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Author (up) Alfermann, D.; Stambulova, N.; Zemaityte, A. file  url
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  Title Reactions to sport career termination: a cross-national comparison of German, Lithuanian, and Russian athletes Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Psychology of Sport and Exercise Abbreviated Journal Psychology of Sport and Exercise  
  Volume 5 Issue 1 Pages 61-75  
  Keywords Sport Career Termination; Coping; Cross-national Comparison; Counselling  
  Abstract Objectives: To assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural consequences of sport career termination of national and international level athletes in three nations.

Design and methods: Athletes of Germany (n=88), Lithuania (n=65), and Russia (n=101) were asked to describe in retrospect their reactions to career termination. The Athletic Retirement Questionnaire developed by the first two authors and presented in three corresponding languages was used. Planning of retirement and national identity served as independent variables. Dependent variables were reasons and circumstances for career termination, participants’ emotional reactions, coping reactions, athletic identity during and after sport career, and adjustment to life after career termination.

Results: Analyses of variance revealed significant main effects of retirement planning and national identity on most dependent variables. Planning of retirement contributed to significantly better cognitive, emotional, and behavioural adaptation. In addition, high athletic identity contributed to less positive reactions to retirement and to more problems in the adaptation process. The emotional reactions of Russian and Lithuanian athletes were similar, but differed from the German athletes who, in general, showed more positive and lesser negative emotions after retirement. Though accepting the reality of retirement was the most often used coping strategy among all participants, Lithuanian athletes showed more denial and Russian athletes more distraction strategies after retirement than the other nations.

Discussion: The results are discussed with regard to athletes’ readiness for career transition in different social and cultural environments. Recommendations are given on how to help athletes to prepare for and to cope with career termination.
 
  Call Number Serial 628  
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Author (up) Aubrey, J.S.; Harrison, K. file  url
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  Title The Gender-Role Content of Children's Favorite Television Programs and Its Links to Their Gender-Related Perceptions Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Media Psychology Abbreviated Journal Media Psychology  
  Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 111-146  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Two studies were conducted to (a) examine the gender-role stereotypical, counterstereotypical, and gender-neutral messages contained in a sample of first- and second-grade children's favorite television programs; and (b) to link the results of the content analysis to the children's gender-role values and interpersonal attraction to same- and opposite-gender television characters while the content analysis showed that there was a great deal of gender neutrality in the programs the children preferred. However, as predicted, male characters were still more likely than female characters to answer questions, boss or order others, show ingenuity, achieve a goal, and eat. The results of the survey showed that preference for stereotypical content predicted boys' valuing hard work and humor. In addition, for girls preference for male stereotypical and male counterstereotypical content negatively predicted interpersonal attraction to female characters, whereas preference for female counterstereotypical and gender-neutral content positively predicted interpersonal attraction to female characters. For boys preference for female counterstereotypical content positively predicted interpersonal attraction to male characters.

Subject headings: Gender roles; Children's television programs; Male characters; Female characters; Interpersonal attraction

Keywords: The Gender-Role Content of Children's Favorite Television Programs and Its Links to Their Gender-Related Perceptions
 
