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Author Rambags, F.; Tanner, C.C.; Stott, R.; Schipper, L.A. file  url
openurl 
Title Fecal Bacteria, Bacteriophage, and Nutrient Reductions in a Full-Scale Denitrifying Woodchip Bioreactor Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Environmental Quality Abbreviated Journal J Environ Qual  
Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 847-854  
Keywords  
Abstract Denitrifying bioreactors using woodchips or other slow-release carbon sources can be an effective method for removing nitrate (NO) from wastewater and tile drainage. However, the ability of these systems to remove fecal microbes from wastewater has been largely uninvestigated. In this study, reductions in fecal indicator bacteria () and viruses (F-specific RNA bacteriophage [FRNA phage]) were analyzed by monthly sampling along a longitudinal transect within a full-scale denitrifying woodchip bioreactor receiving secondary-treated septic tank effluent. Nitrogen, phosphorus, 5-d carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD), and total suspended solids (TSS) reduction were also assessed. The bioreactor demonstrated consistent and substantial reduction of (2.9 log reduction) and FRNA phage (3.9 log reduction) despite receiving highly fluctuating inflow concentrations [up to 3.5 x 10 MPN (100 mL) and 1.1 x 10 plaque-forming units (100 mL) , respectively]. Most of the removal of fecal microbial contaminants occurred within the first meter of the system (1.4 log reduction for ; 1.8 log reduction for FRNA phage). The system was also efficient at removing NO (>99.9% reduction) and TSS (89% reduction). There was no evidence of consistent removal of ammonium, organic nitrogen, or phosphorus. Leaching of CBOD occurred during initial operation but decreased and stabilized at lower values (14 g O m) after 9 mo. We present strong evidence for reliable microbial contaminant removal in denitrifying bioreactors, demonstrating their broader versatility for wastewater treatment. Research on the removal mechanisms of microbial contaminants in these systems, together with the assessment of longevity of removal, is warranted.

Subject Headings: *Bacteria; *Bacteriophages; *Bioreactors; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Waste Disposal, Fluid; Waste Water

Keywords: Fecal Bacteria, Bacteriophage, and Nutrient Reductions in a Full-Scale Denitrifying Woodchip Bioreactor
 
Call Number Serial 2438  
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Author Haldane, D.W.; Plecnik, M.M.; Yim, J.K.; Fearing, R.S. file  url
openurl 
Title Robotic vertical jumping agility via series-elastic power modulation Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Science Robotics Abbreviated Journal Sci. Robot.  
Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages eaag2048  
Keywords  
Abstract Several arboreal mammals have the ability to rapidly and repeatedly jump vertical distances of 2 m, starting from rest.

We characterize this performance by a metric we call vertical jumping agility. Through basic kinetic relations, we show

that this agility metric is fundamentally constrained by available actuator power. Although rapid high jumping is an

important performance characteristic, the ability to control forces during stance also appears critical for sophisticated

behaviors. The animal with the highest vertical jumping agility, the galago(Galago senegalensis), is known to use a powermodulating strategy to obtain higher peak power than that of muscle alone. Few previous robots have used serieselastic power modulation (achieved by combining series-elastic actuation with variable mechanical advantage), and

because of motor power limits, the best current robot has a vertical jumping agility of only 55% of a galago. Through

use of a specialized leg mechanism designed to enhance power modulation, we constructed a jumping robot that

achieved 78% of the vertical jumping agility of a galago. Agile robots can explore venues of locomotion that were

not previously attainable. We demonstrate this with a wall jump, where the robot leaps from the floor to a wall and

then springs off the wall to reach a net height that is greater than that accessible by a single jump. Our results show that

series-elastic power modulation is an actuation strategy that enables a clade of vertically agile robots.

