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Author (up) Albuquerque, E.X.; Pereira, E.F.R.; Alkondon, M.; Rogers, S.W. file  url
  Title Mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from structure to function Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Physiological Reviews Abbreviated Journal Physiol Rev  
  Volume 89 Issue 1 Pages 73-120  
  Keywords Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology; Animals; Brain/physiology; Disease Models, Animal; Gene Expression Regulation/physiology; Humans; Parkinson Disease/physiopathology; Receptors, Nicotinic/*chemistry/*physiology  
  Abstract The classical studies of nicotine by Langley at the turn of the 20th century introduced the concept of a “receptive substance,” from which the idea of a “receptor” came to light. Subsequent studies aided by the Torpedo electric organ, a rich source of muscle-type nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), and the discovery of alpha-bungarotoxin, a snake toxin that binds pseudo-irreversibly to the muscle nAChR, resulted in the muscle nAChR being the best characterized ligand-gated ion channel hitherto. With the advancement of functional and genetic studies in the late 1980s, the existence of nAChRs in the mammalian brain was confirmed and the realization that the numerous nAChR subtypes contribute to the psychoactive properties of nicotine and other drugs of abuse and to the neuropathology of various diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and schizophrenia, has since emerged. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these findings and the more recent revelations of the impact that the rich diversity in function and expression of this receptor family has on neuronal and nonneuronal cells throughout the body. Despite these numerous developments, our understanding of the contributions of specific neuronal nAChR subtypes to the many facets of physiology throughout the body remains in its infancy.  
  Call Number Serial 1876  
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Author (up) Altman, S.E.; Shankman, S.A. file  url
  Title What is the association between obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders? Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Clinical Psychology Review Abbreviated Journal Clin Psychol Rev  
  Volume 29 Issue 7 Pages 638-646  
  Keywords Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Bulimia Nervosa/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Causality; Comorbidity; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diseases in Twins/genetics/psychology; Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/*psychology; Genotype; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/*psychology; Personality Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology  
  Abstract Because eating disorders (EDs) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) co-occur at high rates and can have functionally similar clinical presentations, it has been suggested that both constructs might be part of a common spectrum of disorders. Identifying the relationship between EDs and OCD may lead to the discovery of important shared core disease processes and/or mechanisms for maintenance. The objective of this paper is to understand the relationship between EDs and OCD by systematically reviewing epidemiological, longitudinal and family studies guided by five models of comorbidity posited by Klein and Riso (1993) and others. Though this literature is relatively small, the preponderance of evidence from these studies largely suggests that OCD/ED co-occur because of a shared etiological relationship. Limitations to extant literature, and suggestions for future research are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 1824  
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Author (up) Angarne-Lindberg, T.; Wadsby, M. file  url
  Title Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Nordic Journal of Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Nord J Psychiatry  
  Volume 63 Issue 1 Pages 32-43  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Adult Children/*psychology; Age Factors; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Infant; *Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Risk Factors; Sweden; Young Adult  
  Abstract The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.  
  Call Number Serial 278  
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Author (up) Ardiel, E.L.; Rankin, C.H. file  url
  Title C. elegans: social interactions in a “nonsocial” animal Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Advances in Genetics Abbreviated Journal Adv Genet  
  Volume 68 Issue Pages 1-22  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/*physiology; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics; Ecosystem; Female; Genetics, Behavioral; Male; Pheromones/physiology; Social Behavior  
  Abstract As self-fertilizing nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans do not normally come to mind when one thinks of social animals. However, their reproductive mode is optimized for rapid population growth, and although they do not form structured societies, conspecifics are an important source of sensory input. A pheromone signal underlies multiple complex behaviors, including diapause, male-mating, and aggregation. The use of C. elegans in sociogenetics research allows for the analysis of social interactions at the level of genes, circuits, and behaviors. This chapter describes natural polymorphisms in mab-23, plg-1, npr-1, and glb-5 as they relate to two C. elegans social behaviors: male-mating and aggregation.  