  Call Number Serial 2733  
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Author (up) Azuma, T. file  url
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  Title Working memory and perseveration in verbal fluency Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
  Volume 18 Issue 1 Pages 69-77  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Humans; Memory, Short-Term/*physiology; Neuropsychological Tests; Random Allocation; Semantics; Task Performance and Analysis; Verbal Behavior/*physiology; Verbal Learning/*physiology; Vocabulary  
  Abstract Letter and semantic fluency tasks are often used in neuropsychological assessment and are sensitive to many conditions. Performance is assessed by correct responses and errors, including perseverations. Healthy young adults performed letter and semantic fluency tasks. One group performed these tasks in the conventional manner; 2 other groups performed them while maintaining memory loads. The memory loads consisted either of words from the same category as the fluency task or of words from a different category. The results showed little effect of memory loads on correct responses but significant effects of memory load on perseveration rates: Same-category loads resulted in higher rates, especially in letter fluency. The results are discussed in terms of frontal lobe function in verbal fluency.  
  Call Number Serial 239  
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Author (up) Backberg, M.; Meister, B. file  url
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  Title Abnormal cholinergic and GABAergic vascular innervation in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of obese tub/tub mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Synapse (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Synapse  
  Volume 52 Issue 4 Pages 245-257  
  Keywords Acetylcholine/*metabolism; Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; Animals; Arcuate Nucleus of Hypothalamus/blood supply/*metabolism; Blood Vessels/innervation; Carrier Proteins/metabolism; Glutamate Decarboxylase/metabolism; Immunohistochemistry; *Membrane Transport Proteins; Mice; Mutation; Obesity/*physiopathology; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Presynaptic Terminals/metabolism; Proteins/*genetics; Synaptophysin/metabolism; Vesicular Acetylcholine Transport Proteins; *Vesicular Transport Proteins; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/*metabolism  
  Abstract Tubby and tubby-like proteins (TULPs) are encoded by members of a small gene family. An autosomal recessive mutation in the mouse tub gene leads to blindness, deafness, and maturity-onset obesity. The mechanisms by which the mutation causes the obesity syndrome has not been established. We compared obese tub/tub mice and their lean littermates in order to find abnormalities within the mediobasal hypothalamus, a region intimately associated with the regulation of body weight. Using an antiserum to the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), a marker for cholinergic neurons, many unusually large VAChT-immunoreactive (-ir) nerve terminals, identified by colocalization with the synaptic vesicle protein synaptophysin, were demonstrated in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of obese tub/tub mice. Double-labeling showed that VAChT-ir nerve endings also contained glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a marker for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons. The VAChT- and GAD-ir nerve terminals were in close contact with blood vessels, identified with antisera to platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM; also called CD31), laminin, smooth muscle actin (SMA), and glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1). Such large cholinergic and GABAergic nerve terminals surrounding blood vessels were not seen in the arcuate nucleus of lean tub/+ mice. The presence of abnormal cholinergic/GABAergic vascular innervation in the arcuate nucleus suggests that alterations in this region, which contains neurons that receive information from the periphery and which relays information about the energy status to other parts of the brain, may be central in the development of the obese phenotype in animals with an autosomal recessive mutation in the tub gene.  
  Call Number Serial 1460  
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Author (up) Barlett, P.F. file  url
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  Title Three Visions of Masculine Success on American Farms Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Men and Masculinities Abbreviated Journal Men and Masculinities  
  Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 205-227  
  Keywords masculinity farming sustainable agriculture women’s work depression success Georgia Iowa Illinois  
  Abstract Anthropological, sociological, historical, and psychological approaches are combined to explore three divergent orientations to masculine success among American farmers. With a focus on the moral economy of the family, we link dimensions of work, livelihood, and marital partnership to the emotional consequences of women’s off-farm work. We contrast agrarian and industrial ideals found in Georgia, Iowa, and Illinois and connect their emergence to the transformation of the American economy over the last 100 years. Psychological and survey data from an Iowa study show some preliminary support for the Georgia findings that a more industrial notion of farmers’masculinity, emphasizing income and lifestyle and an expectation that a man will be the sole breadwinner of the family, confers a heavier emotional burden in a time of financial crisis. The Midwestern sustainable agriculture movement has given rise to a “third wave” of masculinity, a less competitive and individualistic ideology, emerging from a more global ecological awareness.  
  Call Number Serial 1590  
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Author (up) Barzilai, A.; Yamamoto, K.-I. file  url
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  Title DNA damage responses to oxidative stress Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication DNA Repair Abbreviated Journal DNA Repair (Amst)  
  Volume 3 Issue 8-9 Pages 1109-1115  
  Keywords Animals; Apoptosis; Cell Cycle; Cell Lineage; *DNA Damage; *DNA Repair; Humans; Hypoxia; Mitochondria/pathology; Oxidation-Reduction; *Oxidative Stress; Reactive Oxygen Species  
  Abstract The DNA damage response is a hierarchical process. DNA damage is detected by sensor proteins such as the MRN complex that transmit the information to transducer proteins such as ATM and ATR, which control the damage response through the phosphorylation of effector proteins. The extent of the DNA damage determines cell fate: cell cycle arrest and DNA repair or the activation of apoptotic pathways. In aerobic cells, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated as a by-product of normal mitochondrial activity. If not properly controlled, ROS can cause severe damage to cellular macromolecules, especially the DNA. We describe here some of the cellular responses to alterations in the cellular redox state during hypoxia or oxidative stress. Oxidative damage in DNA is repaired primarily via the base excision repair (BER) pathway which appears to be the simplest of the three excision repair pathways. To allow time for DNA repair, the cells activate their cell cycle checkpoints, leading to cell cycle arrest and preventing the replication of damage and defective DNA.  
  Call Number Serial 1707  
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Author (up) Bielsky, I.F.; Young, L.J. file  url
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  Title Oxytocin, vasopressin, and social recognition in mammals Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Peptides Abbreviated Journal Peptides  
  Volume 25 Issue 9 Pages 1565-1574  
  Keywords  
  Abstract While pheromones may act as social memory signals, oxytocin and vasopressin acting in the brain appear to be critical for the neural processing of olfactory signatures used for social discrimination. Evidence from a variety of laboratories using a range of animal models, as well as an array of molecular and pharmacological techniques, have helped to determine the neuroanatomical and functional roles oxytocin and vasopressin play in social cognition. In this review we discuss the considerable evidence for the roles of oxytocin and vasopressin in social recognition in rats and mice, as well as in offspring recognition in sheep and mate preference in monogamous voles.

