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Author Phillips, J.; King, R.; Skouteris, H. file  url
openurl 
Title The influence of psychological factors on post-partum weight retention at 9 months Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication British Journal of Health Psychology Abbreviated Journal Br J Health Psychol  
Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages 751-766  
Keywords  
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Post-partum weight retention (PWR) has been identified as a critical pathway for long-term overweight and obesity. In recent years, psychological factors have been demonstrated to play a key role in contributing to and maintaining PWR. DESIGN: Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between post-partum psychological distress and PWR at 9 months, after controlling for maternal weight factors, sleep quality, sociocontextual influences, and maternal behaviours. METHOD: Pregnant women (N = 126) completed a series of questionnaires at multiple time points from early pregnancy until 9 months post-partum. RESULTS: Hierarchical regression indicated that gestational weight gain, shorter duration (6 months or less) of breastfeeding, and post-partum body dissatisfaction at 3 and 6 months are associated with higher PWR at 9 months; stress, depression, and anxiety had minimal influence. CONCLUSION: Interventions aimed at preventing excessive PWR should specifically target the prevention of body dissatisfaction and excessive weight gain during pregnancy. STATEMENT OF CONTRIBUTION: What is already known on this subject? Post-partum weight retention (PWR) is a critical pathway for long-term overweight and obesity. Causes of PWR are complex and multifactorial. There is increasing evidence that psychological factors play a key role in predicting high PWR. What does this study add? Post-partum body dissatisfaction at 3 and 6 months is associated with PWR at 9 months post-birth. Post-partum depression, stress and anxiety have less influence on PWR at 9 months. Interventions aimed at preventing excessive PWR should target body dissatisfaction.

Subject Headings: Adult; Body Image; *Body Weight; Female; Humans; Postpartum Period/*psychology; Pregnancy; Socioeconomic Factors; Weight Gain; Young Adult; body dissatisfaction; depression; obesity; postpartum; pregnancy

Keywords: The influence of psychological factors on post-partum weight retention at 9 months
 
Call Number Serial 2420  
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Author Hoover, E.L.; Carney, A. file  url
openurl 
Title Integrating the iPad into an intensive, comprehensive aphasia program Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Seminars in Speech and Language Abbreviated Journal Semin Speech Lang  
Volume 35 Issue 1 Pages 25-37  
Keywords  
Abstract The proliferation of tablet technology and the development of apps to support aphasia rehabilitation offer increasing opportunities for speech-language pathologists in a clinical setting. This article describes the components of an Intensive Comprehensive Aphasia Program at Boston University and details how usage of the iPad (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA) was incorporated. We describe how the iPad was customized for use in individual, dyadic, and group treatment formats and how its use was encouraged through home practice tasks. In addition to providing the participants with step-by-step instructions for the usage of each new app, participants had multiple opportunities for practice across various treatment formats. Examples of how the participants continued using their iPad beyond the program suggest how the usage of this device has generalized into their day-to-day life. An overall summary of performance on targeted linguistic measures as well as an analysis of functional and quality-of-life measures reveal statistically significant improvements pre- to posttreatment.

Subject Headings: Adult; Aged; Aphasia/*rehabilitation; Boston; *Computers, Handheld; Humans; Language Therapy/*methods; Linguistics; Middle Aged; *Mobile Applications; Quality of Life; Treatment Outcome

Keywords: Integrating the iPad into an intensive, comprehensive aphasia program
 
Call Number Serial 2413  
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Author Wilson, D.N. file  url
openurl 
Title Ribosome-targeting antibiotics and mechanisms of bacterial resistance Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Nature Reviews. Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Microbiol  
Volume 12 Issue 1 Pages 35-48  
Keywords  
Abstract The ribosome is one of the main antibiotic targets in the bacterial cell. Crystal structures of naturally produced antibiotics and their semi-synthetic derivatives bound to ribosomal particles have provided unparalleled insight into their mechanisms of action, and they are also facilitating the design of more effective antibiotics for targeting multidrug-resistant bacteria. In this Review, I discuss the recent structural insights into the mechanism of action of ribosome-targeting antibiotics and the molecular mechanisms of bacterial resistance, in addition to the approaches that are being pursued for the production of improved drugs that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis.

