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Author: Albani, M.; Medvigy, D.; Hurtt, G.C.; Moorcroft, P.R.

Description: Atmospheric measurements and land-based inventories imply that terrestrial ecosystems in the northern hemisphere are taking up significant amounts of anthropogenic cabon dioxide (CO2) emissions; however, there is considerable disagreement about the causes of this uptake, and its expected future trajectory. In this paper, we use the ecosystem demography (ED) model to quantify the contributions of disturbance history, CO2 fertilization and climate variability to the past, current, and future terrestrial carbon fluxes in the Eastern United States. The simulations indicate that forest regrowth following agricultural abandonment accounts for uptake of 0.11 Pg C yr−1 in the 1980s and 0.15 Pg C yr−1 in the 1990s, and regrowth following forest harvesting accounts for an additional 0.1 Pg C yr−1 of uptake during both these decades. The addition of CO2 fertilization into the model simulations increases carbon uptake rates to 0.38 Pg C yr−1 in the 1980s and 0.47 Pg C yr−1 in the 1990s. Comparisons of predicted aboveground carbon uptake to regional-scale forest inventory measurements indicate that the model's predictions in the absence of CO2 fertilization are 14% lower than observed, while in the presence of CO2 fertilization, predicted uptake rates are 28% larger than observed. Comparable results are obtained from comparisons of predicted total Net Ecosystem Productivity to the carbon fluxes observed at the Harvard Forest flux tower site and in model simulations free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. These results imply that disturbance history is the principal mechanism responsible for current carbon uptake in the Eastern United States, and that conventional biogeochemical formulations of plant growth overestimate the response of plants to rising CO2 levels. Model projections out to 2100 imply that the carbon uptake arising from forest regrowth will increasingly be dominated by forest regrowth following harvesting. Consequently, actual carbon storage declines to near zero by the end of the 21st century as the forest regrowth that has occurred since agricultural abandonment comes into equilibrium with the landscape's new disturbance regime. Incorporating interannual climate variability into the model simulations gives rise to large interannual variation in regional carbon fluxes, indicating that long-term measurements are necessary to detect the signature of processes that give rise to long-term uptake and storage.

Title: The contributions of land-use change, CO2 fertilization, and climate variability to the Eastern US carbon sink

Subject headings: Climate Variability; CO2 Fertilization; CO2 Fluxes; Disturbance History; Eastern United States; Ecosystem Demography (ED) Model; Forest Harvesting; Land-use History; Regional-scale Uptake; Terrestrial Carbon Sink

Year: 2006

Publication: Global Change Biology

Volume: 12

Issue: 12

Pages: 2370-2390

Full text: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01254.x

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=16623858348355055032&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 1354-1013

ISBN:
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Author: Albuquerque, E.X.; Pereira, E.F.R.; Alkondon, M.; Rogers, S.W.

Description: The classical studies of nicotine by Langley at the turn of the 20th century introduced the concept of a "receptive substance," from which the idea of a "receptor" came to light. Subsequent studies aided by the Torpedo electric organ, a rich source of muscle-type nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), and the discovery of alpha-bungarotoxin, a snake toxin that binds pseudo-irreversibly to the muscle nAChR, resulted in the muscle nAChR being the best characterized ligand-gated ion channel hitherto. With the advancement of functional and genetic studies in the late 1980s, the existence of nAChRs in the mammalian brain was confirmed and the realization that the numerous nAChR subtypes contribute to the psychoactive properties of nicotine and other drugs of abuse and to the neuropathology of various diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and schizophrenia, has since emerged. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these findings and the more recent revelations of the impact that the rich diversity in function and expression of this receptor family has on neuronal and nonneuronal cells throughout the body. Despite these numerous developments, our understanding of the contributions of specific neuronal nAChR subtypes to the many facets of physiology throughout the body remains in its infancy.

Title: Mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from structure to function

Subject headings: Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology; Animals; Brain/physiology; Disease Models, Animal; Gene Expression Regulation/physiology; Humans; Parkinson Disease/physiopathology; Receptors, Nicotinic/*chemistry/*physiology

Year: 2009

Publication: Physiological Reviews

Volume: 89

Issue: 1

Pages: 73-120

Full text: http://physrev.physiology.org/content/89/1/73.full.pdf+html

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=14364685123257211626&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0031-9333

ISBN:
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Author: Alcock, J.; Maley, C.C.; Aktipis, C.A.

