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  Title Projected Economic Effect of Climate Change on Counties in the United States Type Miscellaneous
  Year 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract This graphic represents the projected economic effects of climate change on counties in the United States by 2080-2099. Areas in shades of red are counties that will lose a percentage of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP), while areas in shades of green are counties that may actually increase their GDP.

Subject headings: Climate change; Economic damage; Economic effect; United States; Counties

Keywords: Projected Economic Effect of Climate Change on Counties in the United States
 
  Call Number Serial 1865  
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Author (up) Alam, S.M.; Aussedat, B.; Vohra, Y.; Ryan Meyerhoff, R.; Cale, E.M.; Walkowicz, W.E.; Radakovich, N.A.; Anasti, K.; Armand, L.; Parks, R.; Sutherland, L.; Scearce, R.; Joyce, M.G.; Pancera, M.; Druz, A.; Georgiev, I.S.; Von Holle, T.; Eaton, A.; Fox, C.; Reed, S.G.; Louder, M.; Bailer, R.T.; Morris, L.; Abdool-Karim, S.S.; Cohen, M.; Liao, H.-X.; Montefiori, D.C.; Park, P.K.; Fernandez-Tejada, A.; Wiehe, K.; Santra, S.; Kepler, T.B.; Saunders, K.O.; Sodroski, J.; Kwong, P.D.; Mascola, J.R.; Bonsignori, M.; Moody, M.A.; Danishefsky, S.; Haynes, B.F. file  url
openurl 
  Title Mimicry of an HIV broadly neutralizing antibody epitope with a synthetic glycopeptide Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Science Translational Medicine Abbreviated Journal Sci Transl Med  
  Volume 9 Issue 381 Pages  
  Keywords  
  Abstract A goal for an HIV-1 vaccine is to overcome virus variability by inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). One key target of bnAbs is the glycan-polypeptide at the base of the envelope (Env) third variable loop (V3). We have designed and synthesized a homogeneous minimal immunogen with high-mannose glycans reflective of a native Env V3-glycan bnAb epitope (Man9-V3). V3-glycan bnAbs bound to Man9-V3 glycopeptide and native-like gp140 trimers with similar affinities. Fluorophore-labeled Man9-V3 glycopeptides bound to bnAb memory B cells and were able to be used to isolate a V3-glycan bnAb from an HIV-1-infected individual. In rhesus macaques, immunization with Man9-V3 induced V3-glycan-targeted antibodies. Thus, the Man9-V3 glycopeptide closely mimics an HIV-1 V3-glycan bnAb epitope and can be used to isolate V3-glycan bnAbs.  
  Call Number Serial 1919  
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Author (up) Busuttil, F.; Rahim, A.A.; Phillips, J.B. file  url
openurl 
  Title Combining Gene and Stem Cell Therapy for Peripheral Nerve Tissue Engineering Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Stem Cells and Development Abbreviated Journal Stem Cells Dev  
  Volume 26 Issue 4 Pages 231-238  
  Keywords Animals; Cellular Microenvironment; *Genetic Therapy; Humans; Nerve Regeneration/physiology; Peripheral Nerves/*physiology; *Stem Cell Transplantation; Tissue Engineering/*methods; gene therapy; peripheral nerve regeneration; tissue engineering  
  Abstract Despite a substantially increased understanding of neuropathophysiology, insufficient functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury remains a significant clinical challenge. Nerve regeneration following injury is dependent on Schwann cells, the supporting cells in the peripheral nervous system. Following nerve injury, Schwann cells adopt a proregenerative phenotype, which supports and guides regenerating nerves. However, this phenotype may not persist long enough to ensure functional recovery. Tissue-engineered nerve repair devices containing therapeutic cells that maintain the appropriate phenotype may help enhance nerve regeneration. The combination of gene and cell therapy is an emerging experimental strategy that seeks to provide the optimal environment for axonal regeneration and reestablishment of functional circuits. This review aims to summarize current preclinical evidence with potential for future translation from bench to bedside.  
  Call Number Serial 2132  
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Author (up) Cain, D.W.; Cidlowski, J.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Immune regulation by glucocorticoids Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Nature Reviews. Immunology Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Immunol  
  Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 233-247  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Endogenous glucocorticoids are crucial to various physiological processes, including metabolism, development and inflammation. Since 1948, synthetic glucocorticoids have been used to treat various immune-related disorders. The mechanisms that underlie the immunosuppressive properties of these hormones have been intensely scrutinized, and it is widely appreciated that glucocorticoids have pleiotropic effects on the immune system. However, a clear picture of the cellular and molecular basis of glucocorticoid action has remained elusive. In this Review, we distil several decades of intense (and often conflicting) research that defines the interface between the endocrine stress response and the immune system.

