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Author (up) Amato, P.R.
Title Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43) Abbreviated Journal J Fam Psychol
Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 355-370
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Psychology; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Marriage--psychology; Mental Health; Research Design; Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Adjustment; United States--epidemiology
Abstract The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.
Call Number Serial 276
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Author (up) Asakawa, A.; Inui, A.; Kaga, T.; Yuzuriha, H.; Nagata, T.; Fujimiya, M.; Katsuura, G.; Makino, S.; Fujino, M.A.; Kasuga, M.
Title A role of ghrelin in neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress in mice Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Neuroendocrinology Abbreviated Journal Neuroendocrinology
Volume 74 Issue 3 Pages 143-147
Abstract Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, was recently identified in the rat stomach. Previous studies have shown that ghrelin potently increases growth hormone release and food intake. We examined the effects of the gastric peptide ghrelin on anxiety-like behavior in association with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in mice. Both intra-third cerebroventricular and intraperitoneal administration of ghrelin potently and significantly induced anxiogenic activities in the elevated plus maze test. Ghrelin gene expression in the stomach was increased by tail pinch stress as well as by starvation stress. Administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor antagonist significantly inhibited ghrelin-induced anxiogenic effects. Peripherally administered ghrelin significantly increased CRH mRNA, but not urocortin mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin produced a significant dose- dependent increase in serum corticosterone levels. These findings suggest that ghrelin may have a role in mediating neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stressors and that the stomach could play an important role, not only in the regulation of appetite, but also in the regulation of anxiety.

Subject Headings: Animals; Anxiety/chemically induced/prevention & control; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/genetics/pharmacology; Gene Expression; Ghrelin; Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology; Male; Mice; Neurosecretory Systems/*physiopathology; Pain/complications/genetics; Peptide Fragments/pharmacology; *Peptide Hormones; Peptides/genetics/*physiology; Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology; RNA, Messenger/metabolism; Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/antagonists & inhibitors; Stomach/physiopathology; Stress, Physiological/etiology/genetics/*physiopathology/*psychology

Keywords: A role of ghrelin in neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress in mice
Call Number Serial 2751
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Author (up) Bengtsson, S.; Berglund, H.; Gulyas, B.; Cohen, E.; Savic, I.
Title Brain activation during odor perception in males and females Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Neuroreport Abbreviated Journal Neuroreport
Volume 12 Issue 9 Pages 2027-2033
Keywords Adult; Amygdala/diagnostic imaging/physiology; Brain/*diagnostic imaging/*physiology; Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex/diagnostic imaging/physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Observer Variation; *Odorants; Olfactory Pathways/diagnostic imaging/physiology; Perception/*physiology; *Sex Characteristics; Smell/*physiology; Tomography, Emission-Computed
Abstract Several studies indicate that women outperform men in olfactory identification tasks. The psychophysical data are more divergent when it comes to gender differences at levels of odor processing which are cognitively less demanding. We therefore compared cerebral activation with H2(15)O PET in 12 females and 11 males during birhinal passive smelling of odors and odorless air. The odorous compounds (odorants) were pure olfactory, or mixed olfactory and weakly trigeminal. Using odorless air as the baseline condition, activations were found bilaterally in the amygdala, piriform and insular cortices in both sexes, irrespective of the odor. No gender difference was detected in the pattern of cerebral activation (random effect analysis SPM99, corrected p < 0.05) or in the subjective perception of odors. Males and females seem to use similar cerebral circuits during the passive perception of odors. The reported female superiority in assessing olfactory information including odor identification is probably an effect of a difference at a cognitive, rather than perceptive level of olfactory processing.
Call Number Serial 2000
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Author (up) Besson, M.; Schon, D.
