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Author (up) Aarestrup, F.M.; Bager, F.; Jensen, N.E.; Madsen, M.; Meyling, A.; Wegener, H.C. file  url
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  Title Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food animals to antimicrobial growth promoters and related therapeutic agents in Denmark Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Apmis  
  Volume 106 Issue 6 Pages 606-622  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology; Bacteria/*drug effects/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/veterinary; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Cecum/microbiology; Chickens/growth & development; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Feces/microbiology; Meat/*microbiology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary; Poultry Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Swine/growth & development; Swine Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology  
  Abstract This study was conducted to describe the occurrence of acquired resistance to antimicrobials used for growth promotion among bacteria isolated from swine, cattle and poultry in Denmark. Resistance to structurally related therapeutic agents was also examined. Three categories of bacteria were tested: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). All antimicrobials used as growth promoters in Denmark and some structurally related therapeutic agents (in brackets) were included: Avilamycin, avoparcin (vancomycin), bacitracin, carbadox, flavomycin, monensin, olaquindox, salinomycin, spiramycin (erythromycin, lincomycin), tylosin (erythromycin, lincomycin), and virginiamycin (pristinamycin). Bacterial species intrinsically resistant to an antimicrobial were not tested towards that antimicrobial. Breakpoints for growth promoters were established by population distribution of the bacteria tested. A total of 2,372 bacterial isolates collected during October 1995 to September 1996 were included in the study. Acquired resistance to all currently used growth promoting antimicrobials was found. A frequent occurrence of resistance were observed to avilamycin, avoparcin, bacitracin, flavomycin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin, whereas resistance to carbadox, monensin, olaquindox and salinomycin was less frequent. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. The highest levels of resistance was observed among enterococci, whereas less resistance was observed among zoonotic bacteria and bacteria pathogenic to animals. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed. The results show the present level of resistance to growth promoters in bacteria from food animals in Denmark. They will form the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies, thereby enabling the determination of trends over time.  
  Call Number Serial 1676  
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Author (up) Alexander, P.C.; Anderson, C.L.; Brand, B.; Schaeffer, C.M.; Grelling, B.Z.; Kretz, L. file  url
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  Title Adult attachment and longterm effects in survivors of incest Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Child Abuse & Neglect Abbreviated Journal Child Abuse & Neglect  
  Volume 22 Issue 1 Pages 45-61  
  Keywords Incest; Attachment theory; Longterm effects  
  Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that adult attachment is related to distress and personality disorders in incest survivors.

Method: Adult female incest survivors recruited from the community participated in a structured interview (Family Attachment Interview; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991) and completed measures of current functioning (Impact of Event Scale, SCL-10, Beck Depression Inventory) and personality (MCMI-II). Complete data from 92 cases out of the total sample of 112 were analyzed.

Results: Analyses of variance suggested that attachment (as represented by a category) was significantly related to personality structure, with fearful individuals showing more avoidant, self-defeating, and borderline tendencies and preoccupied individuals showing more dependent, self-defeating, and borderline tendencies than secure or dismissing individuals. Results of hierarchical regression analyses suggested that attachment (as represented by four dimensions) was significantly associated with personality structure, depression and distress, and abuse severity with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (intrusive thoughts and avoidance of memories) and depression.

Conclusions: The findings demonstrated the propensity for insecure attachment among incest survivors. Sexual abuse severity and attachment have significant but distinct effects on longterm outcome; abuse characteristics predict classic PTSD symptoms and attachment insecurity predicts distress, depression, and personality disorders above and beyond any effects of abuse severity.
 
