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  Title Symposium 1: The origines and consequences of congential amusia Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Brain and Cognition Abbreviated Journal Brain and Cognition  
  Volume 59 Issue 3 Pages 330-331  
  Keywords Congential Amusia  
  Abstract The study of musical abilities and activities in infancy has the potential to shed light on musical biases or dispositions that are rooted in nature rather than nurture. The available evidence indicates that infants are sensitive to a number of sound features that are fundamental to music across cultures. Their discrimination of pitch and timing differences and their perception of equivalence classes are similar, in many respects, to those of listeners who have had many years of exposure to music. Whether these perceptual skills are unique to human listeners is not known. What is unique is the intense human interest in music, which is evident from the early days of life. Also unique is the importance of music in social contexts. Current ideas about musical timing and interpersonal synchrony are considered here, along with proposals for future research.  
  Call Number Serial 727  
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Author (up) Aertsen, A.; Michiels, C.W. file  url
  Title SulA-dependent hypersensitivity to high pressure and hyperfilamentation after high-pressure treatment of Escherichia coli lon mutants Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Research in Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Res Microbiol  
  Volume 156 Issue 2 Pages 233-237  
  Keywords Colony Count, Microbial; Culture Media; Escherichia coli--genetics, growth & development; Escherichia coli Proteins--genetics, metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; Hydrostatic Pressure; Mutation; Protease La--genetics; SOS Response (Genetics); Ultraviolet Rays  
  Abstract High-pressure treatment (>100 MPa) is known to induce several heat shock proteins as well as an SOS response in Escherichia coli. In the current work, we have investigated properties with respect to high-pressure treatment of mutants-deficient in Lon, a pressure-induced ATP-dependent protease that belongs to the heat shock regulon but that also has a link to the SOS regulon. We report that lon mutants show increased pressure sensitivity and exhibit hyperfilamentation during growth after high-pressure treatment. Both phenotypes could be entirely attributed to the action of the SOS protein SulA, a potent inhibitor of the cell division ring protein FtsZ and a specific target of the Lon protease, since they were suppressed by knock-out of SulA. Introduction of the lexA1 allele, which effectively blocks the entire SOS response, also suppressed the high pressure hypersensitivity of lon mutants, but not their UV hypersensitivity. These results indicate the existence of a SulA-dependent pathway of high-pressure-induced cell filamentation, and suggest involvement of the SOS response, and particularly of SulA, in high-pressure-mediated cell death in E. coli strains which are compromised in Lon function.  
  Call Number Serial 301  
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Author (up) Amici, M.; Eusebi, F.; Miledi, R. file  url
  Title Effects of the antibiotic gentamicin on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Neuropharmacology Abbreviated Journal Neuropharmacology  
  Volume 49 Issue 5 Pages 627-637  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents--pharmacology; Cochlea--drug effects; DNA, Complementary--biosynthesis; Electrophysiology; Gentamicins--pharmacology; Humans; Membrane Potentials--drug effects, physiology; Mice; Nicotinic Antagonists; Oocytes--metabolism; Patch-Clamp Techniques; RNA, Complementary--biosynthesis; Receptors, Nicotinic--biosynthesis, drug effects, genetics; Torpedo; Vestibule, Labyrinth--drug effects; Xenopus; alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor  
  Abstract Medical treatment with the aminoglycosidic antibiotic gentamicin may produce side effects that include neuromuscular blockage and ototoxicity; which are believed to result from a dysfunction of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Gentamicin is known to reversibly block ACh-currents generated by the activation of muscle-type alphabetagammadelta-AChR and neuronal alpha9-AChR. We studied the effects of gentamicin on heteromeric alphabetagammadelta-AChR and homomeric alpha7-AChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Prolonged treatment with gentamicin, and other antibiotics, differentially altered alphabetagammadelta- and alpha7-AChR responses. Specifically, gentamicin accelerated desensitization and did not reduce ACh-currents in oocytes expressing alphabetagammadelta-AChRs, whereas ACh-currents were reduced and desensitization was unaltered in oocytes expressing alpha7-AChRs. Moreover, acutely applied gentamicin acted as a competitive antagonist on both types of receptors and increased the rate of desensitization in alphabetagammadelta-AChR while reducing the rate of desensitization in alpha7-AChR. This data helps to better understand the action of gentamicin on muscle and nervous tissues, providing mechanistic insights that could eventually lead to improving the medical use of aminoglycosides.  