Subject Headings: Animals; Glucocorticoids/*immunology/*pharmacology; Humans; Immune System/*drug effects/*physiology; Immunosuppressive Agents/*immunology/*pharmacology; Inflammation/drug therapy

Keywords: Immune regulation by glucocorticoids
 
  Call Number Serial 2574  
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Author (up) Cao, P.-F.; Wojnarowska, Z.; Hong, T.; Carroll, B.; Li, B.; Feng, H.; Parsons, L.; Wang, W.; Lokitz, B.S.; Cheng, S.; Bocharova, V.; Sokolov, A.P.; Saito, T. file  url
openurl 
  Title A star-shaped single lithium-ion conducting copolymer by grafting a POSS nanoparticle Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Polymer Abbreviated Journal Polymer  
  Volume 124 Issue Pages 117-127  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Single-ion conducting polymer electrolytes (SCPE) are attractive candidates for high-performance energy storage devices. A star-shaped single lithium-ion conducting polymer electrolyte was synthesized by combining the “grafting to” and “grafting from” strategy utilizing a polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticle as the core. Carboxylic acid terminated polyethylene oxide (PEO) and Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer Agent (RAFT-CTA) were attached to the POSS nanoparticle to form a POSS-cored macro RAFT CTA (PMR-CTA). The PMR-CTA was used to mediate the polymerization of potassium (styrene-4-sulfonyltrifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide (STF-K+) and subsequent counter ion exchange resulted in a star-shaped single lithium-ion conducting copolymer (SSCP-Li+). The grafting ratio of poly(STF-Li+) and PEO per POSS nanoparticle can be tuned by modifying the feed ratio of the two polymer components. The synthesized star-shaped SCPE-Li+ are characterized by 1H NMR, FT-IR, UV-Vis, DLS, GPC and DSC, and their ionic conductivity is studied by broadband dielectric spectroscopy. The obtained results are compared to a conventional linear homopolymer poly(STF-Li+) and block copolymer PEO-b-poly(STF-Li+), and reveal a significant “decoupling” of ion conductivity from segmental dynamics for all of the studied SCPE-Li+. Blending extra PEOs with SCPE-Li+ was also performed to improve the ionic conductivity.

Subject Headings: polymer electrolyte; POSS; single-ion conducting; star-shaped; dc conductivity

Keywords: a star-shaped single lithium-ion conducting copolymer by grafting a POSS nanoparticle
 
  Call Number Serial 2514  
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Author (up) Chakraborty, K.; Uprety, D.C.; Bhaduri, D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Growth, Physiology and Biochemical Responses of Two Different Brassica Species to Elevated CO2 Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India Section B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., India, Sect. B Biol. Sci.  
  Volume 87 Issue 2 Pages 389-397  
  Keywords  
  Abstract In an open top chamber study, two contrasting Brassica cultivars from two different species were grown under two distinct levels of CO2 concentration, 550 umol mol-1 (elevated) and 390 umol mol-1 (ambient). CO2 enrichment showed significant increase in growth, leaf area and dry matter production in both the species. The continuous higher rate of photosynthesis (36.2 % in RH-30 and 27.3 % in Pusa Gold) under elevated CO2 condition attributed to the increased generation of foliage and enhancement in stem and root growth which is also evidenced by higher net assimilation and relative growth rate. The increase was highest at flowering stage with a concomitant increase in net photosynthetic rate but showed reduction in respiration rate and stomatal conductance. The increase in net photosynthesis further resulted in higher accumulation of sugars, non-structural carbohydrates and starch in leaves in elevated CO2 grown plants. Larger accumulation of biomass was observed in root as compared to other plant parts. However, the species specific differences were reflected in the accumulation of biomass, grain yield and gas exchange phenomena, wherein the greater response was invariably found in RH-30 (Brassica juncea) as compared to Pusa Gold (Brassica campestris). The present study may prove beneficial to understand crop responses to future climatic conditions and suggest efficient adaptive strategies from crop management perspectives.

