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Author (up) Albert, D.; Steinberg, L. file  url
  Title Judgment and Decision Making in Adolescence: ADOLESCENT JDM Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Research on Adolescence Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 21 Issue 1 Pages 211-224  
  Keywords Judgment and Decision Making in Adolescence: ADOLESCENT JDM  
  Abstract In this article, we review the most important findings to have emerged during the past 10 years in the study of judgment and decision making (JDM) in adolescence and look ahead to possible new directions in this burgeoning area of research. Three inter-related shifts in research emphasis are of particular importance and serve to organize this review. First, research grounded in normative models of JDM has moved beyond the study of age differences in risk perception and toward a dynamic account of the factors predicting adolescent decisions. Second, the field has seen widespread adoption of dual‐process models of cognitive development that describe 2 relatively independent modes of information processing, typically contrasting an analytic (cold) system with an experiential (hot) one. Finally, there has been an increase in attention to the social, emotional, and self-regulatory factors that influence JDM. This shift in focus reflects the growing influence of findings from developmental neuroscience, which describe a pattern of structural and functional maturation that may set the stage for a heightened propensity to make risky decisions in adolescence.

Subject Headings: Adolescence; Decision making; Judgement; JDM

Keywords: Judgment and Decision Making in Adolescence: ADOLESCENT JDM
  Call Number Serial 2471  
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Author (up) Allen, S.L.; Lundberg, A.S. file  url
  Title Amonafide: a potential role in treating acute myeloid leukemia Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs Abbreviated Journal Expert Opin Investig Drugs  
  Volume 20 Issue 7 Pages 995-1003  
  Keywords Animals; Antineoplastic Agents--pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use; Clinical Trials as Topic--methods; DNA Topoisomerases, Type II--metabolism; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm; Enzyme Inhibitors--pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use; Humans; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute--drug therapy, enzymology, mortality; Naphthalimides--pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use; Survival Rate--trends; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Amonafide is a novel topoisomerase II (Topo II) inhibitor and DNA intercalator that induces apoptotic signaling by blocking the binding of Topo II to DNA. Amonafide retains cytotoxic activity even in the presence of P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR), a major contributor to clinical treatment failure. AREAS COVERED: In vitro, Pgp-mediated transport (efflux) of amonafide from myeloblasts obtained from patients with secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) was significantly less than efflux of daunorubicin. Amonafide has shown efficacy in patients with sAML, as well as in patients with poor prognostic characteristics such as older age and unfavorable cytogenetics, all associated with MDR. Improved antileukemic activity is observed when amonafide is given together with cytarabine, rather than as monotherapy, with a complete remission rate of approximately 40% in a recent Phase II trial in sAML. The efficacy of amonafide was maintained among poor-risk subsets of patients, including older patients and patients who had previous myelodysplastic syndrome or previous leukemogenic therapy. The safety profile was acceptable and manageable. EXPERT OPINION: Amonafide plus cytarabine may have clinical utility in patients with sAML and in other poor-risk subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Ongoing trials will help define the role for amonafide in the treatment of poor-risk AML.  