  Call Number Serial 445  
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Author (up) Anderson, J.W.; Nicolosi, R.J.; Borzelleca, J.F. file  url
  Title Glucosamine effects in humans: a review of effects on glucose metabolism, side effects, safety considerations and efficacy Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Food and Chemical Toxicology : an International Journal Published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association Abbreviated Journal Food Chem Toxicol  
  Volume 43 Issue 2 Pages 187-201  
  Keywords Administration, Oral; Animals; Blood Glucose/*drug effects/metabolism; Clinical Trials as Topic; Glucosamine/*adverse effects/pharmacokinetics/therapeutic use; Humans; Infusions, Parenteral; Lethal Dose 50; Metabolic Clearance Rate; Osteoarthritis/*drug therapy; Safety; Toxicity Tests; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract Glucosamine is widely used to relieve symptoms from osteoarthritis. Its safety and effects on glucose metabolism are critically evaluated in this review. The LD50 of oral glucosamine in animals is approximately 8000 mg/kg with no adverse effects at 2700 mg/kg for 12 months. Because altered glucose metabolism can be associated with parenteral administration of large doses of glucosamine in animals and with high concentrations in in vitro studies, we critically evaluated the clinical importance of these effects. Oral administration of large doses of glucosamine in animals has no documented effects on glucose metabolism. In vitro studies demonstrating effects of glucosamine on glucose metabolism have used concentrations that are 100-200 times higher than tissue levels expected with oral glucosamine administration in humans. We reviewed clinical trial data for 3063 human subjects. Fasting plasma glucose values decreased slightly for subjects after oral glucosamine for approximately 66 weeks. There were no adverse effects of oral glucosamine administration on blood, urine or fecal parameters. Side effects were significantly less common with glucosamine than placebo or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). In contrast to NSAID, no serious or fatal side effects have been reported for glucosamine. Our critical evaluation indicates that glucosamine is safe under current conditions of use and does not affect glucose metabolism.  
  Call Number Serial 1749  
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Author (up) Atherton, P.J.; Babraj, J.; Smith, K.; Singh, J.; Rennie, M.J.; Wackerhage, H. file  url
  Title Selective activation of AMPK-PGC-1alpha or PKB-TSC2-mTOR signaling can explain specific adaptive responses to endurance or resistance training-like electrical muscle stimulation Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Abbreviated Journal Faseb J  
  Volume 19 Issue 7 Pages 786-788  
  Keywords Adaptation, Physiological; Adenylate Kinase/*metabolism; Animals; Electric Stimulation; Enzyme Activation; Male; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism; Muscle Contraction; Muscle Proteins/biosynthesis; Muscle, Skeletal/*physiology; Myofibrils/metabolism; Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha; Phosphorylation; Physical Conditioning, Animal; Physical Endurance/physiology; Physical Exertion; Protein Kinases/*metabolism; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/*metabolism; RNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism; Signal Transduction; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; Transcription Factors/*metabolism; Tumor Suppressor Proteins/*metabolism  
  Abstract Endurance training induces a partial fast-to-slow muscle phenotype transformation and mitochondrial biogenesis but no growth. In contrast, resistance training mainly stimulates muscle protein synthesis resulting in hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to identify signaling events that may mediate the specific adaptations to these types of exercise. Isolated rat muscles were electrically stimulated with either high frequency (HFS; 6x10 repetitions of 3 s-bursts at 100 Hz to mimic resistance training) or low frequency (LFS; 3 h at 10 Hz to mimic endurance training). HFS significantly increased myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis 3 h after stimulation 5.3- and 2.7-fold, respectively. LFS had no significant effect on protein synthesis 3 h after stimulation but increased UCP3 mRNA 11.7-fold, whereas HFS had no significant effect on UCP3 mRNA. Only LFS increased AMPK phosphorylation significantly at Thr172 by approximately 2-fold and increased PGC-1alpha protein to 1.3 times of control. LFS had no effect on PKB phosphorylation but reduced TSC2 phosphorylation at Thr1462 and deactivated translational regulators. In contrast, HFS acutely increased phosphorylation of PKB at Ser473 5.3-fold and the phosphorylation of TSC2, mTOR, GSK-3beta at PKB-sensitive sites. HFS also caused a prolonged activation of the translational regulators p70 S6k, 4E-BP1, eIF-2B, and eEF2. These data suggest that a specific signaling response to LFS is a specific activation of the AMPK-PGC-1alpha signaling pathway which may explain some endurance training adaptations. HFS selectively activates the PKB-TSC2-mTOR cascade causing a prolonged activation of translational regulators, which is consistent with increased protein synthesis and muscle growth. We term this behavior the “AMPK-PKB switch.” We hypothesize that the AMPK-PKB switch is a mechanism that partially mediates specific adaptations to endurance and resistance training, respectively.  
