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Author: Atherton, P.J.; Babraj, J.; Smith, K.; Singh, J.; Rennie, M.J.; Wackerhage, H.

Description: Endurance training induces a partial fast-to-slow muscle phenotype transformation and mitochondrial biogenesis but no growth. In contrast, resistance training mainly stimulates muscle protein synthesis resulting in hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to identify signaling events that may mediate the specific adaptations to these types of exercise. Isolated rat muscles were electrically stimulated with either high frequency (HFS; 6x10 repetitions of 3 s-bursts at 100 Hz to mimic resistance training) or low frequency (LFS; 3 h at 10 Hz to mimic endurance training). HFS significantly increased myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis 3 h after stimulation 5.3- and 2.7-fold, respectively. LFS had no significant effect on protein synthesis 3 h after stimulation but increased UCP3 mRNA 11.7-fold, whereas HFS had no significant effect on UCP3 mRNA. Only LFS increased AMPK phosphorylation significantly at Thr172 by approximately 2-fold and increased PGC-1alpha protein to 1.3 times of control. LFS had no effect on PKB phosphorylation but reduced TSC2 phosphorylation at Thr1462 and deactivated translational regulators. In contrast, HFS acutely increased phosphorylation of PKB at Ser473 5.3-fold and the phosphorylation of TSC2, mTOR, GSK-3beta at PKB-sensitive sites. HFS also caused a prolonged activation of the translational regulators p70 S6k, 4E-BP1, eIF-2B, and eEF2. These data suggest that a specific signaling response to LFS is a specific activation of the AMPK-PGC-1alpha signaling pathway which may explain some endurance training adaptations. HFS selectively activates the PKB-TSC2-mTOR cascade causing a prolonged activation of translational regulators, which is consistent with increased protein synthesis and muscle growth. We term this behavior the "AMPK-PKB switch." We hypothesize that the AMPK-PKB switch is a mechanism that partially mediates specific adaptations to endurance and resistance training, respectively.

Title: Selective activation of AMPK-PGC-1alpha or PKB-TSC2-mTOR signaling can explain specific adaptive responses to endurance or resistance training-like electrical muscle stimulation

Subject headings: Adaptation, Physiological; Adenylate Kinase/*metabolism; Animals; Electric Stimulation; Enzyme Activation; Male; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism; Muscle Contraction; Muscle Proteins/biosynthesis; Muscle, Skeletal/*physiology; Myofibrils/metabolism; Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha; Phosphorylation; Physical Conditioning, Animal; Physical Endurance/physiology; Physical Exertion; Protein Kinases/*metabolism; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/*metabolism; RNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism; Signal Transduction; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; Transcription Factors/*metabolism; Tumor Suppressor Proteins/*metabolism

Publication year: 2005

Journal or book title: FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

Volume: 19

Issue: 7

Pages: 786-788

Find the full text : https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ken_Smith8/publication/8017541_Selective_activation_of_AMPK-PGC-1alpha_or_PKB-TSC2-mTOR_signaling_can_explain_specific_adaptive_responses_to_endurance_or_resistance_training-like_electrical_muscle_stimulation/links/56a

Find more like this one (cited by): https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=5922207386310880155&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2075

ISSN: 0892-6638

ISBN:
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Author: Atkinson, C.M.; Drysdale, K.A.; Fulham, W.R.

Description: In the Stroop task, the latency of response to a colour is either faster or slower in the presence of a congruent or incongruent colour-word (J. Exp. Psychol. 18 (1935) 643). Debate remains as to whether this effect occurs during early stimulus processing or late response competition. The present study examined the task using reaction time (RT) and event-related potentials to determine temporal differences in this processing. The 'reverse Stroop' effect (where colour interferes with processing of a colour-word) which is much less well established, was also examined. Standard Stroop interference was found as well as reverse Stroop interference. A late lateralised negativity at frontal sites was greater for Incongruent trials and also for the word-response (reverse Stroop) task, and was interpreted as semantic selection and word-rechecking effects. Late positive component latency effects generally mirrored the speed of processing of the different conditions found in RT data. Stroop effects were also found in early temporal N100 and parietal P100 components, which differentiated Congruent from Incongruent trials in the reverse Stroop but not the standard Stroop, and were interpreted as early perception of physical mismatch between the colour and word. It was concluded that Stroop stimuli are processed in parallel in a network of brain areas rather than a particular structure and that Stroop interference arises at the output stage.

