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Author: Bakker, D.P.; Klijnstra, J.W.; Busscher, H.J.; van der Mei, H.C.

Description: Adhesion of three marine bacterial strains, i.e. Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Psychrobacter sp. and Halomonas pacifica with different cell surface hydrophobicities was measured on glass in a stagnation point flow chamber. Prior to bacterial adhesion, the glass surface was conditioned for 1 h with natural seawater collected at different seasons in order to determine the effect of seawater composition on the conditioning film and bacterial adhesion to it. The presence of a conditioning film was demonstrated by an increase in water contact angle from 15 degrees on bare glass to 50 degrees on the conditioned glass, concurrent with an increase in the amount of adsorbed organic carbon and nitrogen, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Multiple linear regression analysis on initial deposition rates, with as explanatory variables the temperature, salinity, pH and concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of the seawater at the time of collection, showed that the concentration of DOC was most strongly associated with the initial deposition rates of the three strains. Initial deposition rates of the two most hydrophilic strains to a conditioning film, increased with the concentration of DOC in the seawater, whereas the initial deposition rate of the most hydrophobic strain decreased with an increasing concentration of DOC.

Title: The effect of dissolved organic carbon on bacterial adhesion to conditioning films adsorbed on glass from natural seawater collected during different seasons

Subject headings: Adhesiveness/drug effects; *Bacterial Physiological Phenomena; Biofilms/*drug effects; Carbon/pharmacology; Glass; Netherlands; Seasons; Seawater/*microbiology; Spectrum Analysis; Surface Properties

Year: 2003

Publication: Biofouling

Volume: 19

Issue: 6

Pages: 391-397

Full text: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08927010310001634898#.VHj3fcmKWF8

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=16197813626175011192&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0892-7014

ISBN:
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Author: Bakker, T.C.M.; Pomiankowski, A.

Description: We review the evidence for genetic variation in female and male mate preferences. Genetic differences between species and partially isolated races show that preferences can evolve and were genetically variable in the past. Within populations there is good evidence of genetic variation, both of discrete genetic effects (8 cases) and quantitative genetic effects (17 cases), from a diverse range of taxa. We also review evidence for the presence of genetic covariance between mate preferences and sexual traits in the other sex. The 11 studies go a long way to validating the theoretical prediction of positive genetic covariance. The few negative results are best explained by a lack of appropriate experimental design. One unresolved question is whether genetic covariance is due to linkage disequilibrium between unlinked genes or physical linkage. Some evidence points to linkage disequilibrium but this is not yet conclusive.

Title: The genetic basis of female mate preferences

Subject headings: Callosobruchus maculatus; Genetic variation; Mate preferences; Female; Male; Beetle

Year: 1995

Publication: Journal of Evolutionary Biology

Volume: 8

Issue: 2

Pages: 129-171

Full text: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1420-9101.1995.8020129.x/pdf

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=13137370193778301697&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 1010-061X

ISBN:
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Author: Baldwin, H.A.; File, S.E.

Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which caffeine increases anxiety. Rats were tested in the social interaction test of anxiety after administration of caffeine (20 or 40 mg/kg) alone or in combination with various compounds. In order to investigate the role of adenosine receptors, caffeine was given in combination with 2-chloroadenosine (0.1 and 1 mg/kg). To investigate the role of benzodiazepine receptors, chlordiazepoxide (5 mg/kg), a benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil (RO 15-1788, 1 and 10 mg/kg) and a triazolobenzodiazepine U-43,465 (32 mg/kg) were used. Finally, an alpha 2-receptor agonist, clonidine (0.1 and 0.025 mg/kg) and a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, DL-propranolol (5 mg/kg), were used to study the role of noradrenergic systems in the effects of caffeine. Caffeine (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced the time spent in social interaction and this effect was antagonized by chlordiazepoxide, U-43,465 and DL-propranolol, but not by flumazenil, 2-chloroadenosine or clonidine. It was therefore concluded that the anxiogenic effect of caffeine was unlikely to be due to its effects at adenosine or benzodiazepine receptors. It is suggested that the reversal of caffeine's effects by chordiazepoxide may have been "functional," i.e., merely a cancellation of two opposite effects. It is discussed whether the reversal of caffeine's effects by propranolol and U-43,465 are functional, or reflect a noradrenergic site of action.