  Call Number Serial 2075  
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Author (up) Baden, D.A.; McLean, T.L.; Tucker, R.; Noakes, T.D.; St Clair Gibson, A. file  url
  Title Effect of anticipation during unknown or unexpected exercise duration on rating of perceived exertion, affect, and physiological function Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication British Journal of Sports Medicine Abbreviated Journal Br J Sports Med  
  Volume 39 Issue 10 Pages 742-6; discussion 742-6  
  Keywords Affect--physiology; Exercise--physiology, psychology; Exercise Test--methods; Female; Heart Rate--physiology; Humans; Male; Oxygen Consumption--physiology; Physical Endurance--physiology; Physical Exertion--physiology; Running--physiology, psychology  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of unknown exercise duration and an unexpected increase in exercise duration on rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and running economy during treadmill running. METHODS: Sixteen well trained male and female runners completed three bouts of treadmill running at 75% of their peak treadmill running speed. In the first trial, they were told to run for 20 minutes and were stopped at 20 minutes (20 MIN). In another trial, they were told to run for 10 minutes, but at 10 minutes were told to run for a further 10 minutes (10 MIN). In the final trial, they were not told for how long they would be running but were stopped after 20 minutes (unknown, UN). During each of the running bouts, RPE, oxygen consumption (ml/kg/min), heart rate (beats/min), stride frequency (min(-1)), affect scores (arbitrary units), and attentional focus (percentage associative thought scores) were recorded. RESULTS: RPE increased significantly between 10 and 11 minutes in the 10 MIN compared with the 20 MIN and UN trials (p<0.05). The affect score decreased significantly between 10 and 11 minutes in the 10 MIN compared with the 20 MIN trial (p<0.05). Running economy, as measured by oxygen consumption, was significantly lower in the UN compared with the 20 MIN trial from 10 to 19 minutes (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The change in RPE between 10 and 11 minutes in the 10 MIN trial suggests that RPE is not purely a measure of physical exertion, as treadmill speed was maintained at a constant pace both before and after the unexpected increase in exercise duration. The associated changes in affect score at similar times in the 10 MIN trial supports the hypothesis that RPE has an affective component.  
  Call Number Serial 46  
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Author (up) Bartholow, B.D.; Anderson, C.A.; Carnagey, N.L.; Benjamin Jr., A.J. file  url
  Title Interactive effects of life experience and situational cues on aggression: The weapons priming effect in hunters and nonhunters Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Journal of Experimental Social Psychology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Experimental Social Psychology  
  Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 48-60  
  Abstract Recent research (Anderson, Benjamin, & Bartholow, 1998) indicates that the presence of guns increases the accessibility of aggressive thoughts via automatic priming. Our research examined whether this “weapons priming effect” differs depending on the structure of an individual's knowledge about guns, and if so, whether that difference results in corresponding differences in aggressive behavior. Experiment 1 revealed that individuals with prior gun experience (hunters) have more detailed and specific information about guns than do individuals with no direct gun experience (nonhunters), and that hunting experience interacts with gun type (hunting versus assault) in predicting affective and cognitive reactions to guns. Experiment 2 revealed that pictures of hunting guns were more likely to prime aggressive thoughts among nonhunters, whereas pictures of assault guns were more likely to prime aggressive thoughts among hunters. Experiment 3 showed differences in aggressive behavior following gun primes that correspond to differences in affective and cognitive responses to gun cues. Our findings are discussed in light of the General Aggression Model.  
