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Author Haslbeck, M.; Franzmann, T.; Weinfurtner, D.; Buchner, J. file  url
Title Some like it hot: the structure and function of small heat-shock proteins Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Nature Structural & Molecular Biology Abbreviated Journal Nat Struct Mol Biol  
Volume 12 Issue 10 Pages 842-846  
Keywords Heat-Shock Proteins, Small/*chemistry/classification/*metabolism; Phylogeny; Protein Conformation; Protein Folding  
Abstract Small heat-shock proteins (sHsps) are a widespread and diverse class of molecular chaperones. Recent evidence suggests that they maintain protein homeostasis by binding proteins in non-native conformations, thereby preventing substrate aggregation. Some members of the sHsp family are inactive or only partially active under physiological conditions, and transition toward the active state is induced by specific triggers, such as elevated temperature. Release of substrate proteins bound to sHsps requires cooperation with ATP-dependent chaperones, suggesting that sHsps create a reservoir of non-native proteins for subsequent refolding.  
Call Number Serial 2181  
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Author Wecker, N.S.; Kramer, J.H.; Hallam, B.J.; Delis, D.C. file  url
Title Mental flexibility: age effects on switching Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
Volume 19 Issue 3 Pages 345-352  
Keywords Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Mental Processes/*physiology; Middle Aged; Neuropsychological Tests/statistics & numerical data; Predictive Value of Tests; Problem Solving/*physiology; Recognition (Psychology)/*physiology; Regression Analysis; Verbal Learning/physiology  
Abstract Mental flexibility is required to track and systematically alternate between 2 response sets. In this study, 719 individuals, 20 to 89 years old, engaged in 3 different tasks that required verbal and nonverbal cognitive switching. Of importance, each task allowed for independent measurement of component skills that are embedded in the higher level tasks. When gender, education, Full Scale IQ, and component skills were partialed out by multiple regression analyses, significant age effects were revealed for each task. This study provides evidence that executive functions--and verbal and nonverbal cognitive switching in particular--are affected by age independently from age-related changes in component skills. The results are discussed in terms of theories of executive control and neurologic correlates across the adult life span.  
Call Number Serial 2178  
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Author Salthouse, T.A. file  url
Title Relations between cognitive abilities and measures of executive functioning Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Neuropsychology Abbreviated Journal Neuropsychology  
Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages 532-545  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Aging/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Female; Humans; Intelligence; Male; Memory/physiology; Middle Aged; Models, Psychological; Neuropsychological Tests; Problem Solving/*physiology; Psychometrics; Reference Values; Space Perception/physiology; Verbal Behavior/physiology; Weights and Measures/*standards  
Abstract Although frequently mentioned in contemporary neuropsychology, the term executive functioning has been a source of considerable confusion. One way in which the meaning of a variable can be investigated involves examining its pattern of relations with established cognitive abilities. This method was applied to a variety of variables hypothesized to assess executive functioning in 2 data sets, 1 consisting of 328 adults between 18 and 93 years of age and a 2nd composite data set based on nearly 7,000 healthy adults between 18 and 95 years of age. Most of the hypothesized executive functioning variables were strongly related to reasoning and perceptual speed abilities, and very few had any unique relations with age after taking into consideration the relations of age through the cognitive abilities. These results raise questions about the extent to which neuropsychological tests of executive functioning measure a distinct dimension of variation in normal adults.  
Call Number Serial 2176  
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Author Schechter, D.S.; Coots, T.; Zeanah, C.H.; Davies, M.; Coates, S.W.; Trabka, K.A.; Marshall, R.D.; Liebowitz, M.R.; Myers, M.M. file  url
Title Maternal mental representations of the child in an inner-city clinical sample: violence-related posttraumatic stress and reflective functioning Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Attachment & Human Development Abbreviated Journal Attach Hum Dev  
Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 313-331  
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Analysis of Variance; Child Abuse/prevention & control/psychology; Child of Impaired Parents/psychology; Child, Preschool; Female; Humans; Infant; Logistic Models; *Mental Processes; Middle Aged; *Mother-Child Relations; Parenting/*psychology; Poverty Areas; Risk Factors; *Social Perception; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*psychology; United States; Violence/*psychology  
Abstract Parental mental representations of the child have been described in the clinical literature as potentially useful risk-indicators for the intergenerational transmission of violent trauma. This study explored factors associated with the quality and content of maternal mental representations of her child and relationship with her child within an inner-city sample of referred, traumatized mothers. Specifically, it examined factors that have been hypothesized to support versus interfere with maternal self- and mutual-regulation of affect: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and maternal reflective functioning (RF). More severe PTSD, irrespective of level of RF, was significantly associated with the distorted classification of non-balanced mental representations on the Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI) within this traumatized sample. Higher Levels of RF, irrespective of PTSD severity, were significantly associated with the balanced classification of maternal mental representations on the WMCI. Level of maternal reflective functioning and severity of PTSD were not significantly correlated in this sample. Clinical implications are discussed.  
Call Number Serial 2171  
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Author Culmsee, C.; Mattson, M.P. file  url
Title p53 in neuronal apoptosis Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications Abbreviated Journal Biochem Biophys Res Commun  
Volume 331 Issue 3 Pages 761-777  
Keywords Animals; Apoptosis/*physiology; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; DNA Damage; Gene Expression Regulation; Humans; Neurodegenerative Diseases/*physiopathology; Neurons/*cytology/*physiology; Nuclear Proteins/physiology; Proto-Oncogene Proteins/physiology; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/physiology; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2; Synapses/physiology; Transcriptional Activation; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/*physiology; bcl-2-Associated X Protein  
Abstract The tumor suppressor and transcription factor p53 is a key modulator of cellular stress responses, and activation of p53 can trigger apoptosis in many cell types including neurons. Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that occurs in neurons during development of the nervous system and may also be responsible for neuronal deaths that occur in neurological disorders such as stroke, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. p53 production is rapidly increased in neurons in response to a range of insults including DNA damage, oxidative stress, metabolic compromise, and cellular calcium overload. Target genes induced by p53 in neurons include those encoding the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and the BH3-only proteins PUMA and Noxa. In addition to such transcriptional control of the cell death machinery, p53 may more directly trigger apoptosis by acting at the level of mitochondria, a process that can occur in synapses (synaptic apoptosis). Preclinical data suggest that agents that inhibit p53 may be effective therapeutics for several neurodegenerative conditions.  
Call Number Serial 2167  
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