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Author Oraby, H.; Ahmad, R. file  url
  Title Physiological and biochemical changes of CBF3 transgenic oat in response to salinity stress Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Plant Science : an International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology Abbreviated Journal Plant Sci  
  Volume 185-186 Issue (up) Pages 331-339  
  Keywords Arabidopsis--genetics; Arabidopsis Proteins--genetics, metabolism; Avena sativa--drug effects, genetics, growth & development, physiology; Biomass; Droughts; Gene Expression; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant--physiology; Photosynthesis--drug effects; Plant Leaves--drug effects, genetics, growth & development, physiology; Plant Proteins--genetics, metabolism; Plant Roots--drug effects, genetics, growth & development, physiology; Plant Shoots--drug effects, genetics, growth & development, physiology; Plant Transpiration--drug effects; Plants, Genetically Modified; Promoter Regions, Genetic--genetics; Salinity; Seedling--drug effects, genetics, growth & development, physiology; Sodium Chloride--pharmacology; Stress, Physiological--physiology; Transcription Factors--genetics, metabolism  
  Abstract Salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting oat productivity. Several physiological and biochemical traits have been found to be related to yield maintenance under salinity. The impact of introducing the Arabidopsis CBF3 gene controlled by the rd29A stress-inducible promoter in T(2) transgenic oat on salinity tolerance and associated physiological changes were studied. Compared with the non-transgenic control, transgenic T(2) plants exhibited greater growth and showed significant maintenance of leaf area, relative water content, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic and transpiration rates as well as increased levels of proline and soluble sugars under high salt stress. These physiological changes delayed leaf-wilting symptoms, increased tolerance and reduced yield loss. At a salinity stress level of 100mM, the CBF3-overexpressing transgenic oat showed a yield loss of 4-11% compared with >56% for the non-transgenic control. These results demonstrate that stress-inducible over-expression of CBF3 may have the potential to enhance abiotic stress tolerance in oat.  
  Call Number Serial 238  
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Author Clemson, L.; Fiatarone Singh, M.A.; Bundy, A.; Cumming, R.G.; Manollaras, K.; O'Loughlin, P.; Black, D. file  url
  Title Integration of balance and strength training into daily life activity to reduce rate of falls in older people (the LiFE study): randomised parallel trial Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication BMJ (Clinical Research ed.) Abbreviated Journal Bmj  
  Volume 345 Issue (up) Pages e4547  
  Keywords Accidental Falls--prevention & control; Activities of Daily Living; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Female; Humans; Life Style; Male; Patient Compliance; Postural Balance--physiology; Resistance Training--methods; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a lifestyle integrated approach to balance and strength training is effective in reducing the rate of falls in older, high risk people living at home. DESIGN: Three arm, randomised parallel trial; assessments at baseline and after six and 12 months. Randomisation done by computer generated random blocks, stratified by sex and fall history and concealed by an independent secure website. SETTING: Residents in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Participants aged 70 years or older who had two or more falls or one injurious fall in past 12 months, recruited from Veteran's Affairs databases and general practice databases. Exclusion criteria were moderate to severe cognitive problems, inability to ambulate independently, neurological conditions that severely influenced gait and mobility, resident in a nursing home or hostel, or any unstable or terminal illness that would affect ability to do exercises. INTERVENTIONS: Three home based interventions: Lifestyle integrated Functional Exercise (LiFE) approach (n=107; taught principles of balance and strength training and integrated selected activities into everyday routines), structured programme (n=105; exercises for balance and lower limb strength, done three times a week), sham control programme (n=105; gentle exercise). LiFE and structured groups received five sessions with two booster visits and two phone calls; controls received three home visits and six phone calls. Assessments made at baseline and after six and 12 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary measure: rate of falls over 12 months, collected by self report. Secondary measures: static and dynamic balance; ankle, knee and hip strength; balance self efficacy; daily living activities; participation; habitual physical activity; quality of life; energy expenditure; body mass index; and fat free mass. RESULTS: After 12 months' follow-up, we recorded 172, 193, and 224 falls in the LiFE, structured exercise, and control groups, respectively. The overall incidence of falls in the LiFE programme was 1.66 per person years, compared with 1.90 in the structured programme and 2.28 in the control group. We saw a significant reduction of 31% in the rate of falls for the LiFE programme compared with controls (incidence rate ratio 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.99)); the corresponding difference between the structured group and controls was non-significant (0.81 (0.56 to 1.17)). Static balance on an eight level hierarchy scale, ankle strength, function, and participation were significantly better in the LiFE group than in controls. LiFE and structured groups had a significant and moderate improvement in dynamic balance, compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: The LiFE programme provides an alternative to traditional exercise to consider for fall prevention. Functional based exercise should be a focus for interventions to protect older, high risk people from falling and to improve and maintain functional capacity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry 12606000025538.  
