items found (Total items:2362)
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Description: The study of musical abilities and activities in infancy has the potential to shed light on musical biases or dispositions that are rooted in nature rather than nurture. The available evidence indicates that infants are sensitive to a number of sound features that are fundamental to music across cultures. Their discrimination of pitch and timing differences and their perception of equivalence classes are similar, in many respects, to those of listeners who have had many years of exposure to music. Whether these perceptual skills are unique to human listeners is not known. What is unique is the intense human interest in music, which is evident from the early days of life. Also unique is the importance of music in social contexts. Current ideas about musical timing and interpersonal synchrony are considered here, along with proposals for future research.
Title: Symposium 1: The origines and consequences of congential amusia
Subject headings: Congential Amusia
Publication: Brain and Cognition
Full text: http://www.nature.com/neuro/journal/v6/n7/abs/nn1084.html
Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=3826768733260756102&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en
Format: Journal Article
Description: The graph shows how sea levels will change for four different pathways for human development and greenhouse gas pollution. The green, yellow and orange lines correspond to scenarios where it takes 10, 30, or 70 years before emissions are stabilized. The red line can be considered to represent business as usual where greenhouse gas emissions are increasing over time.
Title: Graph of Past and Projected Changes of Sea Level
Subject headings: Climate change; Sea level rise
Full text: http://www.strategian.com/fulltext/PRfig-EN2.png
Cited by: http://www.glaciology.net/Home/PDFs/Announcements/sealevelprojectionstoad2500withthercpscenarios
Description: Estimated, observed, and possible future amounts of global sea level rise from 1800 to 2100, relative to the year 2000. Estimates from proxy data (for example, based on sediment records) are shown in red (1800-1890, pink band shows uncertainty), tide gauge data are shown in blue for 1880-2009, and satellite observations are shown in green from 1993 to 2012. The future scenarios range from 0.66 feet to 6.6 feet in 2100. These scenarios are not based on climate model simulations, but rather reflect the range of possible scenarios based on other scientific studies. The orange line at right shows the currently projected range of sea level rise of 1 to 4 feet by 2100, which falls within the larger risk-based scenario range. The large projected range reflects uncertainty about how glaciers and ice sheets will react to the warming ocean, the warming atmosphere, and changing winds and currents. As seen in the observations, there are year-to-year variations in the trend. (Figure source: Adapted from Parris et al. 2012 with input from NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory).
Title: Estimated, observed, and possible future amounts of global sea level rise from 1800 to 2100, relative to the year 2000.
Subject headings: Climate change; Sea level rise
Full text: http://www.strategian.com/fulltext/CS_SLR_scenarios_v8.png
Cited by: https://data.globalchange.gov/report/nca3/chapter/our-changing-climate/figure/past-and-projected-changes-in-global-sea-level-rise
Author: A/Rahman, S.H.; Mohamedani, A.A.; Mirgani, E.M.; Ibrahim, A.M.
Description: This work was designed to study the contribution of women in central Sudan in the control and management of malaria with particular emphasis on gender-related aspects that define women's role and participation. The Blue Nile Health Project (BNHP 1980-1990) was launched in 1980 mainly for control of water associated diseases in central Sudan. The BNHP model was chosen to conduct this work. The study showed that women were actively involved in the implementation of the BNHP strategies as health instructors (murshidat) who constituted 75% of the staff of BNHP unit of health education, as members of village health committees (VHC) where they constituted 40% of the VHC members and also as recipients of the project services. All murshidat were interviewed whereas multistage random sampling for VHC members and recipient women in 40 villages was used to select a sample which was interviewed. The results showed that the murshidat and VHC women members played a major role in the motivation, organization and health education of local communities prior to campaigns of environmental sanitation and vector control. Household commitments and difficulties in communication with the public were the main gender-related factors that contributed negatively to women's activities. Cases of malaria have more considerable socio-economic impact than other common diseases, especially with regard to women's household commitments and work. Recipient women were more concerned with aspects of self protection, management of family cases of malaria and health education programmes. They were less involved in drying mosquito breeding sites and spraying activities of insecticides which had been reluctantly accepted because of allergy and bad odour. Although the majority of women considered antimalarials to be less harmful than effects of malaria itself on pregnancy, they did not realize the role of malaria chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy. This needs more health education. The study showed that the BNHP programme was very successful in recruiting women in control and management programmes. Therefore, health planners are urged to persuade the subordinated communities of women in many African countries like Sudan to play a more active role in the health programmes and welfare of their communities.