  Call Number Serial 1074  
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Author (up) Aveskamp, M.M.; Verkley, G.J.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Murace, M.A.; Perello, A.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W. file  url
  Title DNA phylogeny reveals polyphyly of Phoma section Peyronellaea and multiple taxonomic novelties Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Mycologia Abbreviated Journal Mycologia  
  Volume 101 Issue 3 Pages 363-382  
  Keywords Actins/analysis/genetics; Ascomycota/*classification/cytology/genetics; Biodiversity; DNA, Fungal/*analysis/genetics; DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/analysis/genetics; Genetic Speciation; Genetic Variation; Molecular Sequence Data; *Phylogeny; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Sequence Alignment; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Species Specificity; Tubulin/analysis/genetics  
  Abstract Species of the anamorph genus Phoma are commonly isolated from a wide range of ecological niches. They are notoriously difficult to identify due to the paucity of morphological features and the plasticity of these when cultivated on agar media. Species linked to Phoma section Peyronellaea are typified by the production of dictyochlamydospores and thus have additional characters to use in taxon delineation. However, the taxonomy of this section is still not fully understood. Furthermore the production of such chlamydospores also is known in some other sections of Phoma. DNA sequences were generated from three loci, namely ITS, actin, and 3-tubulin, to clarify the phylogeny of Phoma taxa that produce dictyochlamydospores. Results were unable to support section Peyronellaea as a taxonomic entity. Dictyochlamydospore formation appears to be a feature that developed, or was lost, many times during the evolution of Phoma. Furthermore, based on the multigene analyses, five new Phoma species could be delineated while a further five required taxonomic revision to be consistent with the genetic variation observed.  
  Call Number Serial 1999  
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Author (up) Bandgar, B.P.; Gawande, S.S.; Bodade, R.G.; Gawande, N.M.; Khobragade, C.N. file  url
  Title Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of pyrazole chalcones as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial agents Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Abbreviated Journal Bioorg Med Chem  
  Volume 17 Issue 24 Pages 8168-8173  
  Keywords Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Antioxidants/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Chalcones/*chemical synthesis/chemistry/*pharmacology; Flavonoids; Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors  
  Abstract A novel series of 1-(2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-propenone (3) have been prepared by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 1-(2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-ethanone (1) and substituted 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes (2). Substituted 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes (2) were prepared by Vilsmeir-Haack reaction on acetophenonephenylhydrazones to offer the target compounds. The structures of the compounds were established by IR, (1)H NMR and mass spectral analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory (TNF-alpha and IL-6 inhibitory assays), antioxidant (DPPH free radical scavenging assay) and antimicrobial activities (agar diffusion method) against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Of 10 compounds screened, compounds 3a, 3c and 3g exhibited promising IL-6 inhibitory (35-70% inhibition, 10 microM), free radical scavenging (25-35% DPPH activity) and antimicrobial activities (MIC 100 microg/mL and 250 microg/mL) at varied concentrations. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) and in silico drug relevant properties (HBD, HBA, PSA, cLogP, molecular weight, E(HOMO) and E(LUMO)) further confirmed that the compounds are potential lead compounds for future drug discovery study. Toxicity of the compounds was evaluated theoretically and experimentally and revealed to be nontoxic except 3d and 3j.  
  Call Number Serial 1466  
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Author (up) Bassett, C.M.C.; Rodriguez-Leyva, D.; Pierce, G.N. file  url
  Title Experimental and clinical research findings on the cardiovascular benefits of consuming flaxseed Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition et Metabolisme Abbreviated Journal Appl Physiol Nutr Metab  
  Volume 34 Issue 5 Pages 965-974  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Inflammatory Agents; Antioxidants; Atherosclerosis; *Cardiovascular Diseases; *Dietary Supplements; *Flax; Humans; Hypertension; Hypolipidemic Agents; Lipids/blood; Mice  
  Abstract Functional foods and nutraceuticals are becoming popular alternatives to pharmacological treatments by providing health benefits and (or) reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Flaxseed is a rich source of 3 components with demonstrated cardioprotective effects: the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), dietary fibre, and phytoestrogen lignans. Multiple clinical dietary intervention trials report that consuming flaxseed daily can modestly reduce circulating total cholesterol (TC) by 6%-11% and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol by 9%-18% in normolipemic humans and by 5%-17% for TC and 4%-10% for LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic patients, as well as lower various markers associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in humans. Evidence to date suggests that the dietary fibre and (or) lignan content of flaxseed provides the hypocholesterolemic action. The omega-3 ALA found in the flaxseed oil fraction also contributes to the antiatherogenic effects of flaxseed via anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative mechanisms. Dietary flaxseed may also protect against ischemic heart disease by improving vascular relaxation responses and by inhibiting the incidence of ventricular fibrillation.  