  Call Number Serial 404  
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Author Sobha, S.; Mahalakshmi, R.; Raman, N. file  url
  Title Studies on DNA binding behaviour of biologically active transition metal complexes of new tetradentate N2O2 donor Schiff bases: inhibitory activity against bacteria Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy Abbreviated Journal Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc  
  Volume 92 Issue (up) Pages 175-183  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents--chemistry, pharmacology; Bacteria--drug effects; Bacterial Infections--drug therapy; Cattle; Coordination Complexes--chemistry, pharmacology; DNA--metabolism; Intercalating Agents--chemistry, pharmacology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Nitrous Oxide--chemistry; Schiff Bases--chemistry, pharmacology; Spectrum Analysis; Transition Elements--chemistry, pharmacology  
  Abstract A series of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes of the type ML have been synthesized with Schiff bases derived from o-acetoacetotoluidide, 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and o-phenylenediamine/1,4-diaminobutane. The complexes are insoluble in common organic solvents but soluble in DMF and DMSO. The measured molar conductance values in DMSO indicate that the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. All the six metal complexes have been fully characterized with the help of elemental analyses, molecular weights, molar conductance values, magnetic moments and spectroscopic data. The analytical data helped to elucidate the structure of the metal complexes. The Schiff bases are found to act as tetradentate ligands using N(2)O(2) donor set of atoms leading to a square-planar geometry for the complexes around all the metal ions. The binding properties of metal complexes with DNA were investigated by absorption spectra, viscosity measurements and cyclic voltammetry. Detailed analysis reveals that the metal complexes intercalate into the DNA base stack as intercalators. All the metal complexes cleave the pUC19 DNA in presence of H(2)O(2.) The Schiff bases and their complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activity against five bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae) by disk diffusion method. All the metal complexes have potent biocidal activity than the free ligands.  
  Call Number Serial 449  
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Author Schulze, K.; Koelsch, S. file  url
  Title Working memory for speech and music Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume 1252 Issue (up) Pages 229-236  
  Keywords Auditory Perception--physiology; Feedback, Sensory--physiology; Humans; Learning--physiology; Memory, Long-Term--physiology; Memory, Short-Term--physiology; Models, Neurological; Models, Psychological; Music--psychology; Neuroimaging; Neuronal Plasticity--physiology; Neurosciences; Speech--physiology; Speech Perception--physiology  
  Abstract The present paper reviews behavioral and neuroimaging findings on similarities and differences between verbal and tonal working memory (WM), the influence of musical training, and the effect of strategy use on WM for tones. Whereas several studies demonstrate an overlap of core structures (Broca's area, premotor cortex, inferior parietal lobule), preliminary findings are discussed that imply, if confirmed, the existence of a tonal and a phonological loop in musicians. This conclusion is based on the findings of partly differing neural networks underlying verbal and tonal WM in musicians, suggesting that functional plasticity has been induced by musical training. We further propose a strong link between production and auditory WM: data indicate that both verbal and tonal auditory WM are based on the knowledge of how to produce the to-be-remembered sounds and, therefore, that sensorimotor representations are involved in the temporary maintenance of auditory information in WM.  