Title Comparison between language and music Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci
Volume 930 Issue Pages 232-258
Keywords Brain/*physiology; Humans; *Language; Mental Processes/*physiology; *Music
Abstract Similarities and differences between language and music processing are examined from an evolutionary and a cognitive perspective. Language and music cannot be considered single entities; they need to be decomposed into different component operations or levels of processing. The central question concerns one of the most important claims of the generative grammar theory, that is, the specificity of language processing: do the computations performed to process language rely on specific linguistic processes or do they rely on general cognitive principles? Evidence from brain imaging results is reviewed, noting that this field is currently in need of metanalysis of the available results to precisely evaluate this claim. A series of experiments, mainly using the event-related brain potentials method, were conducted to compare different levels of processing in language and music. Overall, results favor language specificity when certain aspects of semantic processing in language are compared with certain aspects of melodic and harmonic processing in music. By contrast, results support the view that general cognitive principles are involved when aspects of syntactic processing in language are compared with aspects of harmonic processing in music. Moreover, analysis of the temporal structure led to similar effects in language and music. These tentative conclusions must be supported by other brain imaging results to shed further light on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain structure-function relationship.
Call Number Serial 476
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Author (up) Blumberg, L.M.; Klee, M.S.
Title Quantitative comparison of performance of isothermal and temperature-programmed gas chromatography Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Journal of Chromatography A Abbreviated Journal Journal of Chromatography A
Volume 933 Issue 1-2 Pages 13-26
Abstract As a basic metric of separation for comparing isothermal and temperature-programmed GC (gas chromatography), we used the separation measure, S (defined elsewhere). We used this metric as both a measure of separation of any two peaks, and a measure of separation capacity of arbitrary intervals where peaks can potentially exist. We derived several formulae for calculation of S for any pair of peaks regardless of their shape and the distance from each other in isothermal and temperature-programmed GC. The formulae for isothermal GC can be viewed as generalizations of previously known expressions while, in the case of temperature-programmed GC, no equivalents for the new formulae were previously known from the literature. In all formulae for S, we identified similar key component-metrics (solute separability, intrinsic efficiency of separation, specific separation measure, separation power) that helped us to identify and better understand the key factors affecting the separation process. These metrics also facilitated the quantitative comparison of separation capacities and analysis times in isothermal and temperature-programmed GC. Some of these metrics can be useful beyond GC. In the case of GC, we have shown that, if the same complex mixture was analyzed by the same column, and the same separation requirements were used then isothermal analysis can separate more peaks than its temperature-programmed counterpart can. Unfortunately, this advantage comes at the cost of prohibitively longer isothermal analysis time. The latter is a well know fact. Here, however, we provided a quantitative comparison. In a specific example, we have shown that a single-ramp temperature program with a typical heating rate yields about 25% fewer peaks than the number of peaks available from isothermal analysis of the same mixture using the same column. However, that isothermal analysis would last 1000 times longer than its temperature-programmed counterpart. Using twice as longer column in the case of a temperature-programmed analysis, allows one to recover the 25% disadvantage in the number of separated peaks, while still retaining a 500-fold advantage in the speed of analysis.

Subject Headings: Gas chromatography; Separation measure; Separation power; Separability; Specific separation

Keywords: Quantitative comparison of performance of isothermal and temperature-programmed gas chromatography
Call Number Serial 2456
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Author (up) Chan, K.H.; Tam, J.S.; Peiris, J.S.; Seto, W.H.; Ng, M.H.
