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Author (up) Robine, J.-M.; Herrmann, F.R.; Arai, Y.; Willcox, D.C.; Gondo, Y.; Hirose, N.; Suzuki, M.; Saito, Y. file  url
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  Title Exploring the impact of climate on human longevity Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Experimental Gerontology Abbreviated Journal Exp Gerontol  
  Volume 47 Issue 9 Pages 660-671  
  Keywords Aged, 80 and over; Agriculture; Climate; Environment; Female; Geography; Humans; Japan; Longevity--physiology; Male; Mortality; Residence Characteristics; Seasons; Sex Factors; Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of physical geographic factors and climate conditions on human longevity. The centenarian rate (CR) in 2005 was computed for Japan's 47 prefectures, whose geography and climate vary greatly. Several pathways, such as excess winter mortality, land use and agricultural production, possibly linking physical and climate factors with extreme longevity, were explored. The probability of becoming a centenarian varies significantly among the Japanese prefectures. In particular, the computation of CR(70) demonstrated that the actual probability for individuals 70 years old in 1975 of becoming centenarians in 2005 was 3 times higher, on average, in Okinawa, both for males and females, than in Japan as a whole. About three quarters of the variance in CR(70) for females and half for males is explained by the physical environment and land use, even when variations in the level of socio-economic status between prefectures are controlled. Our analysis highlighted two features which might have played an important role in the longevity observed in Okinawa. First, there is virtually no winter in Okinawa. For instance, the mean winter temperature observed in 2005 was 17.2 degrees C. Second, today, there is almost no rice production in Okinawa compared to other parts of Japan. In the past, however, production was higher in Okinawa. If we consider that long term effects of harsh winters can contribute to the mortality differential in old age and if we consider that food availability in the first part of the 20th century was mainly dependent on local production, early 20th century birth cohorts in Okinawa clearly had different experiences in terms of winter conditions and in terms of food availability compared to their counterparts in other parts of Japan. This work confirms the impact of climate conditions on human longevity, but it fails to demonstrate a strong association between longevity and mountainous regions and/or air quality.  
  Call Number Serial 482  
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Author (up) Ros-Simo, C.; Valverde, O. file  url
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  Title Early-life social experiences in mice affect emotional behaviour and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Abbreviated Journal Pharmacol Biochem Behav  
  Volume 102 Issue 3 Pages 434-441  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Anxiety/psychology; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Body Weight/physiology; Corticosterone/blood; Emotions/*physiology; Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/*physiology; Male; Mice; Motor Activity/physiology; Pituitary-Adrenal System/*physiology; *Social Environment; Social Isolation/psychology; Stress, Psychological/blood/psychology  
  Abstract RATIONALE: Early-life stressful experiences are associated to alterations in behavioural responses and development of psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. In rodents, individual housing is considered as a stressful condition whilst enriched environment can protect against stress and its negative consequences. Neuroendocrine responses to stress can also be altered by early-life experiences and seem to contribute to behavioural alterations induced by changes in housing conditions. OBJECTIVE: To develop an improved procedure of social isolation throughout development (from pre-adolescence to adulthood) in CD1 mice and to elucidate its effects on behavioural parameters related to stress and neuroendocrine responses compared to enriched or social conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CD1 male mice (PND 21) were housed in social/standard conditions, enriched conditions or isolated conditions during seven weeks. After that, different relevant behaviours were evaluated, including locomotor activity, anxiety-like and despair behaviour. Levels of plasma corticosterone were also analysed before and after a stressful event. RESULTS: CD1 mice exposed to an isolated environment exhibited higher locomotion and anxiety-like responses than animals exposed to social or enriched conditions. In addition, isolated animals showed lower basal plasma corticosterone than social or enriched ones but after a stressful event the elevation of plasma corticosterone was higher, suggesting an enhanced response of the HPA axis to a novel and stressful situation. CONCLUSIONS: Social interaction is an important feature to display an appropriate behavioural and neuronal development. Habituation to novel stimuli is impaired in subjects exposed to social isolation and induces increased excitability response to stressful events. Social deprivation increases the possibility of altered neuronal function and could facilitate the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood.  