  Call Number Serial 478  
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Author Franzaring, J.; Gensheimer, G.; Weller, S.; Schmid, I.; Fangmeier, A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Allocation and remobilisation of nitrogen in spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart) as affected by N supply and elevated CO2 Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Environmental and Experimental Botany Abbreviated Journal Environmental and Experimental Botany  
  Volume 83 Issue (up) Pages 12-22  
  Abstract CO2 enrichment interacts with the resource economy of plants, but time-integrated studies on N partitioning between different plant parts, C:N ratios and N remobilisation are mostly lacking.

The present study addressed the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in spring oilseed rape (OSR) grown at three N fertilisation levels and two CO2 concentrations (380 vs. 550 umol mol-1). N was supplied in three equal gifts at sowing, stem elongation and flowering. One of these gifts was labelled with 15NH415NO3 respectively. Six intermediate harvests and a final harvest were performed to determine dry mass, N concentrations, C:N, N recovery and 15N signatures in the plant fractions root, main stem, branches, green and senescent leaves, pod walls and seeds.

While N concentrations were lower and C:N higher in green leaves under CO2 enrichment, more N remained in the root until the final harvest. Under ambient CO2 concentrations the harvestable product (seeds) contained 50.7%, 44.5% and 41% of the total N supplied in the treatments that received 75, 150 and 225 kg ha−1 N, respectively. Under elevated CO2 these values decreased to 47.4%, 34.5% and 15% reducing the NUE of the seeds by 2%, 33% and 65%, respectively. In CO2 exposed amply fertilised plants much of the N remained in the side stems due to strong outbranching and reduced seed set. However, N remobilisation was more affected by the different N supply than by the CO2 enrichment.

The boosted growth of OSR under high availability of N disrupted the source:sink relationships so that benefits from the CO2 enrichment on stem and root growth could not be realised by yield formation.

Subject headings: 15N; C:N ratios; nitrogen use efficiency; source-sink relationships

Keywords: allocation and remobilisation of nitrogen in spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. cv. Mozart) as affected by N supply and elevated CO2
  Call Number Serial 840  
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Author Sarzynski, A.; Larrieu, J.; Shrimali, G. file  url
  Title The impact of state financial incentives on market deployment of solar technology Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Energy Policy Abbreviated Journal Energy Policy  
  Volume 46 Issue (up) Pages 550-557  
  Keywords Policy impact; Solar technology; Financial incentives  
  Abstract Many states have adopted financial incentives to encourage market deployment of solar energy technology. This paper employs a cross-sectional time-series approach to evaluate the extent to which state solar financial incentives systematically encouraged market deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology from 1997 to 2009. The results demonstrate that states offering cash incentives such as rebates and grants experienced more extensive and rapid deployment of grid-tied PV technology than states without cash incentives over the study period. The analysis also finds that the presence of state renewable energy portfolio standards and specific solar carve-out provisions within them heavily influenced the market deployment of grid-tied solar PV technology through 2009.  
  Call Number Serial 846  
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Author Krishnamurti, T.; Schwartz, D.; Davis, A.; Fischhoff, B.; de Bruin, W.B.; Lave, L.; Wang, J. file  url
  Title Preparing for smart grid technologies: A behavioral decision research approach to understanding consumer expectations about smart meters Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Energy Policy Abbreviated Journal Energy Policy  
  Volume 41 Issue (up) Pages 790-797  
  Keywords Smart Meters; Perceived Risks; Mental Models  
  Abstract With the enactment of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, U.S. President Obama made a public commitment to a new approach to energy production and transmission in the United States. It features installing smart meters and related technologies in residential homes, as part of transforming the current electrical grid into a “smart grid.” Realizing this transformation requires consumers to accept these new technologies and take advantage of the opportunities that they create. We use methods from behavioral decision research to understand consumer beliefs about smart meters, including in-depth mental models interviews and a follow-up survey with a sample of potential smart meter customers of a major U.S. mid-Atlantic electricity utility. In both the surveys and the interviews, most respondents reported wanting smart meters. However, these preferences were often based on erroneous beliefs regarding their purpose and function. Respondents confused smart meters with in-home displays and other enabling technologies, while expecting to realize immediate savings. They also perceived risks, including less control over their electricity usage, violations of their privacy, and increased costs. We discuss the policy implications of our results.  