  Call Number Serial 1477  
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Author (up) Aspinall, P.J. file  url
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  Title Describing the “white” ethnic group and its composition in medical research Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 47 Issue 11 Pages 1797-1808  
  Keywords Canada; Ethnic Groups/*classification; European Continental Ancestry Group/*classification; Great Britain; Humans; *Minority Groups; *Research; Social Identification; State Medicine; United States  
  Abstract The routine use in medical research of an ostensibly homogeneous “white” category in ethnic group classifications has meant that white minorities, such as the Irish, Turks and Cypriots, have remained hidden, even though such groups are subject to discrimination and disadvantage common to other minority groups. The terms “white” and “Caucasian” are frequently and increasingly employed in the scientific literature in spite of widespread concern about the medicalization of race. Moreover, in Great Britain ethnic monitoring of hospital inpatients has revealed negligible interest in utilising codes that subdivide the white group. Yet recent research has shown, for example, substantially elevated age standardised limiting long-term illness rates in the first generation Irish and excess mortality in the second generation living in Britain. The health needs of these white minorities can only properly be identified through the availability of census denominator data of the kind now collected in the U.S. and Canadian decennial census questions on ethnic origin. The opportunity for government to make such provision in the forthcoming Great Britain 2001 Census should be seized whilst it is still available and recommendations for subdividing the “white” group are made.  
  Call Number Serial 105  
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Author (up) Bajji, M.; Kinet, J.-M.; Lutts, S. file  url
openurl 
  Title Salt stress effects on roots and leaves of Atriplex halimus L. and their corresponding callus cultures Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Plant Science Abbreviated Journal Plant Science  
  Volume 137 Issue 2 Pages 131-142  
  Keywords Atriplex halimus L.; Ion accumulation; Osmotic adjustment; Organic solutes; Salinity; Tissue culture  
  Abstract Salt stress effects on growth, osmotic adjustment, mineral and organic contents and soluble peroxidase activities were determined in roots and leaves of Atriplex halimus and their corresponding callus cultures. Low NaCl doses (150 mM) promoted shoot growth, corroborating the halophilic nature of this species; in these stress conditions, Na+ concentration markedly increased in the leaves indicating that salinity resistance was not associated with the ability of the plants to restrict sodium accumulation in the aerial part. Whole organs and their corresponding calli were able to cope with high NaCl doses but there was no clear correspondence between the physiological behaviour of cell culture and whole plant. For several physiological parameters (osmotic potential (Ψs), mineral content, proline accumulation), roots were less affected by NaCl than leaves while both root and leaf calli behaved in the same way in response to salinity. NaCl-induced modifications of the recorded parameters are discussed in relation to the mechanisms of salinity resistance in this species. Evidence indicated the existence of a cellular basis for salinity resistance in A. halimus, but the expression of this cellular property at organ level appeared to be masked by the physiological complexity of the intact plant and the nature of the whole organ response was apparently determined primarily by regulation mechanisms assigned by the differentiated tissue organization.  
  Call Number Serial 683  
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Author (up) Bienkowski, P.; Kostowski, W. file  url
openurl 
  Title Discrimination of ethanol in rats: effects of nicotine, diazepam, CGP 40116, and 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Biochem Behav  
  Volume 60 Issue 1 Pages 61-69  
  Keywords 2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate/administration & dosage/*analogs & derivatives/pharmacology; Animals; Biguanides/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Diazepam/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Discrimination Learning/*drug effects/physiology; Drug Interactions; Ethanol/*pharmacology; GABA Modulators/administration & dosage/pharmacology; Male; Nicotine/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Nicotinic Agonists/administration & dosage/pharmacology; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate/antagonists & inhibitors; Reinforcement Schedule; Serotonin Receptor Agonists/administration & dosage/pharmacology  
  Abstract The drug discrimination paradigm was used to evaluate the role of certain ligand-gated ion channels in the discriminative stimulus properties of ethanol. Rats were trained to discriminate ethanol (1.0 g/kg) from saline vehicle under the FR10 schedule of sweetened milk reinforcement. The discrimination of lower ethanol doses was enhanced by either the GABA(A) receptor positive modulator, diazepam (0.5 mg/kg), or nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, nicotine (0.3 mg/kg). Neither diazepam nor nicotine produced any effect on the rate of responding. Both the NMDA receptor competitive antagonist, CGP 40116 (0.5 mg/kg) and the 5-HT) receptor agonist, 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide (5.0 mg/kg) enhanced the cueing properties of lower ethanol doses, but these effects were associated with a significant reduction in the response rate. The ethanol-like stimulus effects produced by diazepam or CGP 40116 were not influenced by 0.3 mg/kg nicotine. In contrast, CGP 40116 moderately enhanced the ethanol-like stimulus effects of diazepam. The present results show that: 1) pretreatment with nicotine, diazepam, CGP 40116 or 1-(m-chlorophenyl)-biguanide enhance the ethanol discrimination; 2) neither the GABA(A) nor the NMDA receptor complex alone is critically involved in the nicotine-induced enhancement of the ethanol discrimination; 3) NMDA receptor competitive antagonist and GABAergic benzodiazepine derivative may produce moderate additive effects in rats trained to discriminate ethanol.  
  Call Number Serial 1329  
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Author (up) Bush, G.; Whalen, P.J.; Rosen, B.R.; Jenike, M.A.; McInerney, S.C.; Rauch, S.L. file  url
openurl 
  Title The counting Stroop: an interference task specialized for functional neuroimaging--validation study with functional MRI Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Human Brain Mapping Abbreviated Journal Hum Brain Mapp  
  Volume 6 Issue 4 Pages 270-282  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The anterior cingulate cortex has been activated by color Stroop tasks, supporting the hypothesis that it is recruited to mediate response selection or allocate attentional resources when confronted with competing information-processing streams. The current study used the newly developed “Counting Stroop” to identify the mediating neural substrate of cognitive interference. The Counting Stroop, a Stroop variant allowing on-line response time measurements while obviating speech, was created because speaking produces head movements that can exceed those tolerated by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), preventing the collection of vital performance data. During this task, subjects report by button-press the number of words (1-4) on the screen, regardless of word meaning. Interference trials contain number words that are incongruent with the correct response (e.g., “two” written three times), while neutral trials contain single semantic category common animals (e.g., “bird”). Nine normal right-handed adult volunteers underwent fMRI while performing the Counting Stroop. Group fMRI data revealed significant (P < or = 10(-4) activity in the cognitive division of anterior cingulate cortex when contrasting the interference vs. neutral conditions. On-line performance data showed 1) longer reaction times for interference blocks than for neutral ones, and 2) decreasing reaction times with practice during interference trials (diminished interference effects), indicating that learning occurred. The performance data proved to be a useful guide in analyzing the image data. The relative difference in anterior cingulate activity between the interference and neutral conditions decreased as subjects learned the task. These findings have ramifications for attentional, cognitive interference, learning, and motor control mechanism theories.