Title: Event-related potentials to Stroop and reverse Stroop stimuli

Subject headings: Adult; Analysis of Variance; Attention/*physiology; Electroencephalography/methods; Evoked Potentials/*physiology; Humans; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology

Publication year: 2003

Journal or book title: International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology

Volume: 47

Issue: 1

Pages: 1-21

Find the full text : http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167876002000387

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 235

ISSN: 0167-8760

ISBN:
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Author: Attiwill, P.M.

Description: The alteration of the ionic composition of rainwater by vegetation has been attributed in the literature both to foliar leaching (representing circulation of elements within an ecosystem) and to the washing from leaves of particulate matter (an addition of elements to the ecosystem). The purpose of this study was to estimate the magnitudes of these components in a matureEucalyptus obliqua forest on the Great Dividing Range, Australia.

Rainwater samples collected both within the forest and from an opening devoid of trees at regular intervals during a two year period were analyzed for sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. The ionic composition of rainwater sampled at the open area fits an expected geographical distribution pattern, and the origin of the ions is considered to be mainly oceanic and partly terrestrial. The concentration of ions in rainwater collected both at the open area and from within the forest is related, inversely and exponentially, to the intensity of rainfall during a collection period.

Ionic concentrations in rainwater collected beneath the forest canopy were greater than concentrations in rainwater collected at the open area. Considerations of ionic ratios lead to the conclusion that this increase is principally the result of foliar leaching. Furthermore the data for this mature forest conform closely to the results, reported in the literature of leaching experiments carried out under controlled conditions with small, individual plants.

Title: The chemical composition of rainwater in relation to cycling of nutrients in mature eucalyptus forest

Subject headings:

Publication year: 1966

Journal or book title: Plant and Soil

Volume: 24

Issue: 3

Pages: 390-406

Find the full text : https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01374047?LI=true

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 1852

ISSN: 0032-079X

ISBN:
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Author: Au, T.K.

Description: Bloom (1981) found that Chinese speakers were less likely than English speakers to give counterfactual interpretations to a counterfactual story. These findings, together with the presence of a distinct counterfactual marker (the subjunctive) in English, but not in Chinese, were interpreted as evidence for the weak form of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. A series of five studies was designed to replicate these findings, using both Chinese and English versions of a new counterfactual story as well as the story used by Bloom. In these studies, bilingual Chinese showed little difficulty in understanding either story in either language, insofar as the English and Chinese were idiomatic. For one story, the Chinese bilinguals performed better in Chinese than American subjects did in English. Nearly monolingual Chinese who did not know the English subjunctive also gave mostly counterfactual responses. These findings suggest that the mastery of the English subjunctive is probably quite tangenital to counterfactual reasoning in Chinese. In short, the present research yielded no support for the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis.

Title: Chinese and English counterfactuals: the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis revisited

Subject headings: Adolescent; Adult; Child; *Cognition; Female; Humans; *Language; Linguistics; Male; Thinking

Publication year: 1983

Journal or book title: Cognition

Volume: 15

Issue: 1-3

Pages: 155-187

Find the full text : http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0010027783900380

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 1719

ISSN: 0010-0277

ISBN:
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Author: Aubourg, S.P.; Torres-Arreola, W.; Trigo, M.; Ezquerra-Brauer, J.M.

Description: Pigment compounds were extracted from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) skin with an acid-ethanol solvent (JSE). Freeze-dried JSE was characterized with respect to solubility in different solvents, absorption UV-VIS, and FT-IR spectra, and tested for its radical scavenging activity against ABTS and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The potential ability of JSE for inhibiting oxidation of cod liver oil (CLO) was also determined by monitoring dienes, trienes, peroxide value (PV), thiobarbutiric acid (TBA), and polyene index (PI) in samples stored at 15, 25, and 50°C for 12 days. Concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2% JSE were added to CLO. The yield of JSE was 8.8 mg/g freeze-dried skin. Solubility behavior, UV-Vis, and FT-IR spectra of JSE suggests that this pigment extract might belong to the ommochrome family. Moreover, a characteristic xanthommatin peak (1740 cm1) was observed. JSE exhibited scavenging activity on ABTS-+ radical and in the ORAC assay. After storage PV and TBA increased, whereas PI decreased mainly in the control treatment. The addition of JSE delayed lipid oxidation in CLO during the first 8 days of storage at 50°C. JSE was identified as promising source of antioxidants to retard fish lipid oxidation.