Description: Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating.

Title: Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms

Subject headings: Animals; *Biological Evolution; *Feeding Behavior; Gastrointestinal Tract/*microbiology; Humans; *Microbiota; Models, Biological; Obesity/etiology; Cravings; Evolutionary conflict; Host manipulation; Microbiome; Obesity

Year: 2014

Publication: BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology

Volume: 36

Issue: 10

Pages: 940-949

Full text: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4270213/

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=8846051259404182809&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0265-9247

ISBN:
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Author: Alexander, P.C.; Anderson, C.L.; Brand, B.; Schaeffer, C.M.; Grelling, B.Z.; Kretz, L.

Description: Objective: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that adult attachment is related to distress and personality disorders in incest survivors.
Method: Adult female incest survivors recruited from the community participated in a structured interview (Family Attachment Interview; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991) and completed measures of current functioning (Impact of Event Scale, SCL-10, Beck Depression Inventory) and personality (MCMI-II). Complete data from 92 cases out of the total sample of 112 were analyzed.
Results: Analyses of variance suggested that attachment (as represented by a category) was significantly related to personality structure, with fearful individuals showing more avoidant, self-defeating, and borderline tendencies and preoccupied individuals showing more dependent, self-defeating, and borderline tendencies than secure or dismissing individuals. Results of hierarchical regression analyses suggested that attachment (as represented by four dimensions) was significantly associated with personality structure, depression and distress, and abuse severity with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (intrusive thoughts and avoidance of memories) and depression.
Conclusions: The findings demonstrated the propensity for insecure attachment among incest survivors. Sexual abuse severity and attachment have significant but distinct effects on longterm outcome; abuse characteristics predict classic PTSD symptoms and attachment insecurity predicts distress, depression, and personality disorders above and beyond any effects of abuse severity.

Title: Adult attachment and longterm effects in survivors of incest

Subject headings: Incest; Attachment theory; Longterm effects

Year: 1998

Publication: Child Abuse & Neglect

Volume: 22

Issue: 1

Pages: 45-61

Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0145213497001208

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=13857566803591766352&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0145-2134

ISBN:
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Author: Alfermann, D.; Stambulova, N.; Zemaityte, A.

Description: Objectives: To assess the cognitive, emotional, and behavioural consequences of sport career termination of national and international level athletes in three nations.
Design and methods: Athletes of Germany (n=88), Lithuania (n=65), and Russia (n=101) were asked to describe in retrospect their reactions to career termination. The Athletic Retirement Questionnaire developed by the first two authors and presented in three corresponding languages was used. Planning of retirement and national identity served as independent variables. Dependent variables were reasons and circumstances for career termination, participants’ emotional reactions, coping reactions, athletic identity during and after sport career, and adjustment to life after career termination.
Results: Analyses of variance revealed significant main effects of retirement planning and national identity on most dependent variables. Planning of retirement contributed to significantly better cognitive, emotional, and behavioural adaptation. In addition, high athletic identity contributed to less positive reactions to retirement and to more problems in the adaptation process. The emotional reactions of Russian and Lithuanian athletes were similar, but differed from the German athletes who, in general, showed more positive and lesser negative emotions after retirement. Though accepting the reality of retirement was the most often used coping strategy among all participants, Lithuanian athletes showed more denial and Russian athletes more distraction strategies after retirement than the other nations.
Discussion: The results are discussed with regard to athletes’ readiness for career transition in different social and cultural environments. Recommendations are given on how to help athletes to prepare for and to cope with career termination.

Title: Reactions to sport career termination: a cross-national comparison of German, Lithuanian, and Russian athletes

Subject headings: Sport Career Termination; Coping; Cross-national Comparison; Counselling

Year: 2004

Publication: Psychology of Sport and Exercise

Volume: 5

Issue: 1

Pages: 61-75

Full text: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S146902920200050X

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=1762483940056216652&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 1469-0292

ISBN:
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Author: Allen, B.; Timmer, S.G.; Urquiza, A.J.