  Call Number Serial 199  
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Author (up) Amaku, M.; Coutinho, F.A.B.; Massad, E. file  url
  Title Why dengue and yellow fever coexist in some areas of the world and not in others? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Bio Systems Abbreviated Journal Biosystems  
  Volume 106 Issue 2-3 Pages 111-120  
  Keywords Adaptive Immunity/*immunology; Aedes/*virology; Africa/epidemiology; Animals; Asia/epidemiology; Computer Simulation; *Demography; Dengue/*epidemiology/immunology/transmission; Humans; Insect Vectors/*virology; *Models, Biological; South America/epidemiology; Species Specificity; Yellow Fever/*epidemiology/immunology/transmission  
  Abstract Urban yellow fever and dengue coexist in Africa but not in Asia and South America. In this paper, we examine four hypotheses (and various combinations thereof) to explain the absence of yellow fever in urban areas of Asia and South America. In addition, we examine an additional hypothesis that offers an explanation of the coexistence of the infections in Africa while at the same time explaining their lack of coexistence in Asia. The hypotheses we tested to explain the nonexistence of yellow fever in Asia are the following: (1) the Asian Aedes aegypti is relatively incompetent to transmit yellow fever; (2) there would exist a competition between dengue and yellow fever viruses within the mosquitoes, as suggested by in vitro studies in which the dengue virus always wins; (3) when an A. aegypti mosquito that is infected by or latent for yellow fever acquires dengue, it becomes latent for dengue due to internal competition within the mosquito between the two viruses; (4) there is an important cross-immunity between yellow fever and other flaviviruses, dengue in particular, such that a person recovered from a bout of dengue exhibits a diminished susceptibility to yellow fever. This latter hypothesis is referred to below as the “Asian hypothesis.” Finally, we hypothesize that: (5) the coexistence of the infections in Africa is due to the low prevalence of the mosquito Aedes albopictus in Africa, as it competes with A. aegypti. We will refer to this latter hypothesis as the “African hypothesis.” We construct a model of transmission that allows all of the above hypotheses to be tested. We conclude that the Asian and the African hypotheses can explain the observed phenomena, whereas other hypotheses fail to do so.  
  Call Number Serial 1532  
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Author (up) Anderson, J.L.; Albergotti, L.; Ellebracht, B.; Huey, R.B.; Phillips, P.C. file  url
  Title Does thermoregulatory behavior maximize reproductive fitness of natural isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication BMC Evolutionary Biology Abbreviated Journal BMC Evol Biol  
  Volume 11 Issue Pages 157  
  Keywords Acclimatization; Animals; Body Temperature Regulation; Caenorhabditis elegans--genetics, physiology; Genetic Fitness; Temperature  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: A central premise of physiological ecology is that an animal's preferred body temperature should correspond closely with the temperature maximizing performance and Darwinian fitness. Testing this co-adaptational hypothesis has been problematic for several reasons. First, reproductive fitness is the appropriate measure, but is difficult to measure in most animals. Second, no single fitness measure applies to all demographic situations, complicating interpretations. Here we test the co-adaptation hypothesis by studying an organism (Caenorhabditis elegans) in which both fitness and thermal preference can be reliably measured. RESULTS: We find that natural isolates of C. elegans display a range of mean thermal preferences and also vary in their thermal sensitivities for fitness. Hot-seeking isolates CB4854 and CB4857 prefer temperatures that favor population growth rate (r), whereas the cold-seeking isolate CB4856 prefers temperatures that favor Lifetime Reproductive Success (LRS). CONCLUSIONS: Correlations between fitness and thermal preference in natural isolates of C. elegans are driven primarily by isolate-specific differences in thermal preference. If these differences are the result of natural selection, then this suggests that the appropriate measure of fitness for use in evolutionary ecology studies might differ even within species, depending on the unique ecological and evolutionary history of each population.  
  Call Number Serial 261  
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Author (up) Arias-Carrion, O.; Palomero-Rivero, M.; Millan-Aldaco, D.; Haro, R.; Drucker-Colin, R.; Murillo-Rodriguez, E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Infusion of modafinil into anterior hypothalamus or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus at different time-points enhances waking and blocks the expression of recovery sleep in rats after sleep deprivation Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Experimental Neurology Abbreviated Journal Exp Neurol  
  Volume 229 Issue 2 Pages 358-363  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Benzhydryl Compounds/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Central Nervous System Stimulants/pharmacology/*therapeutic use; Electroencephalography; Hypothalamus, Anterior/*drug effects; Microinjections; Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus/*drug effects; Rats; Sleep/*drug effects; Sleep Deprivation/*drug therapy; Wakefulness/*drug effects  
  Abstract Clinical studies have indicated that the primary pharmacological activity of modafinil (MOD) is inducing wakefulness; however, the brain targets that underlie its wake-promoting activity have not been described. In the present study, we show that MOD injected into sleep-wake related brain areas promoted alertness. If administered (10, 20, or 30 mug/1 muL) into either anterior hypothalamus (AH) or pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) at 08:00, 12:00 or 16:00 h, MOD enhanced wakefulness whereas diminished slow wave sleep as well as rapid eye movement sleep. In addition, microinjection of MOD (10, 20, or 30 mug/1 muL) either into AH or PPTg after total sleep deprivation prevented the sleep rebound. Taken together, these observations suggest that AH and PPTg play a key role in the wake-inducing effects of MOD and encourage further experimentation to draw a possible mechanism of action.  