Subject headings: Antioxidant activity;By-product;Oxidized marine oil;Pigment extract;Spectroscopic analysis;Squid skin;Trolox

Keywords: Partial characterization of jumbo squid skin pigment extract and its antioxidant potential in a marine oil system: Jumbo squid skin pigment extract and antioxidant activity

Title: Partial characterization of jumbo squid skin pigment extract and its antioxidant potential in a marine oil system: Jumbo squid skin pigment extract and antioxidant activity

Subject headings:

Publication year: 2016

Journal or book title: European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology

Volume:

Issue:

Pages: n/a-n/a

Find the full text : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/ejlt.201500356

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 1587

ISSN: 1438-7697

ISBN:
Details

Author: Aubrey, B.J.; Kelly, G.L.; Janic, A.; Herold, M.J.; Strasser, A.

Description: The tumour suppressor gene TP53 is mutated in ~50% of human cancers. In addition to its function in tumour suppression, p53 also plays a major role in the response of malignant as well as nontransformed cells to many anticancer therapeutics, particularly those that cause DNA damage. P53 forms a homotetrameric transcription factor that is reported to directly regulate ~500 target genes, thereby controlling a broad range of cellular processes, including cell cycle arrest, cell senescence, DNA repair, metabolic adaptation and cell death. For a long time, induction of apoptotic death in nascent neoplastic cells was regarded as the principal mechanism by which p53 prevents tumour development. This concept has, however, recently been challenged by the findings that in striking contrast to Trp53-deficient mice, gene-targeted mice that lack the critical effectors of p53-induced apoptosis do not develop tumours spontaneously. Remarkably, even mice lacking all mediators critical for p53-induced apoptosis, G1/S boundary cell cycle arrest and cell senescence do not develop any tumours spontaneously. In this review we discuss current understanding of the mechanisms by which p53 induces cell death and how this affects p53-mediated tumour suppression and the response of malignant cells to anticancer therapy.

Subject Headings: Animals; *Apoptosis; Humans; Mice; Mutation; Neoplasms/*genetics; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism; Signal Transduction; Transcription Factors/metabolism; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics/*metabolism/physiology

Title: How does p53 induce apoptosis and how does this relate to p53-mediated tumour suppression?

Subject headings:

Publication year: 2018

Journal or book title: Cell Death and Differentiation

Volume: 25

Issue: 1

Pages: 104-113

Find the full text : https://www.nature.com/articles/cdd2017169

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2246

ISSN: 1350-9047

ISBN:
Details

Author: Aubrey, J.S.; Harrison, K.

Description: Two studies were conducted to (a) examine the gender-role stereotypical, counterstereotypical, and gender-neutral messages contained in a sample of first- and second-grade children's favorite television programs; and (b) to link the results of the content analysis to the children's gender-role values and interpersonal attraction to same- and opposite-gender television characters while the content analysis showed that there was a great deal of gender neutrality in the programs the children preferred. However, as predicted, male characters were still more likely than female characters to answer questions, boss or order others, show ingenuity, achieve a goal, and eat. The results of the survey showed that preference for stereotypical content predicted boys' valuing hard work and humor. In addition, for girls preference for male stereotypical and male counterstereotypical content negatively predicted interpersonal attraction to female characters, whereas preference for female counterstereotypical and gender-neutral content positively predicted interpersonal attraction to female characters. For boys preference for female counterstereotypical content positively predicted interpersonal attraction to male characters.

Subject headings: Gender roles; Children's television programs; Male characters; Female characters; Interpersonal attraction

Keywords: The Gender-Role Content of Children's Favorite Television Programs and Its Links to Their Gender-Related Perceptions

Title: The Gender-Role Content of Children's Favorite Television Programs and Its Links to Their Gender-Related Perceptions

Subject headings:

Publication year: 2004

Journal or book title: Media Psychology

Volume: 6

Issue: 2

Pages: 111-146

Find the full text : https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s1532785xmep0602_1

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2733

ISSN: 1521-3269

ISBN:
Details

Author: Avery, D.H.; Wildschiodtz, G.; Smallwood, R.G.; Martin, D.; Rafaelsen, O.J.