Title Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in infancy Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology Abbreviated Journal J Clin Virol
Volume 21 Issue 1 Pages 57-62
Keywords Antibodies, Viral/blood; Capsid/immunology; Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/blood/*epidemiology; Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens/immunology; Female; Fetal Blood; Herpesvirus 4, Human/*immunology; Hong Kong/epidemiology; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Seroepidemiologic Studies
Abstract BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been shown to be the cause of infectious mononucleosis (IM) and has more complicated associations with several malignant diseases. These EBV associated diseases provide a strong incentive for the development of an EBV vaccine. Most primary EBV infection during infancy and early childhood is mild or subclinical. Little is known about its infection in infancy. The pattern of EBV serological response during infancy may be important for vaccine management. OBJECTIVES: this study has served to clarify the epidemiology and serology of primary EBV infection during early infancy. STUDY DESIGN: longitudinal serum samples from 66 Hong Kong infants were tested for EBV antibodies by immunofluorescence. Cord blood and sequential serum samples from these infants were taken at birth and then at 4-month intervals up to 2 years of age. RESULTS: maternal antibodies were present at different levels in all cord blood specimens and in serum samples of 8 infants at 4-month of age. Evidenced by VCA-IgG seroconversion, 60.6% (40/66) infants were infected during the first 2 years of life. One episode occurred before 8 months of age but, thereafter and for the remaining 16 months of follow-up until the infants were 2 years of age, the infection occurred at essentially a constant rate affecting about 20% of the remaining seronegative infants every 4 months. CONCLUSIONS: the abrupt onset of the infection after a delay of 8 months is a remarkable feature of primary EBV infection during infancy, which implicates a protective role for maternal antibodies. Persisting maternal antibodies may additionally serve to contain the infection once it occurred. This may partly explain why, unlike during adolescence, primary EBV infection early in life is usually asymptomatic.
Call Number Serial 110
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Author (up) Clark, A.; Lindgren, S.; Brooks, S.P.; Watson, W.P.; Little, H.J.
Title Chronic infusion of nicotine can increase operant self-administration of alcohol Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Neuropharmacology Abbreviated Journal Neuropharmacology
Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 108-117
Keywords Alcohol Drinking/*psychology; Animals; Central Nervous System Depressants/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Conditioning, Operant/drug effects; Ethanol/administration & dosage/*pharmacology; Infusion Pumps, Implantable; Male; Nicotine/*pharmacology; Nicotinic Agonists/*pharmacology; Rats; Reinforcement Schedule
Abstract Effects of nicotine, administered by continuous infusion via osmotic minipumps, were studied on the operant self-administration of alcohol by rats, using a variable interval (15 s) schedule, and measuring the acquisition, maintenance, extinction and reinstatement of responding for alcohol. Doses of nicotine of 0.25, 1.25 and 7.5 mg/kg/24 h had no significant effects on the maintenance of responding for alcohol, but 5 mg/kg/24 h nicotine resulted in a significant increase in responding on the lever delivering the reward when water was substituted for the alcohol, indicating delayed extinction of responding. During infusion of 2.5 mg/kg/24 h nicotine, responding was significantly greater over the “sucrose-fading” training sessions, during acquisition of responding, when mixtures of alcohol and sucrose were provided as reward. When minipumps infusing 2.5 mg/kg/24 h nicotine were implanted after the alcohol responding had been acquired, the responding for alcohol increase during the first week of nicotine infusion, but corresponding nicotine infusion doses of 0.25, 1.25 and 7.5 had no significant effects. The results indicate that nicotine can increase operant responding for alcohol and this is crucially dependent on the dose of nicotine and the time of testing. The results have implications for the frequently encountered dependence on the combination of alcohol and nicotine.
Call Number Serial 1172
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Author (up) Cottiglia, F.; Loy, G.; Garau, D.; Floris, C.; Casu, M.; Pompei, R.; Bonsignore, L.
Title Antimicrobial evaluation of coumarins and flavonoids from the stems of Daphne gnidium L Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Phytomedicine : International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology Abbreviated Journal Phytomedicine
Volume 8 Issue 4 Pages 302-305
Abstract The antimicrobial activity of stems methanol extract from Daphne gnidium L. collected from Sardinia (Italy) was evaluated against 6 strains of standard and clinical isolated gram (+/-) bacteria. The antimicrobial effect on two strains of fungi was also tested. The extract in toto exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus lentus and Escherichia coli, but was inactive against fungi. Four coumarins (daphnetin, daphnin, acetylumbelliferone, daphnoretin) and seven flavonoids (luteolin, orientin, isoorientin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, genkwanin, 5-O-beta-D-primeverosyl genkwanine, 2,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavanol) present in the plant extract were also investigated against the same strains of bacteria and fungi assayed for the crude extract. The most active compounds were daphnetin, genkwanin, and 2,5,7,4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavanol.

