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Author (up) Abecasis, D.; Afonso, P.; Erzini, K. file  url
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  Title Can small MPAs protect local populations of a coastal flatfish,Solea senegalensis? Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Fisheries Management and Ecology Abbreviated Journal Fish Manag Ecol  
  Volume 21 Issue 3 Pages 175-185  
  Keywords acoustic telemetry; beyond BACI analysis; fisheries; habitat selection; marine reserve; Senegalese sole  
  Abstract The benefits of protection of a small (4.3 km2) marine protected area (MPA) for Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, were investigated through experimental fishing trials and long-term (up to 293 days) passive acoustic telemetry. A total of 106 trammel net sets were carried out between 2007 and 2011. Significant differences in abundance and biomass of sole between bottom types/depths (sandy bottoms between 12 and 20 m deep vs muddy bottoms between 35 and 45 m deep) were found, but no significant differences were attributable to the implementation of the no-take area. Passive acoustic telemetry revealed that most Senegalese sole spent a large part of their time between first and last detections (average residency index = 69%) inside a relatively small area (average 95% = 1.2 km2), during which they preferred sandy bottoms, the most common habitat inside the MPA. Results also demonstrated that Senegalese sole do regular excursions beyond reserve boundaries, eventually emigrating from the MPA. The results suggest that small coastal MPAs providing adequate habitat may protect individuals of this species while allowing for moderate levels of adult spillover to neighbouring areas.  
  Call Number Serial 1563  
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Author (up) Adachi, P.J.C.; Willoughby, T. file  url
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  Title It's not how much you play, but how much you enjoy the game: the longitudinal associations between adolescents' self-esteem and the frequency versus enjoyment of involvement in sports Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Youth and Adolescence Abbreviated Journal J Youth Adolesc  
  Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 137-145  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The frequency of involvement in sports often has been concurrently and longitudinally associated with higher self-esteem. The interpretation of this association consistently has been framed as involvement in sports leading to higher levels of self-esteem over time (i.e., socialization effect), although no studies have tested whether higher levels of self-esteem lead to increased involvement in sports over time (i.e., selection effect). Another important aspect of involvement in sports that may be related to self-esteem is the degree to which youth enjoy sports. However, this aspect has received much less attention. To address these gaps in the literature, we first examined the bidirectional effects between self-esteem and the frequency of involvement in sports with 1,492 adolescents (50.8 % female; 92.4 % Canadian-born) over 4 years. Higher levels of self-esteem predicted greater involvement in sports over time, but greater involvement in sports did not predict higher levels of self-esteem over time, offering support only for selection effects. We then tested the bidirectional effects between the enjoyment of sports and self-esteem and found evidence of both socialization and selection effects. Specifically, greater enjoyment of sports predicted higher self-esteem over time, and higher self-esteem predicted greater enjoyment of sports over time. These novel findings suggest that adolescents with higher self-esteem play sports more frequently and enjoy sports more than adolescents with lower self-esteem. In addition, the degree to which adolescents enjoy sports may be more important for increasing self-esteem than the frequency with which adolescents play sports.

