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Author (up) Akhurst, R.J.; Hata, A.
Title Targeting the TGFbeta signalling pathway in disease Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Drug Discov
Volume 11 Issue 10 Pages 790-811
Keywords Animals; Drug Delivery Systems/*methods; Humans; Protein Binding/physiology; Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism; Signal Transduction/drug effects/*physiology; Transforming Growth Factor beta/*antagonists & inhibitors/*physiology
Abstract Many drugs that target transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signalling have been developed, some of which have reached Phase III clinical trials for a number of disease applications. Preclinical and clinical studies indicate the utility of these agents in fibrosis and oncology, particularly in augmentation of existing cancer therapies, such as radiation and chemotherapy, as well as in tumour vaccines. There are also reports of specialized applications, such as the reduction of vascular symptoms of Marfan syndrome. Here, we consider why the TGFbeta signalling pathway is a drug target, the potential clinical applications of TGFbeta inhibition, the issues arising with anti-TGFbeta therapy and how these might be tackled using personalized approaches to dosing, monitoring of biomarkers as well as brief and/or localized drug-dosing regimens.
Call Number Serial 1548
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Author (up) Ambrosone, A.; Costa, A.; Leone, A.; Grillo, S.
Title Beyond transcription: RNA-binding proteins as emerging regulators of plant response to environmental constraints Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Plant Science : an International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology Abbreviated Journal Plant Sci
Volume 182 Issue Pages 12-18
Keywords Abscisic Acid/metabolism; Acclimatization/*physiology; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant; Osmotic Pressure/physiology; *Plant Physiological Processes; Plants/genetics; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism/*physiology; Transcription, Genetic
Abstract RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) govern many aspects of RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA processing, transport, stability/decay and translation. Although relatively few plant RNA-binding proteins have been characterized genetically and biochemically, more than 200 RBP genes have been predicted in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, suggesting that they might serve specific plant functions. Besides their role in normal cellular functions, RBPs are emerging also as an interesting class of proteins involved in a wide range of post-transcriptional regulatory events that are important in providing plants with the ability to respond rapidly to changes in environmental conditions. Here, we review the most recent results and evidence on the functional role of RBPs in plant adaptation to various unfavourable environmental conditions and their contribution to enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stresses, with special emphasis on osmotic and temperature stress.
Call Number Serial 1226
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Author (up) Ataya, A.F.; Adams, S.; Mullings, E.; Cooper, R.M.; Attwood, A.S.; Munafo, M.R.
Title Internal reliability of measures of substance-related cognitive bias Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Drug and Alcohol Dependence Abbreviated Journal Drug Alcohol Depend
Volume 121 Issue 1-2 Pages 148-151
Keywords
Abstract AIMS: There is growing interest in cognitive biases related to substance use, but evidence from the anxiety literature suggests that tasks commonly used to assess these may suffer from low internal reliability. We examined the internal reliability of the visual probe and modified Stroop tasks. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of visual probe and modified Stroop task data collected across seven independent studies. SETTING: Human laboratory study. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy volunteers (n=408 across seven independent studies) recruited from the general population on the basis of alcohol or tobacco use. MEASUREMENTS: Visual probe and modified Stroop task measures of substance-related cognitive bias. FINDINGS: Measures of cognitive bias for substance-related cues, as assayed by the visual probe and the modified Stroop tasks, may not be reliable. In particular, the visual probe task showed poor internal reliability, as did unblocked versions of the modified Stroop task. CONCLUSIONS: The modified Stroop task is preferable to the visual probe task as a measure of substance-related cognitive bias, on the basis of its psychometric properties. Studies using cognitive bias tasks should not assume they are reliable, and should routinely report reliability estimates where possible.

Subject Headings: Adult; Alcohol Drinking/*psychology; Attention/*physiology; Cues; Female; Humans; Male; Neuropsychological Tests; Reaction Time/physiology; Reproducibility of Results; Smoking/*psychology