Subject Headings: Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology; Bacteria/*drug effects/genetics; Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis; *Drug Resistance, Bacterial; Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects; Protein Conformation; Ribosomes/*drug effects/metabolism

Keywords: Ribosome-targeting antibiotics and mechanisms of bacterial resistance
 
Call Number Serial 2411  
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Author Rogers, C.J.; Prabhu, K.S.; Vijay-Kumar, M. file  url
openurl 
Title The microbiome and obesity-an established risk for certain types of cancer Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Cancer Journal (Sudbury, Mass.) Abbreviated Journal Cancer J  
Volume 20 Issue 3 Pages 176-180  
Keywords  
Abstract Obesity is a major modifiable risk factor for the development of numerous types of cancer. Although many factors contribute to obesity-driven tumorigenesis, this review focuses on the functioning of the gut microbiota (the microbiome) as an environmental risk factor for certain types of cancers, and presents possible biological mediators. Obesity is a well-studied condition that is associated with microbiotal dysbiosis, which could result in several physiologic changes that may contribute to the relationship between obesity and cancer risk. These include altered microbial metabolism, which contributes to the generation of procarcinogenic toxic metabolites; increased extraction of energy and nutrient availability leading to metabolic dysregulation that contributes to tumor growth; and/or the induction of subclinical inflammation initiating tumorigenesis. Thus, the gut microbiota may serve as a key link between obesity and cancer and, therefore, viable strategies to alter the microbiota may provide novel therapeutics to reduce obesity-associated cancer risk.

Subject Headings: Animals; Humans; *Microbiota; Neoplasms/*etiology/microbiology; Obesity/*complications/microbiology; Risk Factors

Keywords: The microbiome and obesity-an established risk for certain types of cancer
 
Call Number Serial 2403  
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Author Henriksen, T.E.G.; Skrede, S.; Fasmer, O.B.; Hamre, B.; Gronli, J.; Lund, A. file  url
openurl 
Title Blocking blue light during mania – markedly increased regularity of sleep and rapid improvement of symptoms: a case report Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Bipolar Disorders Abbreviated Journal Bipolar Disord  
Volume 16 Issue 8 Pages 894-898  
Keywords  
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Available pharmacological treatment of mania is insufficient. Virtual darkness therapy (blue light-blocking treatment by means of orange-tinted glasses) is a promising new treatment option for mania. The basis for this might be the recently identified blue light-sensitive retinal photoreceptor, which is solely responsible for light stimulus to the circadian master clock. This is the first case report describing the clinical course of a closely monitored, hospitalized patient in a manic episode first receiving clear-lensed, and then blue light-blocking glasses. METHODS: A 58-year-old Caucasian man, with bipolar I disorder and three previous manic episodes, was hospitalized during a manic episode. In addition to pharmacological treatment, he was treated with clear-lensed glasses for seven days, then one day without glasses, followed by six days of blue light-blocking glasses. During the entire observational period, he wore an actigraph with internal light sensors. RESULTS: Manic symptoms were unaltered during the first seven days. The transition to the blue-blocking regime was followed by a rapid and sustained decline in manic symptoms accompanied by a reduction in total sleep, a reduction in motor activity during sleep intervals, and markedly increased regularity of sleep intervals. The patient's total length of hospital stay was 20 days shorter than the average time during his previous manic episodes. CONCLUSIONS: The unusually rapid decline in symptoms, accompanied by uniform sleep parameter changes toward markedly increased regularity, suggest that blue-blockers might be targeting a central mechanism in the pathophysiology of mania that needs to be explored both in clinical research and in basic science.

Subject headings: Bipolar Disorder/*therapy; *Color Therapy; Eyeglasses; Humans; *Light; Male; Middle Aged; Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate/physiology; *Sensory Deprivation; Sleep/*radiation effects; actigraphy; blue-blockers; case report; mania; sleep; virtual darkness
 
Call Number Serial 2363  
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