Description: Psychophysiological models of panic hypothesize that panickers focus attention on and become anxious about the physical sensations associated with panic. Attention on internal somatic cues has been labeled interoception. The present study examined the role of physiological arousal and subjective anxiety on interoceptive accuracy. Infrequent panickers and nonanxious participants participated in an initial baseline to examine overall interoceptive accuracy. Next, participants ingested caffeine, about which they received either safety or no safety information. Using a mental heartbeat tracking paradigm, participants' count of their heartbeats during specific time intervals were coded based on polygraph measures. Infrequent panickers were more accurate in the perception of their heartbeats than nonanxious participants. Changes in physiological arousal were not associated with increased accuracy on the heartbeat perception task. However, higher levels of self-reported anxiety were associated with superior performance.
Description: This paper examines the Amish farm using a paradigm developed by Bues and Dunlap (1990) that contrasts conventional and alternative agriculture. The Amish farm is described as a farming system that carefully manages both human and natural resources. While not the same as alternative agriculture, the Amish farming system does include many of the elements that alternative agriculture does, such as diversity, decentralization, community, independence, harmony with nature and restraint. The author uses primary sources from within the Amish community and the literature about the Amish farm in order to make the comparison with other forms of farming. The Amish way of life and its relationship to the farm is discussed, noting that Amish people's spirituality, supportive community, and the values of self-sufficiency and independence are incorporated into every aspect of lie, including farming practices. The paper concludes by suggesting that some key factors of the Amish farming system could be beneficial if incorporated into other farming.
Title: The Amish Farm and Alternative Agriculture: A Comparison
Subject headings: Amish; Farming; Conventional agriculture; Alternative agriculture
Publication year: 1994
Journal or book title: Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Description: Goal orientation is emerging as a useful construct for understanding learning and performance. However, there is considerable confusion as to the nature of goal orientation and its relationship with related variables. To address this, we extended previous research on the relationship between goal orientation and general personality characteristics by investigating questions about the distinctiveness and utility of the constructs in predicting performance intentions. Results indicated that goal orientation and general personality traits are related but distinct constructs. Furthermore, goal orientation mediates the relationship between personality and performance intentions. Implications for the use of goal orientation as a unique predictor of learning, performance and training success are discussed.
Title: What are we measuring? An examination of the relationships between the big-five personality traits, goal orientation, and performance intentions
Subject headings: Goal orientation; Performance intentions; Personality; Learning; Three-factor model
Publication year: 2004
Journal or book title: Personality and Individual Differences