Subject Headings: Adult; Brain/*physiology; Brain Mapping/*methods; Cognition/*physiology; *Color Perception; Female; Gyrus Cinguli/*physiology; Humans; Language; Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods; Male; Motor Cortex/physiology; Online Systems; Parietal Lobe/physiology; Reaction Time/*physiology; Reproducibility of Results; Semantics

Keywords: The counting Stroop: an interference task specialized for functional neuroimaging--validation study with functional MRI
 
  Call Number Serial 2636  
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Author (up) Callicott, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Brain Mapping in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues Illustrated in a Study of Working Memory in Schizophrenia Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Neuropsychopharmacology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 18 Issue 3 Pages 186-196  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a potential paradigm shift in psychiatric neuroimaging. The technique provides individual, rather than group-averaged, functional neuroimaging data, but subtle methodological confounds represent unique challenges for psychiatric research. As an exemplar of the unique potential and problems of fMRI, we present a study of 10 inpatients with schizophrenia and 10 controls performing a novel “n back” working memory (WM) task. We emphasize two key design steps: (1) the use of an internal activation standard (i.e., a physiological control region) to address activation validity, and (2) the assessment of signal stability to control for “activation” artifacts arising from unequal signal variance across groups. In the initial analysis, all but one of the patients failed to activate dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the working memory task. However, some patients (and one control) also tended to show sparse control region activation in spite of normal motor performance, a result that raises doubts about the validity of the initial analysis and concerns about unequal subject motion. Subjects were then matched for signal variance (voxel stability), producing a subset of six patients and six controls. In this comparison, the internal activation standard (i.e., motor activation) was similar in both groups, and five of six patients, including two whom were neuroleptic-naive, failed to activate DLPFC. In addition, a tendency for overactivation of parietal cortex was seen. These results illustrate some of the promise and pitfalls of fMRI. Although fMRI generates individual brain maps, a specialized survey of the data is necessary to avoid spurious or unreliable findings, related to artifacts such as motion, which are likely to be frequent in psychiatric patients.