  Call Number Serial 1613  
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Author (up) Rothbaum, B.O.; Kearns, M.C.; Price, M.; Malcoun, E.; Davis, M.; Ressler, K.J.; Lang, D.; Houry, D. file  url
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  Title Early intervention may prevent the development of posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized pilot civilian study with modified prolonged exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Biological Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Biol Psychiatry  
  Volume 72 Issue 11 Pages 957-963  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Female; Humans; Implosive Therapy/*methods; Life Change Events; Male; Middle Aged; Pilot Projects; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/*prevention & control/psychology; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a major public health concern with long-term sequelae. There are no accepted interventions delivered in the immediate aftermath of trauma. This study tested an early intervention aimed at modifying the memory to prevent the development of PTSD before memory consolidation. METHODS: Patients (n = 137) were randomly assigned to receive three sessions of an early intervention beginning in the emergency department compared with an assessment only control group. Posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSR) were assessed at 4 and 12 weeks postinjury and depression at baseline and week 4. The intervention consisted of modified prolonged exposure including imaginal exposure to the trauma memory, processing of traumatic material, and in vivo and imaginal exposure homework. RESULTS: Patients were assessed an average of 11.79 hours posttrauma. Intervention participants reported significantly lower PTSR than the assessment group at 4 weeks postinjury, p < .01, and at 12 weeks postinjury, p < .05, and significantly lower depressive symptoms at week 4 than the assessment group, p < .05. In a subgroup analysis, the intervention was the most effective at reducing PTSD in rape victims at week 4 (p = .004) and week 12 (p = .05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the modified prolonged exposure intervention initiated within hours of the trauma in the emergency department is successful at reducing PTSR and depression symptoms 1 and 3 months after trauma exposure and is safe and feasible. This is the first behavioral intervention delivered immediately posttrauma that has been shown to be effective at reducing PTSR.  
  Call Number Serial 1305  
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Author (up) Ruzicka, R.E.; Conover, M.R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Does Weather or Site Characteristics Influence the Ability of Scavengers to Locate Food?: Scavenger Foraging Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Ethology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 118 Issue 2 Pages 187-196  
  Keywords Weather; Micro-habitat; Olfactory; Predators; Scavengers; Food; Odors; Forage  
  Abstract Olfactory predators and scavengers rely on odors to locate food, and they forage primarily at night. We hypothesized that weather (e.g. wind speed, humidity, and temperature), vegetation, and landscape features affect the dissipation of odors in the atmosphere and, thus, impact the foraging efficiency of olfactory predators. We tested this hypothesis by assessing what conditions were correlated with the persistence of bait along the dike surrounding Willard Bay Reservoir, Utah. We distributed 124 chicken eggs and 199 dead European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) as bait over 21 separate occasions spanning from May 21, 2009, to August 18, 2009. We used timers to record the time of consumption and cameras to identify which species ate the bait. Sixty-six eggs and 87 dead European starlings were consumed. The bait was consumed mostly at night (83%) and by striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). We used nest survival models in program MARK to determine which covariates influenced bait persistence. We tested nine variables and found that bait persistence was influenced by section of the dike, time since study initiation, temperature, humidity, and wind speed but not bait type (egg or dead European starling), terrain, or visual cover. How quickly scavengers were able to locate food, which was inversely related to rates of bait persistence, decreased with higher temperatures and wind speeds and increased with higher humidity. Our results support the hypothesis that weather and micro-habitat characteristics impact the ability of olfactory predators and scavengers to locate food.  
  Call Number Serial 880  
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Author (up) Sale, J.E.; Lehmann, A.R.; Woodgate, R. file  url
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  Title Y-family DNA polymerases and their role in tolerance of cellular DNA damage Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol  
  Volume 13 Issue 3 Pages 141-152  
  Keywords Animals; Bacterial Proteins--chemistry, metabolism, physiology; Catalytic Domain; DNA Damage; DNA Repair; DNA Replication; Humans; Mutagenesis; Nucleotidyltransferases--chemistry, metabolism, physiology; Protein Binding; Protein Structure, Tertiary  
  Abstract The past 15 years have seen an explosion in our understanding of how cells replicate damaged DNA and how this can lead to mutagenesis. The Y-family DNA polymerases lie at the heart of this process, which is commonly known as translesion synthesis. This family of polymerases has unique features that enable them to synthesize DNA past damaged bases. However, as they exhibit low fidelity when copying undamaged DNA, it is essential that they are only called into play when they are absolutely required. Several layers of regulation ensure that this is achieved.  
  Call Number Serial 456  
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Author (up) Sarkamo, T.; Soto, D. file  url
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  Title Music listening after stroke: beneficial effects and potential neural mechanisms Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume 1252 Issue Pages 266-281  
  Keywords Auditory Perception/physiology; Cognition/physiology; Emotions/physiology; Functional Neuroimaging; Humans; Models, Neurological; Models, Psychological; *Music Therapy; Neuronal Plasticity/physiology; Neurosciences; Stroke/physiopathology/psychology/rehabilitation/*therapy; Visual Perception/physiology  
  Abstract Music is an enjoyable leisure activity that also engages many emotional, cognitive, and motor processes in the brain. Here, we will first review previous literature on the emotional and cognitive effects of music listening in healthy persons and various clinical groups. Then we will present findings about the short- and long-term effects of music listening on the recovery of cognitive function in stroke patients and the underlying neural mechanisms of these music effects. First, our results indicate that listening to pleasant music can have a short-term facilitating effect on visual awareness in patients with visual neglect, which is associated with functional coupling between emotional and attentional brain regions. Second, daily music listening can improve auditory and verbal memory, focused attention, and mood as well as induce structural gray matter changes in the early poststroke stage. The psychological and neural mechanisms potentially underlying the rehabilitating effect of music after stroke are discussed.  