Description: REM latency and rectal and ear canal temperature were studied simultaneously in 11 controls and nine depressed patients; seven of the patients were studied when recovered. REM latency was shorter in the depressed group compared with controls and lengthened with recovery. The nocturnal and ear canal temperatures were higher in the depressed group compared with controls and decreased with recovery. REM latency and the nocturnal rectal temperature were negatively correlated when all the nights of the depressed patients were analyzed (r = -0.44) and when all the nights of the subjects were analyzed (r = -0.44). REM latency and nocturnal ear canal temperatures were negatively correlated when all the nights of the control group were analyzed (r = -0.34). The timing of the temperature rhythm did not appear to be correlated with the REM latency.

Title: REM latency and core temperature relationships in primary depression

Subject headings: Adult; Aged; Aging/physiology; Bipolar Disorder/*physiopathology; *Body Temperature; Circadian Rhythm; Depressive Disorder/*physiopathology; Female; Humans; Male; Menopause; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology; Sleep, REM/*physiology

Publication year: 1986

Journal or book title: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica

Volume: 74

Issue: 3

Pages: 269-280

Find the full text : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1986.tb06244.x/abstract

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 1148

ISSN: 0001-690X

ISBN:
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Author: Aveskamp, M.M.; Verkley, G.J.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Murace, M.A.; Perello, A.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

Description: Species of the anamorph genus Phoma are commonly isolated from a wide range of ecological niches. They are notoriously difficult to identify due to the paucity of morphological features and the plasticity of these when cultivated on agar media. Species linked to Phoma section Peyronellaea are typified by the production of dictyochlamydospores and thus have additional characters to use in taxon delineation. However, the taxonomy of this section is still not fully understood. Furthermore the production of such chlamydospores also is known in some other sections of Phoma. DNA sequences were generated from three loci, namely ITS, actin, and 3-tubulin, to clarify the phylogeny of Phoma taxa that produce dictyochlamydospores. Results were unable to support section Peyronellaea as a taxonomic entity. Dictyochlamydospore formation appears to be a feature that developed, or was lost, many times during the evolution of Phoma. Furthermore, based on the multigene analyses, five new Phoma species could be delineated while a further five required taxonomic revision to be consistent with the genetic variation observed.

Title: DNA phylogeny reveals polyphyly of Phoma section Peyronellaea and multiple taxonomic novelties

Subject headings: Actins/analysis/genetics; Ascomycota/*classification/cytology/genetics; Biodiversity; DNA, Fungal/*analysis/genetics; DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/analysis/genetics; Genetic Speciation; Genetic Variation; Molecular Sequence Data; *Phylogeny; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Sequence Alignment; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Species Specificity; Tubulin/analysis/genetics

Publication year: 2009

Journal or book title: Mycologia

Volume: 101

Issue: 3

Pages: 363-382

Find the full text : http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3852/08-199

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 1999

ISSN: 0027-5514

ISBN:
Details

Author: Ayer, W.A.; Lee, S.P.; Tsuneda, A.; Hiratsuka, Y.

Description: The metabolites produced when Monocillium nordinii (Bourchier) W. Gams, a destructive mycoparasite of pine stem rusts, is grown in liquid culture have been separated and identified. The metabolites include the known compound monorden (1) and five new substances, monocillin I (2), monocillin II (4), monocillin III (3), monocillin IV (5), and monocillin V (6). Structural assignments and chemical correlations of the five new compounds are reported and the absolute configuration of monorden is assigned. The antifungal spectra of the three major metabolites are reported. Monorden and monocillin I show pronounced activity against a wide variety of fungi, including Ceratocystis ulmi, the cause of Dutch elm disease. Extraction of the mycelium yielded averufin (13), along with a pigment C18H12O6, as yet unidentified.

Title: The isolation, identification, and bioassay of the antifungal metabolites produced by_Monocillium nordinii_

Subject headings: Metabolites; Monocillium nordinii; Mycroparasite

Publication year: 1980

Journal or book title: Canadian Journal of Microbiology

Volume: 26

Issue: 7

Pages: 766-773

Find the full text : http://www.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/bookstore_pdfs/11098.pdf

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 1987

ISSN: 0008-4166

ISBN:





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