Schistosomiasis--epidemiology, prevention & control; Sudan--epidemiology; Superstitions; Treatment Outcome; Women; Women's Health  
  Abstract This work was designed to study the contribution of women in central Sudan in the control and management of malaria with particular emphasis on gender-related aspects that define women's role and participation. The Blue Nile Health Project (BNHP 1980-1990) was launched in 1980 mainly for control of water associated diseases in central Sudan. The BNHP model was chosen to conduct this work. The study showed that women were actively involved in the implementation of the BNHP strategies as health instructors (murshidat) who constituted 75% of the staff of BNHP unit of health education, as members of village health committees (VHC) where they constituted 40% of the VHC members and also as recipients of the project services. All murshidat were interviewed whereas multistage random sampling for VHC members and recipient women in 40 villages was used to select a sample which was interviewed. The results showed that the murshidat and VHC women members played a major role in the motivation, organization and health education of local communities prior to campaigns of environmental sanitation and vector control. Household commitments and difficulties in communication with the public were the main gender-related factors that contributed negatively to women's activities. Cases of malaria have more considerable socio-economic impact than other common diseases, especially with regard to women's household commitments and work. Recipient women were more concerned with aspects of self protection, management of family cases of malaria and health education programmes. They were less involved in drying mosquito breeding sites and spraying activities of insecticides which had been reluctantly accepted because of allergy and bad odour. Although the majority of women considered antimalarials to be less harmful than effects of malaria itself on pregnancy, they did not realize the role of malaria chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy. This needs more health education. The study showed that the BNHP programme was very successful in recruiting women in control and management programmes. Therefore, health planners are urged to persuade the subordinated communities of women in many African countries like Sudan to play a more active role in the health programmes and welfare of their communities.  
  Call Number Serial 169  
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Author (up) Akiskal, H.S. file  url
  Title The prevalent clinical spectrum of bipolar disorders: beyond DSM-IV Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology Abbreviated Journal J Clin Psychopharmacol  
  Volume 16 Issue 2 Suppl 1 Pages 4s-14s  
  Keywords Bipolar Disorder/classification/*diagnosis/psychology; Cyclothymic Disorder/classification/diagnosis/psychology; Depressive Disorder/classification/diagnosis/psychology; Diagnosis, Differential; Humans; *Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Psychotic Disorders/classification/diagnosis/psychology  
  Abstract Based on the author's work and that of collaborators, as well as other contemporaneous research, this article reaffirms the existence of a broad bipolar spectrum between the extremes of psychotic manic-depressive illness and strictly defined unipolar depression. The alternation of mania and melancholia beginning in the juvenile years is one of the most classic descriptions in clinical medicine that has come to us from Greco-Roman times. French alienists in the middle of the nineteenth century and Kraepelin at the turn of that century formalized it into manic-depressive psychosis. In the pre-DSM-III era during the 1960s and 1970s, North American psychiatrists rarely diagnosed the psychotic forms of the disease; now, there is greater recognition that most excited psychoses with a biphasic course, including many with schizo-affective features, belong to the bipolar spectrum. Current data also support Kraepelin's delineation of mixed states, which frequently take on psychotic proportions. However, full syndromal intertwining of depressive and manic states into dysphoric or mixed mania--as emphasized in DSM-IV--is relatively uncommon; depressive symptoms in the midst of mania are more representative of mixed states. DSM-IV also does not formally recognize hypomanic symptomatology that intrudes into major depressive episodes and gives rise to agitated depressive and/or anxious, dysphoric, restless depressions with flight of ideas. Many of these mixed depressive states arise within the setting of an attenuated bipolar spectrum characterized by major depressive episodes and soft signs of bipolarity. DSM-IV conventions are most explicit for the bipolar II subtype with major depressive and clear-cut spontaneous hypomanic episodes; temperamental cyclothymia and hyperthymia receive insufficient recognition as potential factors that could lead to switching from depression to bipolar I disorder and, in vulnerable subjects, to predominantly depressive cycling. In the main, rapid-cycling and mixed states are distinct. Nonetheless, there exist ultrarapid-cycling forms where morose, labile moods with irritable, mixed features constitute patients' habitual self and, for that reason, are often mistaken for “borderline” personality disorder. Clearly, more formal research needs to be conducted in this temperamental interface between more classic bipolar and unipolar disorders. The clinical stakes, however, are such that a narrow concept of bipolar disorder would deprive many patients with lifelong temperamental dysregulation and depressive episodes of the benefits of mood-regulating agents.  
  Call Number Serial 1728  
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Author (up) Al-Saffar, Z.Y.; Grainger, J.N.R.; Aldrich, J. file  url
  Title Temperature and humidity affecting development, survival and weight loss of the pupal stage of Drosophila melanogaster, and the influence of alternating temperature on the larvae Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Journal of Thermal Biology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Thermal Biology  
  Volume 21 Issue 5-6 Pages 389-396  
  Keywords Temperature effects; humidity effects; D. melanogaster; development rate; modelling development; percentage water loss  
  Abstract 1.