Subject Headings: Robot; Jumping ability; Power modulation; Agility

Keywords: Robotic vertical jumping agility via series-elastic power modulation
 
Call Number Serial 2407  
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Author Jeffery, D.R.; Rammohan, K.W.; Hawker, K.; Fox, E. file  url
openurl 
Title Fingolimod: a review of its mode of action in the context of its efficacy and safety profile in relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics Abbreviated Journal Expert Rev Neurother  
Volume 16 Issue 1 Pages 31-44  
Keywords  
Abstract Fingolimod is an orally administered, first-in-class therapy for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. Data from pivotal clinical trials show that fingolimod has a robust, significant effect on annualized relapse rates and MRI outcomes. Fingolimod has a novel, well-characterized mechanism of action. It acts through a specific set of receptors, sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors, present on the surface of a wide range of human cells and tissues, including neural cells, neurons and lymphocytes. Here we review the current literature to describe the mechanism of action of fingolimod in the context of its well-established clinical efficacy and safety profile. Understanding of the mechanisms behind any non-therapeutic effects of fingolimod facilitates their prediction and management in the clinical setting.

Subject Headings: Fingolimod Hydrochloride/standards/*therapeutic use; Humans; Immunosuppressive Agents/standards/therapeutic use; Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/*drug therapy; Propylene Glycols; Fingolimod; efficacy; mechanism of action; multiple sclerosis; non-therapeutic effects; safety

Keywords: Fingolimod: a review of its mode of action in the context of its efficacy and safety profile in relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis
 
Call Number Serial 2388  
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Author Tsai, S.Q.; Joung, J.K. file  url
openurl 
Title Defining and improving the genome-wide specificities of CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Nature Reviews. Genetics Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Genet  
Volume 17 Issue 5 Pages 300-312  
Keywords  
Abstract CRISPR-Cas9 RNA-guided nucleases are a transformative technology for biology, genetics and medicine owing to the simplicity with which they can be programmed to cleave specific DNA target sites in living cells and organisms. However, to translate these powerful molecular tools into safe, effective clinical applications, it is of crucial importance to carefully define and improve their genome-wide specificities. Here, we outline our state-of-the-art understanding of target DNA recognition and cleavage by CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases, methods to determine and improve their specificities, and key considerations for how to evaluate and reduce off-target effects for research and therapeutic applications.

Subject Headings: CRISPR-Cas Systems/*genetics; DNA/*genetics; Endonucleases/*metabolism; *Genetic Engineering; *Genome, Human; Humans

Keywords: Defining and improving the genome-wide specificities of CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases
 
Call Number Serial 2376  
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Author Orci, K.M.; Petróczki, K.; Barta, Z. file  url
openurl 
Title Instantaneous song modification in response to fluctuating traffic noise in the tree cricket Oecanthus pellucens Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Animal Behaviour Abbreviated Journal Animal Behaviour  
Volume 112 Issue Pages 187-194  
Keywords  
Abstract Noise pollution is a world-wide phenomenon and its effects on animal behaviour have been investigated by numerous studies focusing mostly on vertebrate taxa. However, studying how insects are impacted by human-made noise is indispensable, because of their ecological importance and in order to gain a more comprehensive knowledge of how animals can cope with this new challenge. The few studies that have examined the effects of noise pollution on the acoustic signalling of insects have characterized noise over long timescales. In this study we examined whether males of the tree cricket Oecanthus pellucens modify their calling song in response to the fluctuation in traffic noise over a short timescale. To examine this question we carried out (1) noise level measurements over a short time window (200 ms) paired with song parameter measurements on sound recordings of males singing in their noise-polluted habitats and (2) laboratory playback experiments in which each singing male was recorded during a silent control period and during noise playback. Our results show that males shortened their calls (echemes) and paused singing with a higher probability with increasing noise level. However, males did not modify the fundamental frequency of their song and did not adjust the duration of the interecheme interval in response to noise. These results suggest that crickets decrease signalling effort during high levels of noise and, at least for the song parameters we examined, do not modify their signals, as do birds and frogs, to reduce masking by anthropogenic noise.

Subject Headings: acoustic signalling; anthropogenic noise; behavioural plasticity; tree cricket; urbanization
 
Call Number Serial 2350  
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