Description: Children with histories of child abuse and neglect, particularly children residing in foster or adoptive homes, are commonly considered by many professionals to need “attachment therapy” in order to address emotional and behavioral needs. However, evidence-based treatments rarely utilize an attachment-based justification outside of the infancy through preschooler age range. In actuality, many evidence-based treatments can be understood through the lens of attachment theory. This paper reviews the tenets of an attachment-based approach to treatment and describes how one evidence-based treatment, Parent–Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), conforms to all expectations and requirements prescribed by attachment theory and research. Next, pilot data from an open trial of PCIT with a sample of adopted children and their adoptive caregivers (n = 85) are provided. Results demonstrate significant improvements in positive parenting techniques, reductions in parenting stress, and reductions in externalizing and internalizing concerns among the children. These results are discussed in the context of improving the quality of care for children often described as in need of “attachment therapy.”

Title: Parent-Child Interaction Therapy as an attachment-based intervention: Theoretical rationale and pilot data with adopted children

Subject headings: Attachment; Evidence-based treatment; Parent–Child Interaction Therapy; Adoption

Year: 2014

Publication: Children and Youth Services Review

Volume: 47

Issue:

Pages: 334-341

Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0190740914003715

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=5633724898362512249&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0190-7409

ISBN:
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Author: Allen, J.Y.; Haley, W.E.; Small, B.J.; Schonwetter, R.S.; McMillan, S.C.

Description: BACKGROUND: Informal caregivers are an integral part of end-of-life care for hospice patients with cancer. Although adjustment following loss is highly individual, many caregivers have significant psychological distress after the death of a loved one. This study investigated risk factors that may predict psychological distress, which could aid hospice bereavement departments in targeting bereavement services. METHOD: Demographic characteristics, patient impairment, caregiver baseline symptoms of depression, and caregiver resources were assessed among 188 cancer patient-caregiver dyads. Regression analyses identified predictors of symptoms of depression, grief, and complicated grief one year following loss. RESULTS: Over 50% of bereaved caregivers had clinically significant depressive symptoms one year after death of their relative. Caregivers with fewer years of education and more baseline symptoms of depression had significantly worse grief, complicated grief, and depression. Younger patient age was a significant predictor of poorer outcomes for grief and complicated grief; and less patient impairment was a significant predictor of more post-loss symptoms of depression. Lower social support satisfaction was correlated with worse grief and complicated grief but was not a significant multivariate predictor of poorer outcomes. CONCLUSION: Despite having access to hospice bereavement services, many former caregivers had high psychological distress one year following loss. Bereavement departments could consider utilizing readily available risk factors to target services to former caregivers who may benefit from bereavement services. Bereavement departments might also consider including brief, standardized screenings of caregiver depression in initial risk assessments. Future studies should investigate evidence-based approaches for assessment and interventions among highly distressed former hospice caregivers.

Subject Headings: Aged; *Bereavement; Caregivers/*psychology; Depression/*etiology/psychology; Female; Hospice Care/*psychology; Humans; Male; Neoplasms/therapy; Professional-Family Relations; Regression Analysis; Social Support; Stress, Psychological/*etiology/psychology

Title: Bereavement among hospice caregivers of cancer patients one year following loss: predictors of grief, complicated grief, and symptoms of depression

Subject headings:

Year: 2013

Publication: Journal of Palliative Medicine

Volume: 16

Issue: 7

Pages: 745-751

Full text: https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jpm.2012.0450?casa_token=3AvEoUKkkxkAAAAA:widxTK1tm62uMXSBjD60eE8zGMZqFIhE3GxZawPK_Q1yavp-Qzk3tHsLGAtpw_cwctsJdi4ImeY7mK8

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=7397672206856572908&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 1557-7740

ISBN:
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Author: Allen, S.E.; Carlisle, A.; White, E.J.; Evans, C.C.