Subject Headings: Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior/*psychology; Female; *Happiness; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Models, Psychological; Models, Statistical; *Pleasure; *Psychology, Adolescent; *Self Concept; Sports/*psychology

Keywords: It's not how much you play, but how much you enjoy the game: the longitudinal associations between adolescents' self-esteem and the frequency versus enjoyment of involvement in sports
 
  Call Number Serial 2458  
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Author (up) Aguirre, M.A.; Nikolova, H.; Hidalgo, M.; Canals, A. file  url
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  Title Hyphenation of single-drop microextraction with laser-induced breakdown spectrometry for trace analysis in liquid samples: a viability study Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Analytical Methods Abbreviated Journal Anal. Methods  
  Volume Issue Pages Published online 27 Nov 2014  
  Keywords Single drop microextraction; SDME; Laser-induced breakdown spectrometry; LIBS; Trace metal determination; Liquids  
  Abstract In this work, an analytical methodology based on single drop microextraction (SDME) followed by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS) has been tested for trace metal determination in liquid samples. By this method, analytes in the samples were extracted into a small volume of toluene as ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) chelates. After that, the analyte-enriched toluene was dried on a solid substrate and, finally, the resulting solid residue was analyzed by LIBS. Analyte extraction by the SDME procedure was optimized for the first time by using a multivariate optimization approach. Under optimum SDME conditions, analytical figures of merit of the proposed SDME-LIBS methodology were compared to those of the direct LIBS analysis method (i.e., without the SDME procedure). An estuarine water certified reference material was analyzed for method trueness evaluation. The results obtained in this study indicate that SDME-LIBS methodology leads to a sensitivity increase of about 2.0–2.6 times the ones obtained by LIBS. Detection limits of SDME-LIBS decrease according to the obtained sensitivity improvement, reaching values in the range 21–301 ug kg -1 for the analytes tested. The measurement repeatability was similar in both SDME-LIBS (13–20% RSD) and LIBS (16–20% RSD) methodologies, mainly limited by the LIBS experimental setup used in this work for LIBS analysis of liquid samples. The SDME-LIBS analysis of the certified reference material led to recovery values in the range of 96% to 112%.  
  Call Number Serial 991  
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Author (up) Alcock, J.; Maley, C.C.; Aktipis, C.A. file  url
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  Title Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Abbreviated Journal Bioessays  
  Volume 36 Issue 10 Pages 940-949  
  Keywords Animals; *Biological Evolution; *Feeding Behavior; Gastrointestinal Tract/*microbiology; Humans; *Microbiota; Models, Biological; Obesity/etiology; Cravings; Evolutionary conflict; Host manipulation; Microbiome; Obesity  
  Abstract Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating.  
  Call Number Serial 2002  
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Author (up) Allen, B.; Timmer, S.G.; Urquiza, A.J. file  url
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  Title Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as an attachment-based intervention: Theoretical rationale and pilot data with adopted children Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Children and Youth Services Review Abbreviated Journal Children and Youth Services Review  
  Volume 47 Issue Pages 334-341  
  Keywords Attachment; Evidence-based treatment; Parent–Child Interaction Therapy; Adoption  
  Abstract Children with histories of child abuse and neglect, particularly children residing in foster or adoptive homes, are commonly considered by many professionals to need “attachment therapy” in order to address emotional and behavioral needs. However, evidence-based treatments rarely utilize an attachment-based justification outside of the infancy through preschooler age range. In actuality, many evidence-based treatments can be understood through the lens of attachment theory. This paper reviews the tenets of an attachment-based approach to treatment and describes how one evidence-based treatment, Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), conforms to all expectations and requirements prescribed by attachment theory and research. Next, pilot data from an open trial of PCIT with a sample of adopted children and their adoptive caregivers (n = 85) are provided. Results demonstrate significant improvements in positive parenting techniques, reductions in parenting stress, and reductions in externalizing and internalizing concerns among the children. These results are discussed in the context of improving the quality of care for children often described as in need of “attachment therapy.”  