  Call Number Serial 859  
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Author Grassi, S.; Chokani, N.; Abhari, R.S. url  doi
  Title Large scale technical and economical assessment of wind energy potential with a GIS tool: Case study Iowa Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Energy Policy Abbreviated Journal Energy Policy  
  Volume 45 Issue (up) Pages 73-85  
  Keywords GIS; Economic Exploitable Wind Energy Potential; Power Purchase Agreement (PPA); Iowa  
  Abstract The development of new wind energy projects requires a thorough analysis of land use issues and constraints. At ETH Zurich, an analytical approach has been developed using a Geographic Information System (GIS) to define the location of suitable sites for wind projects and to predict their economic exploitable energy production. The purpose is to estimate the average Annual Energy Production (AEP), with a GIS customized tool, based on physical factors (environmental and anthropological constraints), the wind resource distribution and the technical specifications of the large-scale wind turbines currently present in the US market. Economics data and regulatory parameters are also included. The wind energy potential of the state of Iowa has been estimated: the resulting average AEP of Iowa is 914 TWh and the potential total installed capacity is 302 GW. A sensitivity analysis of the influence of the Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) shows that a PPA of 6.5 c$/kWh would enable to exploit the 85% of the buildable land with an IRR greater than 15%. This approach is applicable to both larger and more limited regions in order to support energy planners and wind farm developers to set energy strategies and to scout new profitable lands.  
  Call Number Serial 881  
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Author Wu, H.; Colson, G.; Escalante, C.; Wetzstein, M. file  url
  Title An optimal U.S. biodiesel fuel subsidy Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Energy Policy Abbreviated Journal Energy Policy  
  Volume 48 Issue (up) Pages 601-610  
  Keywords Biodiesel; Subsidy; Tax  
  Abstract Enhanced environmental quality, fuel security, and economic development, along with reduced prices of blended diesel, are often used as justifications for a U.S. federal excise tax exemption on biodiesel fuels. However, the possible effect of increased overall consumption of fuel in response to lower total prices, mitigating the environmental and fuel security benefits, are generally not considered. Taking this price response into account, the optimal U.S biodiesel subsidy is derived. Estimated values of the optimal subsidy are close to the recently expired subsidy, revealing the subsidy's environmental and security benefits. However, further positive environmental and security benefits from the biodiesel tax-exemption subsidy may be obtained if the subsidy is combined with a federal excise tax on petroleum diesel.  
  Call Number Serial 892  
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Author Howitt, R.E.; Medellín-Azuara, J.; MacEwan, D.; Lund, J.R. file  url
  Title Calibrating disaggregate economic models of agricultural production and water management Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Environmental Modelling & Software Abbreviated Journal Environmental Modelling & Software  
  Volume 38 Issue (up) Pages 244-258  
  Keywords Positive Mathematical Programming; Calibration; California; Hydro-economic models; Water markets; Agricultural production; Drought analysis; Economic impacts  
  Abstract This paper describes calibration methods for models of agricultural production and water use in which economic variables can directly interact with hydrologic network models or other biophysical system models. We also describe and demonstrate the use of systematic calibration checks at different stages for efficient debugging of models. The central model is the California Statewide Agricultural Production Model (SWAP), a Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP) model of California irrigated agriculture. We outline the six step calibration procedure and demonstrate the model with an empirical policy analysis. Two new techniques are included compared with most previous PMP-based models: exponential PMP cost functions and Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES) regional production functions. We then demonstrate the use of this type of disaggregated production model for policy analysis by evaluating potential water transfers under drought conditions. The analysis links regional production functions with a water supply network. The results show that a more flexible water market allocation can reduce revenue losses from drought up to 30%. These results highlight the potential of self-calibrated models in policy analysis. While the empirical application is for a California agricultural and environmental water system, the approach is general and applicable to many other situations and locations.  
  Call Number Serial 918  
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