  Call Number Serial 1371  
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Author (up) Sarzynski, A.; Larrieu, J.; Shrimali, G. file  url
openurl 
  Title The impact of state financial incentives on market deployment of solar technology Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Energy Policy Abbreviated Journal Energy Policy  
  Volume 46 Issue Pages 550-557  
  Keywords Policy impact; Solar technology; Financial incentives  
  Abstract Many states have adopted financial incentives to encourage market deployment of solar energy technology. This paper employs a cross-sectional time-series approach to evaluate the extent to which state solar financial incentives systematically encouraged market deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology from 1997 to 2009. The results demonstrate that states offering cash incentives such as rebates and grants experienced more extensive and rapid deployment of grid-tied PV technology than states without cash incentives over the study period. The analysis also finds that the presence of state renewable energy portfolio standards and specific solar carve-out provisions within them heavily influenced the market deployment of grid-tied solar PV technology through 2009.  
  Call Number Serial 846  
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Author (up) Sauer, M.; Mattanovich, D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Construction of microbial cell factories for industrial bioprocesses Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol.  
  Volume 87 Issue 4 Pages 445-450  
  Keywords industrial microbiology; metabolic engineering; strain improvement; systems biology; synthetic biology; metabolic modelling  
  Abstract The development of industrial microbial processes is gaining unprecedented momentum. Increased concern for environmental issues and the prospect of declining petroleum resources has shifted the industrial focus increasingly to microorganisms as biocatalysts. At the same time systems biology and synthetic biology supply industry and academia with new tools to design optimal microbial cell factories.

Among the tools are systems biology approaches allowing the modelling of cellular networks for rational strain design, single cell analyses methods for gaining insight into population hetereogeneity, and an exciting combination of tools from structural biology and synthetic biology, permitting the catalysis of new (unnatural) enzymatic reactions or the production of new (unnatural) chemicals.
 
  Call Number Serial 1604  
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Author (up) Schmidt, B.H.; Osheroff, N.; Berger, J.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Structure of a topoisomerase II-DNA-nucleotide complex reveals a new control mechanism for ATPase activity Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Nature Structural & Molecular Biology Abbreviated Journal Nat Struct Mol Biol  
  Volume 19 Issue 11 Pages 1147-1154  
  Keywords Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate/*chemistry/metabolism; Amino Acid Sequence; Antigens, Neoplasm/*chemistry/metabolism; Chromatography, Gel; Crystallization; DNA/*chemistry/metabolism; DNA Topoisomerases, Type II/*chemistry/metabolism; DNA-Binding Proteins/*chemistry/metabolism; Dimerization; *Models, Molecular; Molecular Sequence Data; Multiprotein Complexes/*chemistry/metabolism; *Protein Conformation; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*enzymology  
  Abstract Type IIA topoisomerases control DNA supercoiling and disentangle chromosomes through a complex ATP-dependent strand-passage mechanism. Although a general framework exists for type IIA topoisomerase function, the architecture of the full-length enzyme has remained undefined. Here we present the structure of a fully catalytic Saccharomyces cerevisiae topoisomerase II homodimer complexed with DNA and a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog. The enzyme adopts a domain-swapped configuration wherein the ATPase domain of one protomer sits atop the nucleolytic region of its partner subunit. This organization produces an unexpected interaction between bound DNA and a conformational transducing element in the ATPase domain, which we show is critical for both DNA-stimulated ATP hydrolysis and global topoisomerase activity. Our data indicate that the ATPase domains pivot about each other to ensure unidirectional strand passage and that this state senses bound DNA to promote ATP turnover and enzyme reset.  
  Call Number Serial 2189  
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Author (up) Schulze, K.; Koelsch, S. file  url
openurl 
  Title Working memory for speech and music Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume 1252 Issue Pages 229-236  
  Keywords Auditory Perception--physiology; Feedback, Sensory--physiology; Humans; Learning--physiology; Memory, Long-Term--physiology; Memory, Short-Term--physiology; Models, Neurological; Models, Psychological; Music--psychology; Neuroimaging; Neuronal Plasticity--physiology; Neurosciences; Speech--physiology; Speech Perception--physiology  
  Abstract The present paper reviews behavioral and neuroimaging findings on similarities and differences between verbal and tonal working memory (WM), the influence of musical training, and the effect of strategy use on WM for tones. Whereas several studies demonstrate an overlap of core structures (Broca's area, premotor cortex, inferior parietal lobule), preliminary findings are discussed that imply, if confirmed, the existence of a tonal and a phonological loop in musicians. This conclusion is based on the findings of partly differing neural networks underlying verbal and tonal WM in musicians, suggesting that functional plasticity has been induced by musical training. We further propose a strong link between production and auditory WM: data indicate that both verbal and tonal auditory WM are based on the knowledge of how to produce the to-be-remembered sounds and, therefore, that sensorimotor representations are involved in the temporary maintenance of auditory information in WM.  
  Call Number Serial 478  
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