  Call Number Serial 330  
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Author (up) Baron, J.M.; Higgins, J.M.; Dzik, W.H. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title A revised timeline for the origin of Plasmodium falciparum as a human pathogen Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Molecular Evolution Abbreviated Journal J Mol Evol  
  Volume 73 Issue 5-6 Pages 297-304  
  Keywords Animals; Cytochromes b/*genetics; *Evolution, Molecular; Gorilla gorilla/parasitology; Host-Parasite Interactions/*genetics; Humans; Malaria/*genetics/parasitology; Mitochondrial Proteins/*genetics; Mutation Rate; Plasmodium falciparum/*genetics/pathogenicity  
  Abstract While Plasmodium falciparum is known to have had a strong effect on human evolution, the time period when P. falciparum first infected ancestors of modern humans has remained uncertain. Recent advances demonstrated that P. falciparum evolved from ancestors of gorilla parasites via host switching. Here, we estimate the range of dates during which this host switch may have occurred. DNA sequences of portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene obtained from gorilla parasites closely related to human P. falciparum were aligned and compared against similar sequences from human P. falciparum. Time estimates were calculated by applying a previously established parasite cytochrome b gene mutation rate (0.012 mutations per site per million years) and by modeling uncertainty in a Monte-Carlo simulation. We estimate a 95% confidence interval for when P. falciparum first infected ancestors of modern humans to be 112,000 and 1,036,000 years ago (median estimate, 365,000 years ago). This confidence interval suggests that P. falciparum first infected human ancestors much more recently than the previous recognized estimate of 2.5 million years ago. The revised estimate may inform our understanding of certain aspects of human-malaria co-evolution. For example, this revised date suggests a closer relationship between the entry of P. falciparum in humans and the appearance of many red blood cell polymorphisms considered to be genetic adaptations to malaria. In addition, the confidence interval lies within the timeframe dating the dawn of Homo sapiens, suggesting that P. falciparum may have undergone host switching as a Plasmodia adaptation specific for our species.  
  Call Number Serial 1123  
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Author (up) Benowitz, N.L.; Dains, K.M.; Dempsey, D.; Wilson, M.; Jacob, P. file  url
  Title Racial differences in the relationship between number of cigarettes smoked and nicotine and carcinogen exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco Abbreviated Journal Nicotine Tob Res  
  Volume 13 Issue 9 Pages 772-783  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; African Americans/psychology; Aged; Carcinogens/analysis; Cotinine/blood; European Continental Ancestry Group/psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Nicotine/*blood/urine; Nitrosamines/urine; Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic/urine; Pyridines/urine; San Francisco; Smoking/blood/*ethnology/psychology/urine; Tobacco Use Disorder/blood/*ethnology/psychology/urine; Young Adult  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Black smokers are reported to have higher lung cancer rates and greater tobacco dependence at lower levels of cigarette consumption compared to non-Hispanic White smokers. We studied the relationship between cigarettes per day (CPD) and biomarkers of nicotine and carcinogen exposure in Black and White smokers. METHODS: In 128 Black and White smokers, we measured plasma nicotine and its main proximate metabolite cotinine, urine nicotine equivalents, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3)pyridyl-1-butanol (NNAL), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites. RESULTS: The dose-response between CPD and nicotine equivalents, and NNAL and PAH was flat for Black but positive for White smokers (Race x CPD interaction, all ps < .05). Regression estimates for the Race x CPD interactions were 0.042 (95% CI 0.013-0.070), 0.054 (0.023-0.086), and 0.028 (0.004-0.052) for urine nicotine equivalents, NNAL, and PAHs, respectively. In contrast there was a strong correlation between nicotine equivalents and NNAL and PAH independent of race. Nicotine and carcinogen exposure per individual cigarette was inversely related to CPD. This inverse correlation was stronger in Black compared to White smokers and stronger in menthol compared to regular cigarette smokers (not mutually adjusted). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that Blacks on average smoke cigarettes differently than White smokers such that CPD predicts smoke intake more poorly in Black than in White smokers.  