Keywords: Internal reliability of measures of substance-related cognitive bias
Call Number Serial 2653
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Author (up) Badran, O.; Mamlook, R.; Abdulhadi, E.
Title Toward clean environment: evaluation of solar electric power technologies using fuzzy logic Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy Abbreviated Journal Clean Techn Environ Policy
Volume 14 Issue 2 Pages 357-367
Keywords Fuzzy Sets Methodology; Solar Electric Power; Control Technology
Abstract The rapid expansion of the use of solar energy power plants worldwide is a subject that is being followed with interest. Fuzzy logic methodology is used for evaluating the solar thermal power technology, it compresses huge amount of data into smaller sets, and it has the ability to decide between different solar technologies on the basis of their benefits and costs. The most often considered solar technologies were parabolic trough, central receiver, dish sterling engine, compact linear Fresnel reflector (CLFR), solar chimney, photovoltaic (PV), and solar pond. The aim of our research is to provide the needed information to make a judgment or a decision of adopting the most preferred solar technology in terms of installation and development using fuzzy set methodology. The criteria of the evaluation were based on different parameters, i.e., power capacity, efficiency, availability, capacity factor, storage capability, cost, maturity, water usage, land usage, and safety. The key barriers and features for each technology on the basis of benefit-to-cost ratios are addressed. The results showed that CLFR was found to be the best choice in terms of research, development, and implementation, followed by parabolic trough technology, then the central receiver technology, dish sterling engine, solar chimney, PV, and solar pond, according to the order of preference.
Call Number Serial 849
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Author (up) Baeck, J.-S.; Kim, Y.-T.; Seo, J.-H.; Ryeom, H.-K.; Lee, J.; Choi, S.-M.; Woo, M.; Kim, W.; Kim, J.G.; Chang, Y.
Title Brain activation patterns of motor imagery reflect plastic changes associated with intensive shooting training Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res
Volume 234 Issue 1 Pages 26-32
Keywords
Abstract Evidence from previous studies has suggested that motor imagery and motor action engage overlapping brain systems. As a result of this observation that motor imagery can activate brain regions associated with actual motor movement, motor imagery is expected to enhance motor skill performance and become an underlying principle for physical training in sports and physical rehabilitation. However, few studies have examined the effects of physical training on motor imagery in beginners. Also, differences in neural networks related to motor imagery before and after training have seldom been studied. In the current study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the question of whether motor imagery can reflect plastic changes of neural correlates associated with intensive training. In fact, motor imagery was used in this study as a tool to assess the brain areas involved in shooting and involved in learning of shooting. We discovered that use of motor imagery resulted in recruitment of widely distributed common cortical areas, which were suggested to play a role in generation and maintenance of mental images before and after 90 h of shooting training. In addition to these common areas, brain activation before and after 90 h of shooting practice showed regionally distinct patterns of activity change in subcortical motor areas. That is, basal ganglia showed increased activity after 90 h of shooting practice, suggesting the occurrence of plastic change in association with gains in performance and reinforcement learning. Therefore, our results suggest that, in order to reach a level of expertise, the brain would change through initial reinforcement of preexistent connections during the training period and then use more focused neural correlates through formation of new connections.

Subject Headings: Adult; Brain/*physiology; Brain Mapping; Female; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Learning/physiology; Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods; Male; Motor Activity/*physiology; Motor Skills/*physiology; Neuronal Plasticity/*physiology; Sports; Young Adult

Keywords: Brain activation patterns of motor imagery reflect plastic changes associated with intensive shooting training
Call Number Serial 2719
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Author (up) Batchu, H.; Batra, S.
Title Versatile Synthesis of 2-(Substituted phenyl)-6,7-dihydro-1H-indol-4(5H)-ones from Morita-Baylis-Hillman Acetates of 2-Oxo-2-(substituted phenyl)acetaldehyde Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication European Journal of Organic Chemistry Abbreviated Journal Eur. J. Org. Chem.
Volume 2012 Issue 15 Pages 2935-2944
Keywords Nitrogen Heterocycles; Synthetic Methods; Indole Derivatives; Morita–Baylis–Hillman
Abstract A versatile synthesis of 2-(substituted phenyl)-6,7-dihydro-1H-indol-4(5H)-ones from adducts of the Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction between 2-oxo-2-(substituted phenyl)acetaldehydes and cyclohex-2-enone under mild conditions is described.
Call Number Serial 910
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Author (up) Baylis, H.A.; Vazquez-Manrique, R.P.
Title Genetic analysis of IP3 and calcium signalling pathways in C. elegans Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Abbreviated Journal Biochim Biophys Acta
Volume 1820 Issue 8 Pages 1253-1268
Keywords Animals; Caenorhabditis elegans--genetics, metabolism, physiology; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins--genetics, metabolism; Calcium Signaling; Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Receptors--genetics, metabolism; Inositol Phosphates--physiology; Mutagenesis; Phenotype; Protein Interaction Maps; RNA Interference; Reverse Genetics
Abstract BACKGROUND: The nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans is an established model system that is particularly well suited to genetic analysis. C. elegans is easily manipulated and we have an in depth knowledge of many aspects of its biology. Thus, it is an attractive system in which to pursue integrated studies of signalling pathways. C. elegans has a complement of calcium signalling molecules similar to that of other animals. SCOPE OF REVIEW: We focus on IP3 signalling. We describe how forward and reverse genetic approaches, including RNAi, have resulted in a tool kit which enables the analysis of IP3/Ca2+ signalling pathways. The importance of cell and tissue specific manipulation of signalling pathways and the use of epistasis analysis are highlighted. We discuss how these tools have increased our understanding of IP3 signalling in specific developmental, physiological and behavioural roles. Approaches to imaging calcium signals in C. elegans are considered. MAJOR CONCLUSIONS: A wide selection of tools is available for the analysis of IP3/Ca2+ signalling in C. elegans. This has resulted in detailed descriptions of the function of IP3/Ca2+ signalling in the animal's biology. Nevertheless many questions about how IP3 signalling regulates specific processes remain. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Many of the approaches described may be applied to other calcium signalling systems. C. elegans offers the opportunity to dissect pathways, perform integrated studies and to test the importance of the properties of calcium signalling molecules to whole animal function, thus illuminating the function of calcium signalling in animals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemical, biophysical and genetic approaches to intracellular calcium signalling.
Call Number Serial 258
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Author (up) Baytekin, H.T.; Baytekin, B.; Incorvati, J.T.; Grzybowski, B.A.
Title Material transfer and polarity reversal in contact charging Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) Abbreviated Journal Angew Chem Int Ed Engl
Volume 51 Issue 20 Pages 4843-4847
Keywords Electric Conductivity; Energy Transfer; Microscopy, Atomic Force; Molecular Structure; Polystyrenes--chemistry; Polytetrafluoroethylene--chemistry; Spectrum Analysis, Raman; Static Electricity; Surface Properties
Abstract In touch: the outcome of contact electrification between dielectrics depends not only on the transfer of charge but also on the transfer of material. Although only minute quantities of materials are being exchanged during contact, they can reverse the polarity of dielectrics. The reported results corroborate the mosaic model and suggest that the observations are because of the mechanical softness/hardness of the materials.
Call Number Serial 425
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Author (up) Bellekom, S.; Benders, R.; Pelgröm, S.; Moll, H.
Title Electric cars and wind energy: Two problems, one solution? A study to combine wind energy and electric cars in 2020 in The Netherlands Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Energy Abbreviated Journal Energy
Volume 45 Issue 1 Pages 859-866
Keywords Electric vehicles; EVs; Wind power; Buffering; The Netherlands
Abstract To limit or, even better, reduce the emission of CO2 and the corresponding global warming effects, measures should be taken in the two most polluting economic sectors: the energy and transport sectors. The Netherlands has set goals to reduce CO2 emissions, in line with global and European initiatives. To reach this target, the electricity production sector should also use more renewables and the transport sector should take measures. In the electricity sector, the Netherlands wants to realize 10 GW of installed wind power in 2020; one of the initiatives for the transport sector is to have one million EVs (electric vehicles) in the same year.