Description:

Title: The Plant Nutrient Content of Rainwater

Subject headings: Rain, Plant nutrition, Sodium, Calcium, Nutrient cycle, Phosphorus, Nutrients, Nitrogen, Precipitation, Standard error

Year: 1968

Publication: The Journal of Ecology

Volume: 56

Issue: 2

Pages: 497

Full text: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2258247

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=5723724741281973256&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0022-0477

ISBN:
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Author: Allen, S.L.; Lundberg, A.S.

Description: INTRODUCTION: Amonafide is a novel topoisomerase II (Topo II) inhibitor and DNA intercalator that induces apoptotic signaling by blocking the binding of Topo II to DNA. Amonafide retains cytotoxic activity even in the presence of P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR), a major contributor to clinical treatment failure. AREAS COVERED: In vitro, Pgp-mediated transport (efflux) of amonafide from myeloblasts obtained from patients with secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) was significantly less than efflux of daunorubicin. Amonafide has shown efficacy in patients with sAML, as well as in patients with poor prognostic characteristics such as older age and unfavorable cytogenetics, all associated with MDR. Improved antileukemic activity is observed when amonafide is given together with cytarabine, rather than as monotherapy, with a complete remission rate of approximately 40% in a recent Phase II trial in sAML. The efficacy of amonafide was maintained among poor-risk subsets of patients, including older patients and patients who had previous myelodysplastic syndrome or previous leukemogenic therapy. The safety profile was acceptable and manageable. EXPERT OPINION: Amonafide plus cytarabine may have clinical utility in patients with sAML and in other poor-risk subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Ongoing trials will help define the role for amonafide in the treatment of poor-risk AML.

Title: Amonafide: a potential role in treating acute myeloid leukemia

Subject headings: Animals; Antineoplastic Agents--pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use; Clinical Trials as Topic--methods; DNA Topoisomerases, Type II--metabolism; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm; Enzyme Inhibitors--pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use; Humans; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute--drug therapy, enzymology, mortality; Naphthalimides--pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use; Survival Rate--trends; Treatment Outcome

Year: 2011

Publication: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs

Volume: 20

Issue: 7

Pages: 995-1003

Full text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21591994

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=14665071365731821907&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 1354-3784

ISBN:
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Author: Alonso, A.; Almendral, M.J.; Curto, Y.; Criado, J.J.; Rodriguez, E.; Manzano, J.L.

Description: Flow injection analysis was used to study the reactions occurring between DNA and certain compounds that bind to its double helix, deforming this and even breaking it, such that some of them (e.g., cisplatin) are endowed with antitumoral activity. Use of this technique in the merging zones and stopped-flow modes afforded data on the binding parameters and the kinetic characteristics of the process. The first compound studied was ethidium bromide (EtdBr), used as a fluorescent marker because its fluorescence is enhanced when it binds to DNA. The DNA-EtdBr binding parameters, the apparent intrinsic binding constant (0.31+/-0.02 microM(-1)), and the maximum number of binding sites per nucleotide (0.327+/-0.009) were determined. The modification introduced in these parameters by the presence of proflavine (Prf), a classic competitive inhibitor of the binding of EtdBr to the DNA double helix, was also studied, determining the value of the intrinsic binding constant of Prf (K(Prf) = 0.119+/-9x10(-3) microM(-1)). Finally, we determined the binding parameters between DNA and EtdBr in the presence of the antitumor agent cisplatin, a noncompetitive inhibitor of such binding. This provided information about the binding mechanism as well as the duration and activity of the binding of the compound in its pharmacological use.

Title: Determination of the DNA-binding characteristics of ethidium bromide, proflavine, and cisplatin by flow injection analysis: usefulness in studies on antitumor drugs

Subject headings: Antineoplastic Agents--chemistry, metabolism; Binding Sites; Cisplatin--chemistry, metabolism; DNA--chemistry, metabolism; Ethidium--chemistry, metabolism; Flow Injection Analysis--methods; Fluorescent Dyes; Kinetics; Nucleic Acid Conformation; Proflavine--chemistry, metabolism; Spectrometry, Fluorescence

Year: 2006

Publication: Analytical Biochemistry

Volume: 355

Issue: 2

Pages: 157-164

Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003269706004118

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=11737308462306188828&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0003-2697

ISBN:





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