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Author: Abecasis, D.; Afonso, P.; Erzini, K.

Description: The benefits of protection of a small (4.3 km2) marine protected area (MPA) for Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, were investigated through experimental fishing trials and long-term (up to 293 days) passive acoustic telemetry. A total of 106 trammel net sets were carried out between 2007 and 2011. Significant differences in abundance and biomass of sole between bottom types/depths (sandy bottoms between 12 and 20 m deep vs muddy bottoms between 35 and 45 m deep) were found, but no significant differences were attributable to the implementation of the no-take area. Passive acoustic telemetry revealed that most Senegalese sole spent a large part of their time between first and last detections (average residency index = 69%) inside a relatively small area (average 95% = 1.2 km2), during which they preferred sandy bottoms, the most common habitat inside the MPA. Results also demonstrated that Senegalese sole do regular excursions beyond reserve boundaries, eventually emigrating from the MPA. The results suggest that small coastal MPAs providing adequate habitat may protect individuals of this species while allowing for moderate levels of adult spillover to neighbouring areas.

Title: Can small MPAs protect local populations of a coastal flatfish,_Solea senegalensis_?

Subject headings: acoustic telemetry;beyond BACI analysis;fisheries;habitat selection;marine reserve;Senegalese sole

Publication year: 2014

Journal or book title: Fisheries Management and Ecology

Volume: 21

Issue: 3

Pages: 175-185

Find the full text : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/fme.12061/abstract

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 1563

ISSN: 0969997X

ISBN:
Details

Author: Abesamis, R.A.; Russ, G.R.; Alcala, A.C.

Description: 1. An abundance gradient from high inside to low outside a no-take marine reserve may indicate net emigration of adult fish from the reserve ("spillover").
2. We examined spatial patterns of abundance of fish across two 900 m long sections of coral reef slope at each of two small Philippine islands (Apo and Balicasag). One section sampled the entire length of a no-take reserve and extended 200-400 m outside the two lateral reserve boundaries. The other section, without a reserve, was a control. The reserves had had 20 (Apo) and 15 (Balicasag) years of protection when sampled in 2002.
3. Significant spatial gradients of decreasing abundance of target fish occurred across only one (Apo Reserve northern boundary = ARNB) of four real reserve boundaries, and across none of the control "boundaries". Abundance of non-target fish did not decline significantly across reserve boundaries.
4. Abundance of target fish declined sharply 50 m outside the ARNB, but enhanced abundance extended 100-350 m beyond this boundary, depending on fish mobility.
5. Density of sedentary target fish declined 2-6 times faster than density of highly vagile and vagile target fish across the ARNB.
6. Habitat factors could not account for these ARNB results for target fish, but did influence abundance patterns of non-target fish.
7. The lack of abundance gradients of target fish at Balicasag may reflect reduced fishing outside the reserve since it was established.
8. Apo Reserve had a gradient of abundance of target fish across at least one boundary, a result consistent with spillover.

Subject headings: Coral reefs; Marine reserves; Spillover; Abundance gradients; Habitat effects; Philippines

Keywords: Gradients of abundance of fish across no-take marine reserve boundaries: evidence from Philippine coral reefs

Title: Gradients of abundance of fish across no-take marine reserve boundaries: evidence from Philippine coral reefs

Subject headings:

Publication year: 2006

Journal or book title: Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems

Volume: 16

Issue: 4

Pages: 349-371

Find the full text : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/aqc.730

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 1542

ISSN: 1052-7613

ISBN:
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Author: Acosta, E.G.; Bartenschlager, R.

Description: Highly effective prophylactic vaccines for flaviviruses including yellow fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus and Japanese encephalitis virus are currently in use. However, the development of a dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has been hampered by the requirement of simultaneous protection against four distinct serotypes and the threat that DENV-specific antibodies might either mediate neutralization or, on the contrary, exacerbate disease through the phenomenon of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection. Therefore, understanding the cellular, biochemical and molecular basis of antibody-mediated neutralization and ADE are fundamental for the development of a safe DENV vaccine. Here we summarize current structural and mechanistic knowledge underlying these phenomena. We also review recent results demonstrating that the humoral immune response triggered during natural DENV infection is able to generate neutralizing antibodies binding complex quaternary epitopes only present on the surface of intact virions.