When EVs are powered with electricity from renewable sources, both sectors benefit; as such, we can ‘kill two birds with one stone’. To study this, we researched the possible effects on the electricity system when introducing a large number of EVs and an increasing amount of wind power. The research presented models this for the 2020 Dutch situation.

The study shows that the 2020 electricity system can cope with one million EVs and 10 GW of wind power, provided that EVs are charged using a load management regime that levels the nightly electricity demand.

Highlights

► We modelled increasing wind power capacity combined with electric vehicles. ► Buffering of excess (wind) electricity in EVs is beneficial for both. ► The Dutch 2020 electricity system can cope with 1 million EVs and 10 GW wind power. ► The positive effects of EVs strongly depend on the applied load management regime.
Call Number Serial 2035
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Author (up) Benarroch, E.E.
Title Effects of acetylcholine in the striatum. Recent insights and therapeutic implications Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Neurology Abbreviated Journal Neurology
Volume 79 Issue 3 Pages 274-281
Keywords
Abstract The striatum is a nodal structure of the basal ganglia circuits and is one of the brain areas with the highest concentration of markers of cholinergic transmission. Giant aspiny cholinergic interneurons constitute only 1%–3% of the neurons of the striatum but exert a powerful influence on its output, which is mediated by the medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Acetylcholine (ACh), acting via different receptor subtypes, affects the activity of the MSNs both directly and via modulation of glutamate release from corticostriate terminals and of dopamine release from nigrostriatal terminals. Acetylcholine, via its reciprocal interactions with dopamine (DA), has an important role in the differential modulation of striatal output via the so-called direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia circuits. Recent evidence indicates that ACh release in the striatum, triggered by thalamic inputs, provides a “stop” signal that interrupts ongoing motor behavior in response to salient stimuli from the environment. Cholinergic mechanisms in the striatum may contribute to the pathophysiology of Parkinson disease (PD) and dystonia, and may have a beneficial role in Tourette syndrome and other stereotypies. The physiology of cholinergic interneurons and the effects of ACh in the striatum recently have been reviewed.1,–,4

LOCAL CHOLINERGIC INNERVATION OF THE STRIATUM

General organization of the striatum.

The striatum comprises anatomic subdivisions that receive inputs from different areas of the frontal lobe and intralaminar nuclei of the thalamus (ILT); it participates in parallel, partially segregated motor, oculomotor, cognitive, and limbic circuits. In addition to these functionally defined territories, the striatum can be subdivided into 2 compartments, the matrix and the striosomes (or patches).5,6 Most neurons (nearly 95%) of the striatum are projection MSNs in both compartments that utilize γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). MSNs of the matrix include 2 functionally distinct subpopulations that express different proportions of dopaminergic, cholinergic, and other receptors. One MSN population projects to …

Subject Headings: Acetylcholine/*metabolism; Animals; Cholinergic Neurons/physiology; Corpus Striatum/*metabolism; Dopamine/physiology; Dystonia/drug therapy/physiopathology; Humans; Interneurons/physiology; Neuronal Plasticity/physiology; Parasympathetic Nervous System/physiology; Receptors, Cholinergic/metabolism; Substantia Nigra/metabolism/physiology; Synapses/metabolism; Thalamus/physiology; Tourette Syndrome/metabolism
Call Number Serial 2334
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