  Call Number Serial 955  
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Author (up) Andersen, S.B.; Karstoft, K.-I.; Bertelsen, M.; Madsen, T. file  url
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  Title Latent trajectories of trauma symptoms and resilience: the 3-year longitudinal prospective USPER study of Danish veterans deployed in Afghanistan Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Clin Psychiatry  
  Volume 75 Issue 9 Pages 1001-1008  
  Keywords Adult; Afghan Campaign 2001-; Denmark/epidemiology; Female; Humans; Male; Military Personnel/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Prospective Studies; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; *Resilience, Psychological; Risk Factors; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology/*etiology/psychology; Time Factors; Veterans/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Young Adult  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To identify trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from before to 2.5 years after deployment and to assess risk factors for symptom fluctuations and late-onset PTSD. METHOD: 743 soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 were assessed for PTSD symptoms using the PTSD Checklist (PCL) at 6 occasions from predeployment to 2.5 years postdeployment (study sample = 561). Predeployment vulnerabilities and deployment and postdeployment stressors were also assessed. RESULTS: Six trajectories were identified: a resilient trajectory with low symptom levels across all assessments (78.1%) and 5 trajectories showing symptom fluctuations. These included a trajectory of late onset (5.7%), independently predicted by earlier emotional problems (OR = 5.59; 95% CI, 1.57-19.89) and predeployment and postdeployment traumas (OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17 and OR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26). Two trajectories of symptom fluctuations in the low-to-moderate range (7.5% and 4.1%); a trajectory of symptom relief during deployment, but with a drastic increase at the final assessments (2.0%); and a trajectory with mild symptom increase during deployment followed by relief at return (2.7%) were also found. Symptom fluctuation was predicted independently by predeployment risk factors (depression [OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.16-1.39], neuroticism [OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21], and earlier traumas [OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.16]) and deployment-related stressors (danger/injury exposure [OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40]), but not by postdeployment stressors. DISCUSSION: The results confirm earlier findings of stress response heterogeneity following military deployment and highlight the impact of predeployment, perideployment, and postdeployment risk factors in predicting PTSD symptomatology and late-onset PTSD symptoms.  
  Call Number Serial 1304  
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Author (up) Bingham, R.; Banner, N. file  url
openurl 
  Title The definition of mental disorder: evolving but dysfunctional? Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Medical Ethics Abbreviated Journal J Med Ethics  
  Volume 40 Issue 8 Pages 537-542  
  Keywords Concept Formation/*ethics; *Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; *Homosexuality; Humans; Mental Disorders/*classification/*diagnosis/psychology; Prejudice; *Psychiatry; Concept of Mental Health; Psychiatry  
  Abstract Extensive and diverse conceptual work towards developing a definition of 'mental disorder' was motivated by the declassification of homosexuality from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual in 1973. This highly politicised event was understood as a call for psychiatry to provide assurances against further misclassification on the basis of discrimination or socio-political deviance. Today, if a definition of mental disorder fails to exclude homosexuality, then it fails to provide this safeguard against potential abuses and therefore fails to do an important part of the work it was intended to do. We argue that fact-based definitions of mental disorder, relying on scientific theory, fail to offer a robust definition of mental disorder that excludes homosexuality. Definitions of mental disorder based on values do not fare better: these definitions are silent on questions about the diagnostic status of individuals in oppressive societies and over-inclusive of mental or behavioural states that happen to be negatively valued in the individual's social context. We consider the latest definition proposed for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) in light of these observations. We argue that definition fails to improve on these earlier deficiencies. Its inclusion in the manual may offer false reassurance against repetition of past misclassifications. We conclude with a provocation that if candidate definitions of mental disorder are unable to exclude homosexuality, it might perhaps be preferable not to attempt a definition at all.  