Subject Headings: Animals; Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology; Antibodies, Viral/*immunology; *Antibody-Dependent Enhancement; Dengue/*immunology/*pathology; Dengue Vaccines/*immunology/*isolation & purification; Dengue Virus/*immunology; Humans; Ade; Dengue virus; antibody-dependent enhancement of infection; antigenic structure; human humoral response; immature viral particles; neutralization; quaternary epitopes; tetravalent vaccine; virus dynamics; virus entry

Keywords: Paradoxical role of antibodies in dengue virus infections: considerations for prophylactic vaccine development

Title: Paradoxical role of antibodies in dengue virus infections: considerations for prophylactic vaccine development

Subject headings:

Publication year: 2016

Journal or book title: Expert Review of Vaccines

Volume: 15

Issue: 4

Pages: 467-482

Find the full text : https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c391/dde1adfaa6ecb3b5aa9cce228469982bbe40.pdf

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2589

ISSN: 1476-0584

ISBN:
Details

Author: Adachi, P.J.C.; Willoughby, T.

Description: The frequency of involvement in sports often has been concurrently and longitudinally associated with higher self-esteem. The interpretation of this association consistently has been framed as involvement in sports leading to higher levels of self-esteem over time (i.e., socialization effect), although no studies have tested whether higher levels of self-esteem lead to increased involvement in sports over time (i.e., selection effect). Another important aspect of involvement in sports that may be related to self-esteem is the degree to which youth enjoy sports. However, this aspect has received much less attention. To address these gaps in the literature, we first examined the bidirectional effects between self-esteem and the frequency of involvement in sports with 1,492 adolescents (50.8 % female; 92.4 % Canadian-born) over 4 years. Higher levels of self-esteem predicted greater involvement in sports over time, but greater involvement in sports did not predict higher levels of self-esteem over time, offering support only for selection effects. We then tested the bidirectional effects between the enjoyment of sports and self-esteem and found evidence of both socialization and selection effects. Specifically, greater enjoyment of sports predicted higher self-esteem over time, and higher self-esteem predicted greater enjoyment of sports over time. These novel findings suggest that adolescents with higher self-esteem play sports more frequently and enjoy sports more than adolescents with lower self-esteem. In addition, the degree to which adolescents enjoy sports may be more important for increasing self-esteem than the frequency with which adolescents play sports.

Subject Headings: Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior/*psychology; Female; *Happiness; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Models, Psychological; Models, Statistical; *Pleasure; *Psychology, Adolescent; *Self Concept; Sports/*psychology

Keywords: It's not how much you play, but how much you enjoy the game: the longitudinal associations between adolescents' self-esteem and the frequency versus enjoyment of involvement in sports

Title: It's not how much you play, but how much you enjoy the game: the longitudinal associations between adolescents' self-esteem and the frequency versus enjoyment of involvement in sports

Subject headings:

Publication year: 2014

Journal or book title: Journal of Youth and Adolescence

Volume: 43

Issue: 1

Pages: 137-145

Find the full text : https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10964-013-9988-3

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2458

ISSN: 0047-2891

ISBN:
Details

Author: Adachi, R.; Osada, H.; Shingai, R.

Description: BACKGROUND: Multi-sensory integration is necessary for organisms to discriminate different environmental stimuli and thus determine behavior. Caenorhabditis elegans has 12 pairs of amphid sensory neurons, which are involved in generating behaviors such as thermotaxis toward cultivation temperature, and chemotaxis toward chemical stimuli. This arrangement of known sensory neurons and measurable behavioral output makes C. elegans suitable for addressing questions of multi-sensory integration in the nervous system. Previous studies have suggested that C. elegans can process different chemoattractants simultaneously. However, little is known about how these organisms can integrate information from stimuli of different modality, such as thermal and chemical stimuli. RESULTS: We studied the behavior of a population of C. elegans during simultaneous presentation of thermal and chemical stimuli. First, we examined thermotaxis within the radial temperature gradient produced by a feedback-controlled thermoregulator. Separately, we examined chemotaxis toward sodium chloride or isoamyl alcohol. Then, assays for simultaneous presentations of 15 degrees C (colder temperature than 20 degrees C room temperature) and chemoattractant were performed with 15 degrees C-cultivated wild-type worms. Unlike the sum of behavioral indices for each separate behavior, simultaneous presentation resulted in a biased migration to cold regions in the first 10 min of the assay, and sodium chloride-regions in the last 40 min. However, when sodium chloride was replaced with isoamyl alcohol in the simultaneous presentation, the behavioral index was very similar to the sum of separate single presentation indices. We then recorded tracks of single worms and analyzed their behavior. For behavior toward sodium chloride, frequencies of forward and backward movements in simultaneous presentation were significantly different from those in single presentation. Also, migration toward 15 degrees C in simultaneous presentation was faster than that in 15 degrees C-single presentation. CONCLUSION: We conclude that worms preferred temperature to chemoattractant at first, but preferred the chemoattractant sodium chloride thereafter. This preference was not seen for isoamyl alcohol presentation. We attribute this phase-dependent preference to the result of integration of thermosensory and chemosensory signals received by distinct sensory neurons.