Title: Caffeine-induced anxiogenesis: the role of adenosine, benzodiazepine and noradrenergic receptors

Subject headings: 2-Chloroadenosine; Adenosine/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology; Alprazolam/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology; *Anxiety; Caffeine/*toxicity; Chlordiazepoxide/pharmacology; Clonidine/pharmacology; Flumazenil/pharmacology; Motor Activity/drug effects; Muscle Relaxants, Central/pharmacology; *Norepinephrine; Propranolol/pharmacology; Receptors, Adrenergic/*physiology; Receptors, GABA-A/*physiology; Receptors, Purinergic/*physiology; Social Behavior

Year: 1989

Publication: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior

Volume: 32

Issue: 1

Pages: 181-186

Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/009130578990230X

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=9256157156706825060&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0091-3057

ISBN:
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Author: Bandgar, B.P.; Gawande, S.S.; Bodade, R.G.; Gawande, N.M.; Khobragade, C.N.

Description: A novel series of 1-(2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-propenone (3) have been prepared by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 1-(2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-ethanone (1) and substituted 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes (2). Substituted 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes (2) were prepared by Vilsmeir-Haack reaction on acetophenonephenylhydrazones to offer the target compounds. The structures of the compounds were established by IR, (1)H NMR and mass spectral analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory (TNF-alpha and IL-6 inhibitory assays), antioxidant (DPPH free radical scavenging assay) and antimicrobial activities (agar diffusion method) against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Of 10 compounds screened, compounds 3a, 3c and 3g exhibited promising IL-6 inhibitory (35-70% inhibition, 10 microM), free radical scavenging (25-35% DPPH activity) and antimicrobial activities (MIC 100 microg/mL and 250 microg/mL) at varied concentrations. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) and in silico drug relevant properties (HBD, HBA, PSA, cLogP, molecular weight, E(HOMO) and E(LUMO)) further confirmed that the compounds are potential lead compounds for future drug discovery study. Toxicity of the compounds was evaluated theoretically and experimentally and revealed to be nontoxic except 3d and 3j.

Title: Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of pyrazole chalcones as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial agents

Subject headings: Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Antioxidants/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Chalcones/*chemical synthesis/chemistry/*pharmacology; Flavonoids; Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors

Year: 2009

Publication: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry

Volume: 17

Issue: 24

Pages: 8168-8173

Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0968089609009626

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=4166225024530175755&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0968-0896

ISBN:
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Author: Bandura, A.; Ross, D.; Ross, S.A.

Description: In a previous study, children imitated the behavior of a model in the presence of the model. The present study investigated the degree of imitation when the model was not present. Degree to which like-sexed model behavior would be followed was also studied. Nursery school children exposed to aggressively behaving models tended to imitate not only their aggressiveness but other behavior as well. There was some confirmation of like-sex imitation. The results were related to the psychoanalytic theory of identification.

Title: Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggressive models

Subject headings: *Aggression; Humans; Children; Imitation; Model; Behavior

Year: 1961

Publication: Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology

Volume: 63

Issue:

Pages: 575-582

Full text: http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Bandura/bobo.htm

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=11199213122985450220&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0021-843X

ISBN:
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Author: Barlett, P.F.