1. The mean durations of development in the pupae of Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) and their survival were measured at combinations of six constant temperatures (15, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30°C) and up to 11 levels of relative humidity. The thermal survival range for the pupae is between 15 and 30°C, and the humidity viable range is between 60 and 100% RH.


2. The percentage water loss of the pupae was measured at six constant temperatures and four levels of relative humidity. There was a rapid increase in the percentage of water lost during the first 24 h exposure at all tested conditions. However, pupae reared at 100% RH at each constant temperature, sustained the lowest water loss. The percentage water loss increased as temperature increased, as humidity decreased and also with time.


3. The duration of larval development studied at six constant temperatures (15, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5 and 30°C) was inversely related to temperature. A wide range of alternating temperature regimes had a small, though statistically significant, accelerative effect on larval developmental time. Thus, the present results may be used as a basis for modelling development under changing temperatures, with the assumption that the developmental rate is nearly identical to that from a series of constant temperatures.
  Call Number Serial 1221  
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Author (up) Amir, N.; McNally, R.J.; Riemann, B.C.; Burns, J.; Lorenz, M.; Mullen, J.T. file  url
  Title Suppression of the emotional Stroop effect by increased anxiety in patients with social phobia Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Behaviour Research and Therapy Abbreviated Journal Behav Res Ther  
  Volume 34 Issue 11-12 Pages 945-948  
  Abstract Anxious individuals are slower at color-naming threat-related than nonthreat-related words in the emotional Stroop task. Recently, Mathews and Sebastian (1993, Cognition and Emotion, 7, 527-530) reported that this Stroop interference effect disappears when snake-fearful students are exposed to a snake while performing the color-naming task. In the present experiment, we had patients with social phobia and normal control subjects perform an emotional Stroop task under either low anxiety (i.e. upon entering the laboratory) or high anxiety (i.e. before giving a speech). Results indicated that Stroop interference for socially threatening words in the phobic group was suppressed under high anxiety. These findings may indicate that increased effort enables the subjects to suppress the interference produced in the Stroop task.

Subject Headings: Adult; Anxiety/diagnosis/*psychology; Arousal; *Attention; *Color Perception; Defense Mechanisms; *Discrimination Learning; Emotions; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Phobic Disorders/diagnosis/*psychology; Reaction Time; *Reading; *Semantics; Students/psychology

Keywords: Suppression of the emotional Stroop effect by increased anxiety in patients with social phobia
  Call Number Serial 2820  
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Author (up) Anisimov, O.A.; Nelson, F.E. file  url
  Title Permafrost distribution in the Northern Hemisphere under scenarios of climatic change Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Global and Planetary Change Abbreviated Journal Global and Planetary Change  
  Volume 14 Issue 1-2 Pages 59-72  
  Keywords Permafrost; Paleoreconstruction  
  Abstract The proportion of the Earth's land area underlain by permafrost, currently about 25%, is expected to contract substantially in response to climatic warming. Maps of permafrost distribution in the northern hemisphere were generated using three general circulation models and an empirical paleoreconstruction, all scaled to a 2°C global warming, in conjunction with a permafrost model that has successfully replicated the arrangement of contemporary permafrost zones in several high-latitude regions. The simulations indicate a 2544% reduction in the total area occupied by equilibrium permafrost. Conditions specified by the climate models result in a poleward (north-northeast) displacement of all permafrost zones. The continuous permafrost zone was most severely impacted in the simulations, with reductions in its areal extent ranging from 29% to 67%. The permafrost model was also used to hindcast the distribution of permafrost in Russia during the Holocene climatic optimum and Eemian interglacial. Agreement of modeled results with mappings based on independent criteria confirm the motel's effectiveness.  
  Call Number Serial 1515  
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Author (up) Ashoori, R.C. file  url
  Title Electrons in artificial atoms Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 379 Issue 6564 Pages 413-419  
  Abstract Progress in semiconductor technology has enabled the fabrication of structures so small that they can contain just one mobile electron. By varying controllably the number of electrons in these 'artificial atoms' and measuring the energy required to add successive electrons, one can conduct atomic physics experiments in a regime that is inaccessible to experiments on real atoms.