Subject headings: biomass; c-assimilation; climate change; crop stages; mustard; brassica

Keywords: growth, physiology and biochemical responses of two different brassica species to elevated CO2

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  Call Number Serial 2922  
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Author (up) Chen, C.-H.; Tu, C.-C.; Kuo, H.-Y.; Zeng, R.-F.; Yu, C.-S.; Lu, H.H.-S.; Liou, M.-L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Dynamic change of surface microbiota with different environmental cleaning methods between two wards in a hospital Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology Abbreviated Journal Appl Microbiol Biotechnol  
  Volume 101 Issue 2 Pages 771-781  
  Keywords Bacteria/*classification/genetics/*isolation & purification; Cluster Analysis; DNA, Bacterial/chemistry/genetics; DNA, Ribosomal/chemistry/genetics; Disinfection/*methods; *Environmental Microbiology; *Hospitals; Housekeeping, Hospital/*methods; Humans; Intensive Care Units; Metagenomics; Phylogeny; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Taiwan; 16S rRNA metagenomics; Acinetobacter; Environmental cleaning methods; Healthcare-associated infection; Medical intensive care unit; Respiratory care centre  
  Abstract Terminal disinfection and daily cleaning have been performed in hospitals in Taiwan for many years to reduce the risks of healthcare-associated infections. However, the effectiveness of these cleaning approaches and dynamic changes of surface microbiota upon cleaning remain unclear. Here, we report the surface changes of bacterial communities with terminal disinfection and daily cleaning in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and only terminal disinfection in a respiratory care center (RCC) using 16s ribosomal RNA (rRNA) metagenomics. A total of 36 samples, including 9 samples per sampling time, from each ward were analysed. The clinical isolates were recorded during the sampling time. A large amount of microbial diversity was detected, and human skin microbiota (HSM) was predominant in both wards. In addition, the colonization rate of the HSM in the MICU was higher than that in the RCC, especially for Moraxellaceae. A higher alpha-diversity (p = 0.005519) and a lower UniFrac distance was shown in the RCC due to the lack of daily cleaning. Moreover, a significantly higher abundance among Acinetobacter sp., Streptococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp. was shown in the RCC compared to the MICU using the paired t test. We concluded that cleaning changes might contribute to the difference in diversity between two wards.  
  Call Number Serial 2098  
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Author (up) Cheryan, S.; Ziegler, S.A.; Montoya, A.K.; Jiang, L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Why are some STEM fields more gender balanced than others? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Psychological Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Psychol Bull  
  Volume 143 Issue 1 Pages 1-35  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Women obtain more than half of U.S. undergraduate degrees in biology, chemistry, and mathematics, yet they earn less than 20% of computer science, engineering, and physics undergraduate degrees (National Science Foundation, 2014a). Gender differences in interest in computer science, engineering, and physics appear even before college. Why are women represented in some science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields more than others? We conduct a critical review of the most commonly cited factors explaining gender disparities in STEM participation and investigate whether these factors explain differential gender participation across STEM fields. Math performance and discrimination influence who enters STEM, but there is little evidence to date that these factors explain why women's underrepresentation is relatively worse in some STEM fields. We introduce a model with three overarching factors to explain the larger gender gaps in participation in computer science, engineering, and physics than in biology, chemistry, and mathematics: (a) masculine cultures that signal a lower sense of belonging to women than men, (b) a lack of sufficient early experience with computer science, engineering, and physics, and (c) gender gaps in self-efficacy. Efforts to increase women's participation in computer science, engineering, and physics may benefit from changing masculine cultures and providing students with early experiences that signal equally to both girls and boys that they belong and can succeed in these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record

Subject Headings: *Engineering/statistics & numerical data; Female; Humans; Male; *Mathematics/statistics & numerical data; *Science/statistics & numerical data; *Technology/statistics & numerical data; *Women

Keywords: Why are some STEM fields more gender balanced than others?
 