Description: Anthropological, sociological, historical, and psychological approaches are combined to explore three divergent orientations to masculine success among American farmers. With a focus on the moral economy of the family, we link dimensions of work, livelihood, and marital partnership to the emotional consequences of women’s off-farm work. We contrast agrarian and industrial ideals found in Georgia, Iowa, and Illinois and connect their emergence to the transformation of the American economy over the last 100 years. Psychological and survey data from an Iowa study show some preliminary support for the Georgia findings that a more industrial notion of farmers’masculinity, emphasizing income and lifestyle and an expectation that a man will be the sole breadwinner of the family, confers a heavier emotional burden in a time of financial crisis. The Midwestern sustainable agriculture movement has given rise to a “third wave” of masculinity, a less competitive and individualistic ideology, emerging from a more global ecological awareness.

Title: Three Visions of Masculine Success on American Farms

Subject headings: masculinity farming sustainable agriculture women’s work depression success Georgia Iowa Illinois

Year: 2004

Publication: Men and Masculinities

Volume: 7

Issue: 2

Pages: 205-227

Full text: http://jmm.sagepub.com/content/7/2/205.short

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=2859239959313669684&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 1097-184X

ISBN:
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Author: Barnett, R.C.; Brennan, R.T.; Gareis, K.C.

Description: Burnout, a widely studied syndrome, has been defined as comprising three factorially distinct symptoms: emotional exhaustion, decreased sense of professional efficacy, and cynicism. The most common measure is the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; Maslach, Jackson, & Leiter, 1996). We identified and corrected two flaws in the MBI, namely: (a) items purport to assess feelings, but half do not directly concern feelings; and (b) response categories are not mutually exclusive, rendering results difficult to interpret and inflating measurement error. The revised and original scales are highly correlated and have similar factor structures, interfactor correlation patterns, reliability, and construct-related evidence of validity. The revised scale corrects flaws in the original while retaining its strengths and should, therefore, be used in future studies.

Title: A Closer Look at the Measurement of Burnout

Subject headings: Burnout; Emotional exhaustion; Professional efficacy; Cynicism; Maslach Burnout Inventory

Year: 1999

Publication: Journal of Applied Biobehavioral Research

Volume: 4

Issue: 2

Pages: 65-78

Full text: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1751-9861.1999.tb00055.x

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=16723384165701040556&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 1071-2089

ISBN:
Details

Author: Barnum, D.W.

Description: Hückel LCAO-MO calculations were used to estimate the effect of metal-ligand TT-bonding on the electronic transition energies in a series of acetylacetonato complexes with trivalent transition metal ions. Coulomb and exchange integrals were estimated respectively from electronegativities and bond energy data, except for the exchange integral for the metal-oxygen TT-bond which was left as a variable parameter. The results allow most of the ultra-violet absorption bands to be assigned to specific transitions. Very good agreement between calculated and observed energies was obtained.

Metal-ligand TT-bonding, which increases throughout the series Ti(acac)3, V(acac)3, Cr(acac)3, Mn(acac)3, Fe(acac)3, and Co(acac)3, causes the TT3-TT4 transition to split into four bands. One band, which is less intense, is independent of TT-bonding whereas the other three shift to higher energy. The de-TT4 transition is split into three bands by TT-bonding. One less intense band shifts to lower energy with increasing metal-ligand TT-interaction. The other two overlap and are nearly independent of TT-bonding.

Title: Electronic absorption spectra of acetylacetonato complexes--II: Hückel LCAO-MO calculations for complexes with trivalent transition metal ions

Subject headings: Huckel; Metal-ligand; Bonding; Metal ions; Ultra-violet

Year: 1961

Publication: Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry

Volume: 22

Issue: 3-4

Pages: 183-191

Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022190261804338

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=9911745813373292673&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0022-1902

ISBN:
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Author: Baron, J.M.; Higgins, J.M.; Dzik, W.H.