Subject Headings: Animals; Arvicolinae; Brain/*metabolism; Female; Male; Mice; Models, Biological; Oxytocin/metabolism/*physiology; Peptides/chemistry; Rats; Receptors, Oxytocin/metabolism; Receptors, Vasopressin/metabolism; Time Factors; Vasopressins/*physiology

Keywords: Oxytocin, vasopressin, and social recognition in mammals
 
  Call Number Serial 2756  
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Author (up) Binder, E.; Droste, S.K.; Ohl, F.; Reul, J.M.H.M. file  url
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  Title Regular voluntary exercise reduces anxiety-related behaviour and impulsiveness in mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 155 Issue 2 Pages 197-206  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Animals; Anxiety/*psychology; *Choice Behavior; *Exploratory Behavior; Impulsive Behavior/*psychology; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Physical Conditioning, Animal/*psychology  
  Abstract We embarked on a study to delineate the behavioural changes in mice after 4 weeks of voluntary exercise. As an initial behavioural characterization, we exposed the control and exercising mice to a modified hole board and an open field test. As compared to control mice, exercising animals showed clear signs of increased behavioural inhibition (e.g. a longer latency to enter unprotected areas), suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In addition, the exercising mice were reluctant to spend time in the open field's centre during the beginning of the 30-min open field test, but compensated for this at later times. Paradoxically, the exercising animals showed more rearings on the board of the modified hole board, indicating decreased anxiety. Thus, the behavioural inhibition seen in exercising mice is likely to represent decreased stress responsiveness at the behavioural level which can also be interpreted as reduced impulsiveness. To clarify whether voluntary exercise evolves in more or less anxiety-related behaviour, we exposed animals to the elevated plus-maze and the dark-light box, two selective tests for unconditioned anxiety. Clearly, compared to the control animals, exercising mice spent significantly more time on the open arm of the plus-maze and spent double the amount of time in the light compartment of the dark-light box. Taken together, we conclude that long-term voluntary exercise appears to result in decreased anxiety-related behaviour and impulsiveness. Thus, our observations fit into the concept that regular exercise strengthens endogenous stress coping mechanisms, thereby protecting the organism against the deleterious effects of stress.  
  Call Number Serial 396  
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Author (up) Bonfanti, P.; Colombo, A.; Orsi, F.; Nizzetto, I.; Andrioletti, M.; Bacchetta, R.; Mantecca, P.; Fascio, U.; Vailati, G.; Vismara, C. file  url
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  Title Comparative teratogenicity of chlorpyrifos and malathion on Xenopus laevis development Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Aquatic Toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) Abbreviated Journal Aquat Toxicol  
  Volume 70 Issue 3 Pages 189-200  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The embryotoxic potential of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and malathion (MTN), two organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), was evaluated by modified Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX). CPF and MTN were not embryolethal even at the highest concentration tested (6000 microg/l), but both exhibited a powerful teratogenicity. The probit analysis of malformed larva percentages showed a TC(50) of 161.54mug/l for CPF, and a TC(50) of 2394.01 microg/l for MTN. Therefore, CPF teratogenicity was about 15 times higher than MTN. Larvae of both exposed groups were mainly affected by ventral and/or lateral tail flexure coupled with abnormal gut coiling. Histopathological diagnosis displayed abnormal myotomes and myocytes with marked hypertrophies localized at the cell extremity, probably due to a break away of myofibril extremities at the intersomitic junction level. We speculate that this muscular damage was related to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase that showed a clear concentration-response in CPF and MTN exposed larvae. The teratogenic effects of these anti-cholinesterase compounds on Xenopus laevis myogenesis suggest a possible role played by OPs on induction of congenital muscular dystrophy.