Subject Headings: Atoms; Electrons; Artificial;

Keywords: Electrons in artificial atoms
  Call Number Serial 2738  
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Author (up) Benedetti, F. file  url
  Title The opposite effects of the opiate antagonist naloxone and the cholecystokinin antagonist proglumide on placebo analgesia Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Pain Abbreviated Journal Pain  
  Volume 64 Issue 3 Pages 535-543  
  Abstract Discovery of the involvement of endogenous opiates in placebo analgesia represents an important step in understanding the mechanisms underlying placebo response. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the opiate antagonist naloxone and the cholecystokinin antagonist proglumide on placebo analgesia in a human model of experimentally induced ischemic pain. First, we found that part of the placebo response was reversed by naloxone, confirming previous studies on the role of opioids in the placebo phenomenon. Second, since it was demonstrated that the action of exogenous and endogenous opiates is potentiated by proglumide, we analysed the effects of this cholecystokinin antagonist on placebo response and found that it enhanced placebo analgesia. The placebo effect can thus be modulated in two opposite directions: it can be partially abolished by naloxone and potentiated by proglumide. The fact that placebo potentiation by proglumide occurred only in placebo responders, but not in non-responders, suggests that activation of an endogenous opiate system is a necessary condition for the action of proglumide. These results suggest an inhibitory role for cholecystokinin in placebo response, although the low affinity of proglumide for cholecystokinin receptors does not rule out the possibility of other mechanisms.

Subject Headings: Opiate; Naloxone; Cholecystokinin; Proglumide; Placebo

analgesia; Pain

Keywords: The opposite effects of the opiate antagonist naloxone and the cholecystokinin antagonist proglumide on placebo analgesia
  Call Number Serial 2389  
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Author (up) Bennetto, L.; Pennington, B.F.; Rogers, S.J. file  url
  Title Intact and impaired memory functions in autism Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Child Development Abbreviated Journal Child Dev  
  Volume 67 Issue 4 Pages 1816-1835  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Autistic Disorder--complications, physiopathology; Child; Frontal Lobe--physiopathology; Humans; Memory; Memory Disorders--complications; Verbal Learning  
  Abstract This study examined memory functions in individuals with autism. Based on previous evidence of executive function (EF) deficits, we hypothesized that subjects with autism would demonstrate a pattern of intact and impaired memory functions similar to that found in other groups with EF deficits, such as patients with frontal lobe pathology. We compared the performance of high-functioning children and adolescents with autism (n = 19) and clinical comparison subjects (n = 19) matched on sex, CA, and VIQ on measures of memory and EF. The group with autism performed significantly worse than comparison subjects on measures of temporal order memory, source memory, supraspan free recall, working memory, and EF, but not on short- and long-term recognition, cued recall, or new learning ability, consistent with the predictions of the EF theory. The cognitive measures were significantly more intercorrelated in the autism group than the comparison group, consistent with a limit in central cognition.  
  Call Number Serial 56  
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Author (up) Bernauer, T.; Moser, P. file  url
  Title Reducing Pollution of the River Rhine: The Influence of International Cooperation Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication The Journal of Environment & Development Abbreviated Journal The Journal of Environment & Development  
  Volume 5 Issue 4 Pages 389-415  
  Keywords Transboundary; Pollution; Rhine; Heavy metals; Environmental cooperation; Reduction; Cleanup  
  Abstract In this article, we critically examine the widely held view that transboundary political and legal efforts to reduce pollution of the river Rhine by heavy metals have been a success story. In doing so, we seek to contribute to the analysis of the performance of transboundary environmental cooperation, and to gain insights that may be relevant to environmental cleanup efforts in other international river basins. We conclude that international efforts have only modestly and indirectly contributed to pollution reductions, and that, in the Rhine case, informal approaches to problem solving have been more effective than formal approaches. We also find that liability frameworks may contribute toward pollution reductions, but are, even under favorable conditions, of very limited effectiveness.  
  Call Number Serial 953  
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Author (up) Brakefield, P.M.; Gates, J.; Keys, D.; Kesbeke, F.; Wijngaarden, P.J.; Monteiro, A.; French, V.; Carroll, S.B. file  url
  Title Development, plasticity and evolution of butterfly eyespot patterns Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 384 Issue 6606 Pages 236-242  
  Abstract The developmental and genetic bases for the formation, plasticity and diversity of eyespot patterns in butterflies are examined. Eyespot pattern mutants, regulatory gene expression, and transplants of the eyespot developmental organizer demonstrate that eyespot position, number, size and colour are determined progressively in a developmental pathway largely uncoupled from those regulating other wing-pattern elements and body structures. Species comparisons and selection experiments suggest that the evolution of eyespot patterns can occur rapidly through modulation of different stages of this pathway, and requires only single, or very few, changes in regulatory genes.

Subject Headings: Adaptation, Biological; Animals; *Biological Evolution; Body Patterning; Butterflies/*genetics/*growth & development/metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; *Genes, Insect; Genes, Regulator; Homeodomain Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Insect Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Larva/genetics/growth & development/metabolism; Mutation; Phenotype; Pigmentation; Seasons; Signal Transduction; Species Specificity; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism; Wings, Animal/anatomy & histology/*growth & development/metabolism/transplantation

Keywords: Development, plasticity and evolution of butterfly eyespot patterns
  Call Number Serial 2507  
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