  Call Number Serial 2576  
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Author (up) Clites, T.R.; Carty, M.J.; Srinivasan, S.; Zorzos, A.N.; Herr, H.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title A murine model of a novel surgical architecture for proprioceptive muscle feedback and its potential application to control of advanced limb prostheses Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Neural Engineering Abbreviated Journal J Neural Eng  
  Volume 14 Issue 3 Pages 036002  
  Keywords Extremity control; Bionic limbs  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: Proprioceptive mechanisms play a critical role in both reflexive and volitional lower extremity control. Significant strides have been made in the development of bionic limbs that are capable of bi-directional communication with the peripheral nervous system, but none of these systems have been capable of providing physiologically-relevant muscle-based proprioceptive feedback through natural neural pathways. In this study, we present the agonist-antagonist myoneural interface (AMI), a surgical approach with the capacity to provide graded kinesthetic feedback from a prosthesis through mechanical activation of native mechanoreceptors within residual agonist-antagonist muscle pairs. APPROACH: (1) Sonomicrometery and electroneurography measurement systems were validated using a servo-based muscle tensioning system. (2) A heuristic controller was implemented to modulate functional electrical stimulation of an agonist muscle, using sonomicrometric measurements of stretch from a mechanically-coupled antagonist muscle as feedback. (3) One AMI was surgically constructed in the hindlimb of each rat. (4) The gastrocnemius-soleus complex of the rat was cycled through a series of ramp-and-hold stretches in two different muscle architectures: native (physiologically-intact) and AMI (modified). Integrated electroneurography from the tibial nerve was compared across the two architectures. MAIN RESULTS: Correlation between stretch and afferent signal demonstrated that the AMI is capable of provoking graded afferent signals in response to ramp-and-hold stretches, in a manner similar to the native muscle architecture. The response magnitude in the AMI was reduced when compared to the native architecture, likely due to lower stretch amplitudes. The closed-loop control system showed robustness at high stretch magnitudes, with some oscillation at low stretch magnitudes. SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that the AMI has the potential to communicate meaningful kinesthetic feedback from a prosthetic limb by replicating the agonist-antagonist relationships that are fundamental to physiological proprioception.  
  Call Number Serial 2095  
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Author (up) Cody, W.B.; Scholthof, H.B.; Mirkov, T.E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Multiplexed Gene Editing and Protein Overexpression Using a Tobacco mosaic virus Viral Vector Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Plant Physiology Abbreviated Journal Plant Physiol  
  Volume 175 Issue 1 Pages 23-35  
  Keywords  
  Abstract Development of CRISPR/Cas9 transient gene editing screening tools in plant biology has been hindered by difficulty of delivering high quantities of biologically active single guide RNAs (sgRNAs). Furthermore, it has been largely accepted that in vivo generated sgRNAs need to be devoid of extraneous nucleotides, which has limited sgRNA expression by delivery vectors. Here, we increased cellular concentrations of sgRNA by transiently delivering sgRNAs using a Tobacco mosaic virus-derived vector (TRBO) designed with 5' and 3' sgRNA proximal nucleotide-processing capabilities. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, we used the TRBO-sgRNA delivery platform to target GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana (16c) plants, and gene editing was accompanied by loss of GFP expression. Surprisingly, indel (insertions and deletions) percentages averaged nearly 70% within 7 d postinoculation using the TRBO-sgRNA constructs, which retained 5' nucleotide overhangs. In contrast, and in accordance with current models, in vitro Cas9 cleavage assays only edited DNA when 5' sgRNA nucleotide overhangs were removed, suggesting a novel processing mechanism is occurring in planta. Since the Cas9/TRBO-sgRNA platform demonstrated sgRNA flexibility, we targeted the N. benthamiana NbAGO1 paralogs with one sgRNA and also multiplexed two sgRNAs using a single TRBO construct, resulting in indels in three genes. TRBO-mediated expression of an RNA transcript consisting of an sgRNA adjoining a GFP protein coding region produced indels and viral-based GFP overexpression. In conclusion, multiplexed delivery of sgRNAs using the TRBO system offers flexibility for gene expression and editing and uncovered novel aspects of CRISPR/Cas9 biology.

Subject Headings: *CRISPR-Cas Systems; Gene Editing/*methods; Tobacco; *Tobacco Mosaic Virus
 
  Call Number Serial 2302  
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