Title: Phase-dependent preference of thermosensation and chemosensation during simultaneous presentation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans

Subject headings: Animals; Caenorhabditis elegans; Chemotactic Factors; Chemotaxis--physiology; Choice Behavior; Cold Temperature; Pentanols; Psychomotor Performance--physiology; Sensation; Sensory Receptor Cells--physiology; Sodium Chloride; Thermosensing--physiology

Publication year: 2008

Journal or book title: BMC Neuroscience

Volume: 9

Issue:

Pages: 106

Find the full text : http://bmcneurosci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2202-9-106

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 262

ISSN: 1471-2202

ISBN:
Details

Author: Adachi, R.; Wakabayashi, T.; Oda, N.; Shingai, R.

Description: The chemotaxis behaviors of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans cultivated at various temperatures (15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C) were examined at various temperatures (10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C) to determine the multi-sensory integration of physical (thermal) and chemical sensory information within its nervous system. Chemotaxis behavior toward sodium acetate and ammonium chloride were differently affected by both assay and cultivation temperatures, suggesting that the temperature effect on chemotaxis is not general, but rather distinctive for each chemosensory pathway. Since thermosensory cues are likely encountered constantly in C. elegans, we supposed that the chemotaxis behaviors of worms are achieved by the integration of chemo- and thermosensory information. To verify the possible contribution of thermosensory function in chemotaxis, we examined the chemotaxis behaviors of ttx-1(p767) mutant worms with defective AFD thermosensory neurons. The chemotaxis behaviors toward sodium acetate or ammonium chloride of mutant worms cultivated at 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C were reduced relative to those of wild-type worms. These results indicate the important role of multi-sensory integration of chemosensory and thermosensory information in chemotaxis behavior of the C. elegans.

Title: Modulation of Caenorhabditis elegans chemotaxis by cultivation and assay temperatures

Subject headings: Ammonium Chloride; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Caenorhabditis elegans/*physiology; Chemoreceptor Cells/physiology; Chemotaxis/*physiology; Neurons, Afferent/*physiology; Sodium Acetate; Stimulation, Chemical; *Temperature

Publication year: 2008

Journal or book title: Neuroscience Research

Volume: 60

Issue: 3

Pages: 300-306

Find the full text : http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168010207018512

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 1025

ISSN: 0168-0102

ISBN:
Details

Author: Adamo, S.A.; Hoy, R.R.

Description: Previous interactions with conspecifics influenced the pattern, frequency and intensity of agonistic behaviour in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Tactile contact appeared to be the most important sensory cue responsible for the observed shifts in behaviour. Contact with other adult males promoted the production of aggressive song both during and after fights between males. However, individually housed males and males with restricted contact with conspecifics (once per day for 5 days) produced their aggressive song only at the end of an agonistic encounter. These two patterns of agonistic behaviour may reflect alternate fighting strategies. Prior experience influences whether sensory cues from a conspecific will initate agonistic behaviour. After males lost a fight, they displayed no further agonistic behaviour for 10 min but then gradually recovered their agonistic behaviour within an hour. This may be an important mechanism in preventing losing males from re-engaging a more powerful rival. Females were much less likely than males to attack conspecifics when food was plentiful. When food was scarce, females fought more often, and more successfully, than males for the contested resource.

Subject Headings: Agnostic behavior; Field crickets; Expression

Title: Agonistic behaviour in male and female field crickets, Gryllus bimaculatus, and how behavioural context influences its expression

Subject headings:

Publication year: 1995

Journal or book title: Animal Behaviour

Volume: 49

Issue: 6

Pages: 1491-1501

Find the full text : http://www.reed.edu/biology/professors/srenn/pages/teaching/2010_syllabus/2010_readings/Adamo_Hoy_1995.pdf

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2250

ISSN: 0003-3472

ISBN:
Details

Author: Adams, D.M.; Churchill, R.G.