Subject headings: Anti-Bacterial Agents; Anti-Infective Agents/*pharmacology/therapeutic use; Bacillus/drug effects; Bacteria/*drug effects; Coumarins/chemistry/pharmacology; Escherichia coli/drug effects; Flavonoids/chemistry/pharmacology; Fungi/drug effects; Humans; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; *Phytotherapy; Plant Extracts/*pharmacology/therapeutic use; Plant Stems; *Thymelaeaceae
Call Number Serial 2200
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Author (up) D'Hooge, R.; De Deyn, P.P.
Title Applications of the Morris water maze in the study of learning and memory Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews Abbreviated Journal Brain Res Brain Res Rev
Volume 36 Issue 1 Pages 60-90
Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Brain/cytology/*physiology; Denervation/adverse effects; Disease Models, Animal; Maze Learning/*physiology; Memory/*physiology; Mice; Nerve Net/cytology/*physiology; Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism; Rats; Rodentia/anatomy & histology/*physiology; Space Perception/*physiology
Abstract The Morris water maze (MWM) was described 20 years ago as a device to investigate spatial learning and memory in laboratory rats. In the meanwhile, it has become one of the most frequently used laboratory tools in behavioral neuroscience. Many methodological variations of the MWM task have been and are being used by research groups in many different applications. However, researchers have become increasingly aware that MWM performance is influenced by factors such as apparatus or training procedure as well as by the characteristics of the experimental animals (sex, species/strain, age, nutritional state, exposure to stress or infection). Lesions in distinct brain regions like hippocampus, striatum, basal forebrain, cerebellum and cerebral cortex were shown to impair MWM performance, but disconnecting rather than destroying brain regions relevant for spatial learning may impair MWM performance as well. Spatial learning in general and MWM performance in particular appear to depend upon the coordinated action of different brain regions and neurotransmitter systems constituting a functionally integrated neural network. Finally, the MWM task has often been used in the validation of rodent models for neurocognitive disorders and the evaluation of possible neurocognitive treatments. Through its many applications, MWM testing gained a position at the very core of contemporary neuroscience research.
Call Number Serial 1556
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Author (up) Dales, L.; Hammer, S.J.; Smith, N.J.
Title Time trends in autism and in MMR immunization coverage in California Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Jama Abbreviated Journal Jama
Volume 285 Issue 9 Pages 1183-1185
Keywords Autistic Disorder/*epidemiology/*etiology; California/epidemiology; Child; Child, Preschool; Humans; Infant; Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/*adverse effects; Retrospective Studies; Vaccination/*statistics & numerical data
Abstract CONTEXT: Considerable concern has been generated in the lay and medical communities by a theory that increased measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization among young children may be the cause of an apparent marked increase in autism occurrence. OBJECTIVE: To determine if a correlation exists in secular trends of MMR immunization coverage among young children and autism occurrence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective analyses of MMR immunization coverage rates among children born in 1980-1994 who were enrolled in California kindergartens (survey samples of 600-1900 children each year) and whose school immunization records were reviewed to retrospectively determine the age at which they first received MMR immunization; and of autism caseloads among children born in these years who were diagnosed with autism and were enrolled in the California Department of Developmental Services regional service center system. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measles-mumps-rubella immunization coverage rates as of ages 17 months and 24 months and numbers of Department of Developmental Services system enrollees diagnosed with autism, grouped by year of birth. RESULTS: Essentially no correlation was observed between the secular trend of early childhood MMR immunization rates in California and the secular trend in numbers of children with autism enrolled in California's regional service center system. For the 1980-1994 birth cohorts, a marked, sustained increase in autism case numbers was noted, from 44 cases per 100 000 live births in the 1980 cohort to 208 cases per 100 000 live births in the 1994 cohort (a 373% relative increase), but changes in early childhood MMR immunization coverage over the same time period were much smaller and of shorter duration. Immunization coverage by the age of 24 months increased from 72% to 82%, a relative increase of only 14%, over the same time period. CONCLUSIONS: These data do not suggest an association between MMR immunization among young children and an increase in autism occurrence.
Call Number Serial 1120
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