Subject headings: Abnormalities, Drug-Induced/*pathology; Animals; Biological Assay; Chlorpyrifos/*toxicity; Cholinesterase Inhibitors/*toxicity; Histological Techniques; Malathion/*toxicity; Muscles/abnormalities; Tail/abnormalities; Xenopus laevis/*abnormalities/*embryology

Keywords: Comparative teratogenicity of chlorpyrifos and malathion on Xenopus laevis development
 
  Call Number Serial 2911  
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Author (up) Brabin, B.J.; Romagosa, C.; Abdelgalil, S.; Menendez, C.; Verhoeff, F.H.; McGready, R.; Fletcher, K.A.; Owens, S.; D'Alessandro, U.; Nosten, F.; Fischer, P.R.; Ordi, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title The sick placenta-the role of malaria Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Placenta Abbreviated Journal Placenta  
  Volume 25 Issue 5 Pages 359-378  
  Keywords Cytokines/immunology; Female; Fetal Growth Retardation/etiology/parasitology; Fetal Weight; Humans; Immunity, Cellular/immunology; Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology; Immunohistochemistry; Infant, Low Birth Weight; Infant, Newborn; Malaria/immunology/*pathology; Malaria, Falciparum/immunology/*pathology; Malaria, Vivax/immunology/pathology; Placenta/immunology/pathology/physiopathology; Placenta Diseases/immunology/*pathology; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic; Premature Birth/epidemiology/etiology/parasitology  
  Abstract The human placenta is an ideal site for the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites, and as a consequence serious health problems arise for the mother and her baby. The pathogenesis of placental malaria is only partially understood, but it is clear that it leads to a distinct epidemiological pattern of malaria during pregnancy. The objectives of this review are: (1) To review recent data on the epidemiology of malaria in pregnancy, with emphasis on placental malaria; (2) to describe the pathological changes and immunological factors related to placental malaria; and (3) to discuss briefly the functional consequences of this infection for the mother and her baby. The review attempts to bring together local events at the maternal-fetal interface which encompass immunological and pathological processes which relate to the epidemiological pattern of malaria in pregnancy in areas of both high and low malaria transmission. An integrated understanding of the epidemiological, immunological and pathological processes must be achieved in order to understand how to control malaria in pregnancy. The yearly exposure of at least 50 million pregnancies to malaria infection makes it the commonest and most recurrent parasitic infection directly affecting the placenta. These statistics and our limited understanding of its pathogenesis suggest the research priorities on this subject.  
  Call Number Serial 147  
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