Description: Partial or complete Raman and i.r. spectra are reported for WOCl4, WOBr4, MoO2Cl2, MoO2Br2, and WO2Cl2 as solids. A full assignment is given for WOCl4, and possible structures for the dioxide dihalides are discussed. A normal-co-ordinate analysis of WOCl4 is made.

Title: The vibrational spectra of some oxide halides of molybdenum and tungsten

Subject headings: Raman; Dihalides

Publication year: 1968

Journal or book title: Journal of the Chemical Society A: Inorganic, Physical, Theoretical

Volume:

Issue:

Pages: 2310

Find the full text : http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/1968/j1/j19680002310/unauth#!divAbstract

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 1334

ISSN: 0022-4944

ISBN:
Details

Author: Addis, P.R.; Lawson, S.E.M.

Description: REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The flexor tendons support the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints during stance phase and since tendon stiffness and strain changes with age, it is likely that kinematics are also age-dependent. HYPOTHESIS: Maximum MCP and DIP angles decrease in the young horse, plateau in the mature horse and increase towards senescence. METHODS: The distal limbs of 57 walking horses age 3-212 months were filmed and digitised with an automated tracking system. Maximum MCP and DIP angles during stance phase were used to calculate strain in the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons. Horses were divided into 3 age groups; young (3-35 months), mature (36-99 months) and older horses (100-212 months). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationship between age and kinematics. RESULTS: Tendon strain decreased in young horses, stayed constant in mature horses and increased in older horses. Joint angles showed significant negative correlation in young horses, with coefficients of -0.88 (MCP) and -0.81 (DIP). In mature horses, correlations were not significant (P = 0.2 for MCP; P = 0.5 for DIP). In older horses, angles showed significant positive correlation, with coefficients of 0.62 (MCP) and 0.48 (DIP). CONCLUSIONS: Joint angles decreased in the young horse as tendon stiffness increases, remained constant in the mature horse where tendon stiffness is constant and increased in older horses as tendons weakens and stiffness decreases. Strain patterns were similar to those found in vitro. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Changing tendon stiffness appeared to influence the development and degeneration of gait. This has implications for studying musculoskeletal development, especially for identification of normal and pathological development.

Title: The role of tendon stiffness in development of equine locomotion with age

Subject headings: Aging--physiology; Animals; Biomechanical Phenomena; Female; Horses--physiology; Locomotion--physiology; Male; Tendons--physiology

Publication year: 2010

Journal or book title: Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement

Volume:

Issue: 38

Pages: 556-560

Find the full text : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21059060

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 108

ISSN:

ISBN:
Details

Author: Aertsen, A.; Michiels, C.W.

Description: High-pressure treatment (>100 MPa) is known to induce several heat shock proteins as well as an SOS response in Escherichia coli. In the current work, we have investigated properties with respect to high-pressure treatment of mutants-deficient in Lon, a pressure-induced ATP-dependent protease that belongs to the heat shock regulon but that also has a link to the SOS regulon. We report that lon mutants show increased pressure sensitivity and exhibit hyperfilamentation during growth after high-pressure treatment. Both phenotypes could be entirely attributed to the action of the SOS protein SulA, a potent inhibitor of the cell division ring protein FtsZ and a specific target of the Lon protease, since they were suppressed by knock-out of SulA. Introduction of the lexA1 allele, which effectively blocks the entire SOS response, also suppressed the high pressure hypersensitivity of lon mutants, but not their UV hypersensitivity. These results indicate the existence of a SulA-dependent pathway of high-pressure-induced cell filamentation, and suggest involvement of the SOS response, and particularly of SulA, in high-pressure-mediated cell death in E. coli strains which are compromised in Lon function.

Title: SulA-dependent hypersensitivity to high pressure and hyperfilamentation after high-pressure treatment of Escherichia coli lon mutants

Subject headings: Colony Count, Microbial; Culture Media; Escherichia coli--genetics, growth & development; Escherichia coli Proteins--genetics, metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; Hydrostatic Pressure; Mutation; Protease La--genetics; SOS Response (Genetics); Ultraviolet Rays

Publication year: 2005

Journal or book title: Research in Microbiology

Volume: 156

Issue: 2

Pages: 233-237

Find the full text : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0923250804002657

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 301

ISSN: 0923-2508

ISBN:





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