  Call Number Serial 368  
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Author (up) Bercik, P. file  url
  Title The microbiota-gut-brain axis: learning from intestinal bacteria? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Gut Abbreviated Journal Gut  
  Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 288-289  
  Keywords Animals; Bacterial Infections/*psychology; Cognition Disorders/*microbiology; Humans; Intestinal Diseases/microbiology/*psychology; Intestines/*microbiology; Mice; Symbiosis; Microbiome  
  Abstract The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem,1 which has developed a mutualistic relationship with its host and plays a crucial role in the development of the host's innate and adaptive immune responses.2 This ecosystem serves the host by protecting against pathogens, harvesting otherwise inaccessible nutrients, aiding in neutralisation of drugs and carcinogens, and affecting the metabolism of lipids.3 Gut bacteria modulate intestinal motility, barrier function and visceral perception.4

An interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system (CNS) may seem difficult to conceive at first sight, but clinicians are well aware of the benefit of oral antibiotics and laxatives in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy.5 Data accumulated from animal studies indicate that there is central sensing of gastrointestinal infections. For example, acute infection with Campylobacter jejuni results in anxiety-like behaviour and rapid activation of vagal pathways prior to onset of immune responses,6 while chronic Helicobacter pylori infection in mice leads to abnormal feeding behaviour and upregulation of tumour necrosis factor &#945; (TNF&#945;) in the median eminence of the hypothalamus.7 Rapid and sustained gut&#65533;brain communication may confer a significant advantage to the host, as central activation in response to changes in commensals or pathogens would allow better control of gut function and immunity.
  Call Number Serial 2096  
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Author (up) Berger, J.-L.; Karabenick, S.A. file  url
  Title Motivation and students' use of learning strategies: Evidence of unidirectional effects in mathematics classrooms Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Learning and Instruction Abbreviated Journal Learning and Instruction  
  Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 416-428  
  Keywords Learning strategies; Motivation; Cross-lagged correlation; Mathematics  
  Abstract Considerable evidence indicates that student motivation and use of learning strategies are related. There is insufficient understanding, however, about their reciprocal effects—whether motivation affects strategy use, the converse, or whether the effects are bidirectional—and which components of motivation and strategies are involved. A two-wave longitudinal design was used to examine this issue among 9th grade students (N = 306) enrolled in high school mathematics classes during an academic term. A cross-lagged structural model found that students’ self-efficacy in mathematics and value predicted their reported use of learning strategies. There was no evidence, however, that learning strategy use predicted motivation and, thus, support for unidirectional effect of motivation during that time interval. Implications for models of self-regulated learning and instruction are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 1904  
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Author (up) Besada, P.; Costas, T.; Vila, N.; Chessa, C.; Teran, C. file  url
  Title Synthesis and complete assignment of the 1H and 13C NMR spectra of 6-substituted and 2,6-disubstituted pyridazin-3(2H)-ones Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry : MRC Abbreviated Journal Magn Reson Chem  
  Volume 49 Issue 7 Pages 437-442  
  Abstract Several pyridazin-3(2H)-one derivatives were synthesized starting from alkyl furans using oxidation with singlet oxygen to give 4-methoxy or 4-hydroxybutenolides, key intermediates of the synthetic strategy followed. For all pyridazinones reported, a complete assignment of the (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic methods, which included NOE, DEPT, COSY, HSQC and HMBC experiments, was accomplished. Correlations between the chemical shifts of the heterocyclic ring atoms and substituents at N-2 and C-6 were analyzed.  
  Call Number Serial 34  
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