Description: While Plasmodium falciparum is known to have had a strong effect on human evolution, the time period when P. falciparum first infected ancestors of modern humans has remained uncertain. Recent advances demonstrated that P. falciparum evolved from ancestors of gorilla parasites via host switching. Here, we estimate the range of dates during which this host switch may have occurred. DNA sequences of portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene obtained from gorilla parasites closely related to human P. falciparum were aligned and compared against similar sequences from human P. falciparum. Time estimates were calculated by applying a previously established parasite cytochrome b gene mutation rate (0.012 mutations per site per million years) and by modeling uncertainty in a Monte-Carlo simulation. We estimate a 95% confidence interval for when P. falciparum first infected ancestors of modern humans to be 112,000 and 1,036,000 years ago (median estimate, 365,000 years ago). This confidence interval suggests that P. falciparum first infected human ancestors much more recently than the previous recognized estimate of 2.5 million years ago. The revised estimate may inform our understanding of certain aspects of human-malaria co-evolution. For example, this revised date suggests a closer relationship between the entry of P. falciparum in humans and the appearance of many red blood cell polymorphisms considered to be genetic adaptations to malaria. In addition, the confidence interval lies within the timeframe dating the dawn of Homo sapiens, suggesting that P. falciparum may have undergone host switching as a Plasmodia adaptation specific for our species.

Title: A revised timeline for the origin of Plasmodium falciparum as a human pathogen

Subject headings: Animals; Cytochromes b/*genetics; *Evolution, Molecular; Gorilla gorilla/parasitology; Host-Parasite Interactions/*genetics; Humans; Malaria/*genetics/parasitology; Mitochondrial Proteins/*genetics; Mutation Rate; Plasmodium falciparum/*genetics/pathogenicity

Year: 2011

Publication: Journal of Molecular Evolution

Volume: 73

Issue: 5-6

Pages: 297-304

Full text: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00239-011-9476-x

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=961269417630030523&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0022-2844

ISBN:
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Author: Baron-Cohen, S.; Richler, J.; Bisarya, D.; Gurunathan, N.; Wheelwright, S.

Description: Systemizing is the drive to analyse systems or construct systems. A recent model of psychological sex differences suggests that this is a major dimension in which the sexes differ, with males being more drawn to systemize than females. Currently, there are no self-report measures to assess this important dimension. A second major dimension of sex differences is empathizing (the drive to identify mental states and respond to these with an appropriate emotion). Previous studies find females score higher on empathy measures. We report a new self-report questionnaire, the Systemizing Quotient (SQ), for use with adults of normal intelligence. It contains 40 systemizing items and 20 control items. On each systemizing item, a person can score 2, 1 or 0, so the SQ has a maximum score of 80 and a minimum of zero. In Study 1, we measured the SQ of n = 278 adults (114 males, 164 females) from a general population, to test for predicted sex differences (male superiority) in systemizing. All subjects were also given the Empathy Quotient (EQ) to test if previous reports of female superiority would be replicated. In Study 2 we employed the SQ and the EQ with n = 47 adults (33 males, 14 females) with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA), who are predicted to be either normal or superior at systemizing, but impaired at empathizing. Their scores were compared with n = 47 matched adults from the general population in Study 1. In Study 1, as predicted, normal adult males scored significantly higher than females on the SQ and significantly lower on the EQ. In Study 2, again as predicted, adults with AS/HFA scored significantly higher on the SQ than matched controls, and significantly lower on the EQ than matched controls. The SQ reveals both a sex difference in systemizing in the general population and an unusually strong drive to systemize in AS/HFA. These results are discussed in relation to two linked theories: the 'empathizing-systemizing' (E-S) theory of sex differences and the extreme male brain (EMB) theory of autism.

Title: The systemizing quotient: an investigation of adults with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism, and normal sex differences

Subject headings: Adult; Asperger Syndrome/*diagnosis/*psychology; Autistic Disorder/diagnosis/psychology; Empathy; Female; Humans; Male; *Psychological Tests; Psychological Theory; *Questionnaires; *Sex Characteristics

Year: 2003

Publication: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences

Volume: 358

Issue: 1430

Pages: 361-374

Full text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1693117/

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=2316588363115364053&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0962-8436

ISBN:





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