  Call Number Serial 1758  
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Author (up) Bencan, Z.; Sledge, D.; Levin, E.D. file  url
  Title Buspirone, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam effects in a zebrafish model of anxiety Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Biochem Behav  
  Volume 94 Issue 1 Pages 75-80  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Anxiety Agents/*therapeutic use; Anxiety/*drug therapy; Behavior, Animal/drug effects; Benzodiazepines/administration & dosage/therapeutic use; Buspirone/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use; Chlordiazepoxide/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use; Cholinergic Agents/administration & dosage/therapeutic use; Diazepam/administration & dosage/*therapeutic use; *Disease Models, Animal; Diving; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Exploratory Behavior/drug effects; Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods; Serotonin Agents/administration & dosage/therapeutic use; Stress, Psychological; Time Factors; *Zebrafish  
  Abstract Zebrafish are becoming more widely used to study neurobehavioral pharmacology. We have developed a method to assess novel environment diving behavior of zebrafish as a model of stress response and anxiolytic drug effects. In a novel tank, zebrafish dwell in the bottom of the tank initially and then increase their swimming exploration to higher levels over time. We previously found that nicotine, which has anxiolytic effects in rodents and humans, significantly lessens the novel tank diving response in zebrafish. The specificity of the diving effect was validated with a novel vs. non-novel test tank. The novel tank diving response of zebrafish was tested when given three anxiolytic drugs from two different chemical and pharmacological classes: buspirone, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam. When the test tank was novel the diving response was clearly seen whereas it was significantly reduced when the test tank was not novel. Buspirone, a serotonergic (5HT(1A) receptor agonist) anxiolytic drug with some D(2) dopaminergic effect, had a pronounced anxiolytic-like effect in the zebrafish diving model at doses that did not have sedative effects. In contrast, chlordiazepoxide, a benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug, which is an effective agonist at GABA-A receptors, did not produce signs of anxiolysis in zebrafish over a broad dose range up to those that caused sedation. Diazepam another benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug did produce an anxiolytic effect at doses that did not cause sedation. The zebrafish novel tank diving task can be useful in discriminating anxiolytic drugs of several classes (serotonergic, benzodiazepines and nicotinic).  
  Call Number Serial 209  
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Author (up) Bialystok, E.; Feng, X. file  url
  Title Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Brain and Language Abbreviated Journal Brain Lang  
  Volume 109 Issue 2-3 Pages 93-100  
  Keywords Adult; Brain/*physiology; Child; Female; Humans; *Language; Male; Mental Recall/*physiology; *Multilingualism; *Proactive Inhibition; Vocabulary  
  Abstract Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.  
  Call Number Serial 942  
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Author (up) Bialystok, E.; Viswanathan, M. file  url
  Title Components of executive control with advantages for bilingual children in two cultures Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Cognition Abbreviated Journal Cognition  
  Volume 112 Issue 3 Pages 494-500  
  Keywords Canada; Child; Child Development/*physiology; Cognition/*physiology; Cross-Cultural Comparison; Discrimination Learning; Female; Humans; India; Male; *Multilingualism; Neuropsychological Tests; Pattern Recognition, Visual; Reaction Time  
  Abstract The present study used a behavioral version of an anti-saccade task, called the 'faces task', developed by [Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I. M., & Ryan, J. (2006). Executive control in a modified anti-saccade task: Effects of aging and bilingualism. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 1341-1354] to isolate the components of executive functioning responsible for previously reported differences between monolingual and bilingual children and to determine the generality of these differences by comparing bilinguals in two cultures. Three components of executive control were investigated: response suppression, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility. Ninety children, 8-years old, belonged to one of three groups: monolinguals in Canada, bilinguals in Canada, and bilinguals in India. The bilingual children in both settings were faster than monolinguals in conditions based on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility but there was no significant difference between groups in response suppression or on a control condition that did not involve executive control. The children in the two bilingual groups performed equivalently to each other and differently from the monolinguals on all measures in which there were group differences, consistent with the interpretation that bilingualism is responsible for the enhanced executive control. These results contribute to understanding the mechanism responsible for the reported bilingual advantages by identifying the processes that are modified by bilingualism and establishing the generality of these findings across bilingual experiences. They also contribute to theoretical conceptions of the components of executive control and their development.  
  Call Number Serial 1179  
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