Title: Gender aspects and women's participation in the control and management of malaria in central Sudan
Subject headings: Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Consumer Participation--methods, psychology, statistics & numerical data; Cost of Illness; Developing Countries--economics, statistics & numerical data; Diarrhea--epidemiology, prevention & control; Female; Health Education--manpower, methods; Humans; Insecticides--adverse effects; Malaria, Falciparum--economics, epidemiology, prevention & control; Male; Medicine, Traditional; Middle Aged; Mosquito Control--methods; Prevalence; Program Evaluation; Sanitation; Schistosomiasis--epidemiology, prevention & control; Sudan--epidemiology; Superstitions; Treatment Outcome; Women; Women's Health
Publication: Social Science & Medicine (1982)
Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0277953695002928
Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=3856037942230686134&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en
Format: Journal Article
Author: Aarestrup, F.M.; Bager, F.; Jensen, N.E.; Madsen, M.; Meyling, A.; Wegener, H.C.
Description: This study was conducted to describe the occurrence of acquired resistance to antimicrobials used for growth promotion among bacteria isolated from swine, cattle and poultry in Denmark. Resistance to structurally related therapeutic agents was also examined. Three categories of bacteria were tested: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). All antimicrobials used as growth promoters in Denmark and some structurally related therapeutic agents (in brackets) were included: Avilamycin, avoparcin (vancomycin), bacitracin, carbadox, flavomycin, monensin, olaquindox, salinomycin, spiramycin (erythromycin, lincomycin), tylosin (erythromycin, lincomycin), and virginiamycin (pristinamycin). Bacterial species intrinsically resistant to an antimicrobial were not tested towards that antimicrobial. Breakpoints for growth promoters were established by population distribution of the bacteria tested. A total of 2,372 bacterial isolates collected during October 1995 to September 1996 were included in the study. Acquired resistance to all currently used growth promoting antimicrobials was found. A frequent occurrence of resistance were observed to avilamycin, avoparcin, bacitracin, flavomycin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin, whereas resistance to carbadox, monensin, olaquindox and salinomycin was less frequent. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. The highest levels of resistance was observed among enterococci, whereas less resistance was observed among zoonotic bacteria and bacteria pathogenic to animals. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed. The results show the present level of resistance to growth promoters in bacteria from food animals in Denmark. They will form the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies, thereby enabling the determination of trends over time.
Title: Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food animals to antimicrobial growth promoters and related therapeutic agents in Denmark
Subject headings: Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology; Bacteria/*drug effects/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/veterinary; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Cecum/microbiology; Chickens/growth & development; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Feces/microbiology; Meat/*microbiology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary; Poultry Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Swine/growth & development; Swine Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology
Publication: APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Full text: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1699-0463.1998.tb01391.x/full
Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=15851374616306776970&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en
Format: Journal Article
Author: Abdalla, M.A.
Description: Bioactive natural products are serendipitous drug candidates, which stimulate synthetic approaches for improving and supporting drug discovery and development. Therefore, the search for bioactive metabolites from different natural sources continues to play an important role in fashioning new medicinal agents. Several cyclic peptides were produced by organisms, such as beta-defensins, gramicidin S, and tyrocidine A, and exhibited a wide range of bioactivities, such as antiviral activity against HIV-1, influenza A viruses, or antibacterial activity. Cyclic tetrapeptides are a class of natural products that were found to have a broad range of biological activities, promising pharmacokinetic properties, as well as interesting conformational dynamics and ability of slow inter-conversion to several different structures. Cyclooligopeptides, particularly medium ring-sized peptides, were obtained from marine microorganisms and exhibited a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial and anti-dinoflagellate activities, cytotoxicity, and inhibitory activity against enzyme sortase B. Most of the naturally occurring cyclotetrapeptides are obtained from fungi. Some natural cyclic tetrapeptides were found to inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC), which regulate the expression of genes. These compounds are very useful as cancer therapeutics. Various analogues of the natural cyclotetrapeptides were successfully synthesized to find novel lead compounds for pharmacological and biotechnological applications. Therefore, in this review, previously reported novel natural cyclotetrapeptides are briefly discussed, along with their important biological activities as drug candidates, together with their promising therapeutic properties. Moreover, their future perspective in drug discovery as potential therapeutic agents will be determined.
Title: Medicinal significance of naturally occurring cyclotetrapeptides
Subject headings: Bioactivities; Cyclotetrapeptides; Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis); Microorganisms; Therapeutic properties
Publication: Journal of Natural Medicines
Full text: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Muna_Abdalla/publication/303976393_Medicinal_significance_of_naturally_occurring_cyclotetrapeptides/links/59e9c0f2aca272bc42b7217a/Medicinal-significance-of-naturally-occurring-cyclotetrapeptides.pdf
Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=1762621256554497103&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en
Format: Journal Article