Subject headings: FMRI; Neuroimaging

Keywords: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Brain Mapping in Psychiatry: Methodological Issues Illustrated in a Study of Working Memory in Schizophrenia
 
  Call Number Serial 2008  
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Author (up) Charpantier, E.; Barnéoud, P.; Moser, P.; Besnard, F.; Sgard, F. file  url
openurl 
  Title Nicotinic acetylcholine subunit mRNA expression in dopaminergic neurons of the rat substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication NeuroReport Abbreviated Journal NeuroReport  
  Volume 9 Issue 13 Pages 3097-3101  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The molecular composition of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) located on dopaminergic neurons and modulating their activity is unclear. Using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction we have analyzed the mRNA for nAChR subunits expressed in the substantia nigra (SN) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) following unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the dopaminergic system. In contrast to the unlesioned hemisphere, no signal was found in the lesioned hemisphere for alpha3, alpha5, alpha6 and beta4 subunits in the SN nor for alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, alpha6, alpha7 and beta4 subunits in the VTA, indicating the expression of these subunits in dopaminergic neurons. mRNA for alpha4, beta2 and beta3 subunits (and alpha7 in the SN) were still detected after lesion, suggesting that they are expressed in GABAergic neurons and interneurons of these brain areas. These results demonstrate the selective localisation of a number of nAChR subunit mRNA within dopaminergic neurons, strongly suggesting that a heterogenous population of nAChRs play a role in modulating dopaminergic neuronal activity.

Subject Headings: mRNA; Nicotinic acetylcholine; Rat substantia nigra
 
  Call Number Serial 2285  
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Author (up) Davis, G.W.; Goodman, C.S. file  url
openurl 
  Title Synapse-specific control of synaptic efficacy at the terminals of a single neuron Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 392 Issue 6671 Pages 82-86  
  Keywords Animals; Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal/genetics/metabolism; Drosophila/embryology/genetics/physiology; Motor Neurons/*physiology; Muscles/innervation/*physiology; Mutagenesis; Neuromuscular Junction/*physiology; *Synapses  
  Abstract The regulation of synaptic efficacy is essential for the proper functioning of neural circuits. If synaptic gain is set too high or too low, cells are either activated inappropriately or remain silent. There is extra complexity because synapses are not static, but form, retract, expand, strengthen, and weaken throughout life. Homeostatic regulatory mechanisms that control synaptic efficacy presumably exist to ensure that neurons remain functional within a meaningful physiological range. One of the best defined systems for analysis of the mechanisms that regulate synaptic efficacy is the neuromuscular junction. It has been shown, in organisms ranging from insects to humans, that changes in synaptic efficacy are tightly coupled to changes in muscle size during development. It has been proposed that a signal from muscle to motor neuron maintains this coupling. Here we show, by genetically manipulating muscle innervation, that there are two independent mechanisms by which muscle regulates synaptic efficacy at the terminals of single motor neurons. Increased muscle innervation results in a compensatory, target-specific decrease in presynaptic transmitter release, implying a retrograde regulation of presynaptic release. Decreased muscle innervation results in a compensatory increase in quantal size.  
  Call Number Serial 1320  
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Author (up) Dingwall, R.; Greatbatch, D.; Ruggerone, L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Gender and interaction in divorce mediation Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Mediation Quarterly Abbreviated Journal Mediation Quarterly  
  Volume 15 Issue 4 Pages 277-287  
  Keywords Divorce; Mediation; Women; Female; Gender; Dispute resolution  
  Abstract This article describes the findings from a study of 150 hours of audiotaped mediation work in England as they relate to the question of whether women are advantaged or disadvantaged by this mode of dispute resolution in divorce. It focuses on three questions: Are there gender-related patterns of international dominance? Is the ability of men and women to deal with issues in divorce mediation affected by traditional sex-linkages attached to those issues? Do mediators and parties categorize themselves in gendered terms? The study found that the international organization of mediation sessions inhibited gendered patterns of international dominance, men and women focused on expressive and instrumental issues in similar ways, and fathers were more likely to refer to abstract rather than experiential knowledge about children. The appearance of gender differences tended to reflect the fact that men and women tend differentially to find themselves in particular structural positions.  
  Call Number Serial 564  
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