  Call Number Serial 1617  
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Author (up) Bayer, L.; Eggermann, E.; Serafin, M.; Grivel, J.; Machard, D.; Muhlethaler, M.; Jones, B.E. file  url
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  Title Opposite effects of noradrenaline and acetylcholine upon hypocretin/orexin versus melanin concentrating hormone neurons in rat hypothalamic slices Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
  Volume 130 Issue 4 Pages 807-811  
  Keywords Acetylcholine/pharmacology/*physiology; Action Potentials/drug effects/physiology; Animals; Arousal/drug effects/physiology; Cholinergic Agonists/pharmacology; Hypothalamic Area, Lateral/cytology/drug effects/*metabolism; Hypothalamic Hormones/*metabolism; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins/*metabolism; Locus Coeruleus/physiology; Melanins/*metabolism; Models, Neurological; Neural Inhibition/drug effects/physiology; Neural Pathways/cytology/drug effects/metabolism; Neurons/drug effects/*metabolism; Neuropeptides/*metabolism; Norepinephrine/pharmacology/*physiology; Organ Culture Techniques; Patch-Clamp Techniques; Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus/physiology; Pituitary Hormones/*metabolism; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Sleep/physiology; Synaptic Transmission/drug effects/physiology  
  Abstract Hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt/Orx) and melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) are peptides contained in overlapping cell groups of the lateral hypothalamus and commonly involved in regulating sleep-wake states and energy balance, though likely in different ways. To see if these neurons are similarly or differentially modulated by neurotransmitters of the major brainstem arousal systems, the effects of noradrenaline (NA) and carbachol, a cholinergic agonist, were examined on identified Hcrt/Orx and MCH neurons in rat hypothalamic slices. Whereas both agonists depolarized and excited Hcrt/Orx neurons, they both hyperpolarized MCH neurons by direct postsynaptic actions. According to the activity profiles of the noradrenergic locus coeruleus and cholinergic pontomesencephalic neurons across the sleep-waking cycle, the Hcrt/Orx neurons would be excited by NA and acetylcholine (ACh) and thus active during arousal, whereas the MCH neurons would be inhibited by NA and ACh and thus inactive during arousal while disinhibited and possibly active during slow wave sleep. According to the present pharmacological results, Hcrt/Orx neurons may thus stimulate arousal in tandem with other arousal systems, whereas MCH neurons may function in opposition with other arousal systems and thus potentially dampen arousal to promote sleep.  
  Call Number Serial 331  
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Author (up) Berk, R. file  url
  Title New Claims about Executions and General Deterrence: Deja Vu All Over Again? Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Journal of Empirical Legal Studies Abbreviated Journal J Empirical Legal Studies  
  Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 303-330  
  Keywords Executions; Crime; Statistics; Influence  
  Abstract A number of papers have recently appeared claiming to show that in the United States executions deter serious crime. There are many statistical problems with the data analyses reported. This article addresses the problem of “influence,” which occurs when a very small and atypical fraction of the data dominate the statistical results. The number of executions by state and year is the key explanatory variable, and most states in most years execute no one. A very few states in particular years execute more than five individuals. Such values represent about 1 percent of the available observations. Reanalyses of the existing data are presented showing that claims of deterrence are a statistical artifact of this anomalous 1 percent.  
  Call Number Serial 894  
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Author (up) Boxer, P.; Guerra, N.G.; Huesmann, L.R.; Morales, J. file  url
  Title Proximal Peer-Level Effects of a Small-Group Selected Prevention on Aggression in Elementary School Children: An Investigation of the Peer Contagion Hypothesis Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 33 Issue 3 Pages 325-338  
  Keywords aggression; elementary school; peer; contagion; selected prevention; intervention  
  Abstract Examined peer contagion in small group, selected prevention programming over one school year. Participants were boys and girls in grades 3 (46 groups, 285 students) and 6 (36 groups, 219 students) attending school in low-resource, inner city communities or moderate resource urban communities. Three-level hierarchical linear modeling (observations within individuals within groups) indicated that individual change in aggression over time related to the average aggression of others in the intervention group. The individual child was “pulled” toward peers’ mean level of aggression; so the intervention appeared to reduce aggression for those high on aggression, and to make those low on aggression more aggressive. Effects appeared to be magnified in either direction when the child was more discrepant from his or her peers. From these results we derive a principle of “discrepancy-proportional peer-influence” for small group intervention, and discuss the implications of this for aggregating aggressive children in small group programs.  
  Call Number Serial 1960  
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