  Call Number Serial 1383  
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Author (up) Bishop, J.D.K.; Martin, N.P.D.; Boies, A.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Cost-effectiveness of alternative powertrains for reduced energy use and CO2 emissions in passenger vehicles Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Applied Energy Abbreviated Journal Applied Energy  
  Volume 124 Issue Pages 44-61  
  Keywords Vehicle energy use; Carbon dioxide emissions abatement costs; Cost-effectiveness; Willingness-to-pay  
  Abstract This work analysed the cost-effectiveness of avoiding carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using advanced internal combustion engines, hybrids, plug-in hybrids, fuel cell vehicles and electric vehicles across the nine UK passenger vehicles segments. Across all vehicle types and powertrain groups, minimum installed motive power was dependent most on the time to accelerate from zero to 96.6 km/h (60 mph). Hybridising the powertrain reduced the difference in energy use between vehicles with slow (tz-60>8s) and fast acceleration (tz-60<8s) times. The cost premium associated with advanced powertrains was dependent most on the powertrain chosen, rather than the performance required. Improving non-powertrain components reduced vehicle road load and allowed total motive capacity to decrease by 17%, energy use by 11%, manufacturing cost premiums by 13% and CO2 emissions abatement costs by 15%. All vehicles with advanced internal combustion engines, most hybrid and plug-in hybrid powertrains reduced net CO2 emissions and had lower lifetime operating costs than the respective segment reference vehicle. Most powertrains using fuel cells and all electric vehicles had positive CO2 emissions abatement costs. However, only vehicles using advanced internal combustion engines and parallel hybrid vehicles may be attractive to consumers by the fuel savings offsetting increases in vehicle cost within two years. This work demonstrates that fuel savings are possible relative to today’s fleet, but indicates that the most cost-effective way of reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions is by advanced combustion technologies and hybridisation with a parallel topology.  
  Call Number Serial 2036  
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Author (up) Borre, Y.E.; Moloney, R.D.; Clarke, G.; Dinan, T.G.; Cryan, J.F. file  url
openurl 
  Title The impact of microbiota on brain and behavior: mechanisms & therapeutic potential Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Abbreviated Journal Adv Exp Med Biol  
  Volume 817 Issue Pages 373-403  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; *Behavior; Brain/*physiology; Brain Diseases/therapy; Cognition; Humans; Intestines/microbiology; Microbiome; Microbiota/*physiology; Probiotics/pharmacology; Signal Transduction; Tryptophan/metabolism  
  Abstract There is increasing evidence that host-microbe interactions play a key role in maintaining homeostasis. Alterations in gut microbial composition is associated with marked changes in behaviors relevant to mood, pain and cognition, establishing the critical importance of the bi-directional pathway of communication between the microbiota and the brain in health and disease. Dysfunction of the microbiome-brain-gut axis has been implicated in stress-related disorders such as depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. Bacterial colonization of the gut is central to postnatal development and maturation of key systems that have the capacity to influence central nervous system (CNS) programming and signaling, including the immune and endocrine systems. Moreover, there is now expanding evidence for the view that enteric microbiota plays a role in early programming and later response to acute and chronic stress. This view is supported by studies in germ-free mice and in animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotic agents or antibiotics. Although communication between gut microbiota and the CNS are not fully elucidated, neural, hormonal, immune and metabolic pathways have been suggested. Thus, the concept of a microbiome-brain-gut axis is emerging, suggesting microbiota-modulating strategies may be a tractable therapeutic approach for developing novel treatments for CNS disorders.  
  Call Number Serial 2003  
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Author (up) Brinkman, B.G.; Rabenstein, K.L.; Rosen, L.A.; Zimmerman, T.S. file  url
openurl 
  Title Children's Gender Identity Development: The Dynamic Negotiation Process Between Conformity and Authenticity Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Youth & Society Abbreviated Journal Youth & Society  
  Volume 46 Issue 6 Pages 835-852  
  Keywords Gender identity; Children; Focus groups  
  Abstract In the current study, 45 girls and 41 boys participated in focus groups following a program designed to teach them about social justice. The children articulated the discrepancy between their own gender identity and gender role stereotypes and discussed potential problems with conforming to gender role expectations as well as consequences of nonconformity. They articulated the ways in which gender identity is complex and they described the importance of choice and authenticity. Based on these findings, we present a model of how children’s gender identity develops in relationship to experiences of gender prejudice. In particular, we highlight how children act and react to gender role socialization as part of a dynamic negotiation process. Throughout the current article we strive to highlight the need for an alternative in the gender conformity process for children, with children in the position of power regarding their own gender identity development.  
  Call Number USED BY MULTIPLE STUDENTS Serial 1057  
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