items found (Total items:2923)
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Author: Alam, S.M.; Aussedat, B.; Vohra, Y.; Ryan Meyerhoff, R.; Cale, E.M.; Walkowicz, W.E.; Radakovich, N.A.; Anasti, K.; Armand, L.; Parks, R.; Sutherland, L.; Scearce, R.; Joyce, M.G.; Pancera, M.; Druz, A.; Georgiev, I.S.; Von Holle, T.; Eaton, A.; Fox, C.; Reed, S.G.; Louder, M.; Bailer, R.T.; Morris, L.; Abdool-Karim, S.S.; Cohen, M.; Liao, H.-X.; Montefiori, D.C.; Park, P.K.; Fernandez-Tejada, A.; Wiehe, K.; Santra, S.; Kepler, T.B.; Saunders, K.O.; Sodroski, J.; Kwong, P.D.; Mascola, J.R.; Bonsignori, M.; Moody, M.A.; Danishefsky, S.; Haynes, B.F.
Description: A goal for an HIV-1 vaccine is to overcome virus variability by inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). One key target of bnAbs is the glycan-polypeptide at the base of the envelope (Env) third variable loop (V3). We have designed and synthesized a homogeneous minimal immunogen with high-mannose glycans reflective of a native Env V3-glycan bnAb epitope (Man9-V3). V3-glycan bnAbs bound to Man9-V3 glycopeptide and native-like gp140 trimers with similar affinities. Fluorophore-labeled Man9-V3 glycopeptides bound to bnAb memory B cells and were able to be used to isolate a V3-glycan bnAb from an HIV-1-infected individual. In rhesus macaques, immunization with Man9-V3 induced V3-glycan-targeted antibodies. Thus, the Man9-V3 glycopeptide closely mimics an HIV-1 V3-glycan bnAb epitope and can be used to isolate V3-glycan bnAbs.
Title: Mimicry of an HIV broadly neutralizing antibody epitope with a synthetic glycopeptide
Publication year: 2017
Journal or book title: Science Translational Medicine
Find the full text : http://stm.sciencemag.org/content/9/381/eaai7521
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 1919
Author: Alapin, I.; Fichten, C.S.; Libman, E.; Creti, L.; Bailes, S.; Wright, J.
Description: We compared good sleepers with minimally and highly distressed poor sleepers on three measures of daytime functioning: self-reported fatigue, sleepiness, and cognitive inefficiency. In two samples (194 older adults, 136 college students), we tested the hypotheses that (1) poor sleepers experience more problems with daytime functioning than good sleepers, (2) highly distressed poor sleepers report greater impairment in functioning during the day than either good sleepers or minimally distressed poor sleepers, (3) daytime symptoms are more closely related to psychological adjustment and to psychologically laden sleep variables than to quantitative sleep parameters, and (4) daytime symptoms are more closely related to longer nocturnal wake times than to shorter sleep times. Results in both samples indicated that poor sleepers reported more daytime difficulties than good sleepers. While low- and high-distress poor sleepers did not differ on sleep parameters, highly distressed poor sleepers reported consistently more difficulty in functioning during the day and experienced greater tension and depression than minimally distressed poor sleepers. Severity of all three daytime problems was generally significantly and positively related to poor psychological adjustment, psychologically laden sleep variables, and, with the exception of sleepiness, to quantitative sleep parameters. Results are used to discuss discrepancies between experiential and quantitative measures of daytime functioning.
Title: How is good and poor sleep in older adults and college students related to daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and ability to concentrate?
Subject headings: Adaptation, Psychological; Adult; Aged; Attention; Circadian Rhythm--physiology; Cognition Disorders--diagnosis, etiology; Disorders of Excessive Somnolence--diagnosis, etiology; Fatigue--diagnosis, etiology; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Severity of Illness Index; Sleep--physiology; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders--complications, diagnosis; Students; Universities; Wakefulness--physiology
Publication year: 2000
Journal or book title: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Find the full text : http://www.adaptech.org/cfichten/abHowisgoodandpoorsleep.pdf
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 216
Author: Alarcon, G.M.; Edwards, J.M.; Clark, P.C.
Description: Coping was hypothesized to explain additional variance in first year grade point averages (GPAs) controlling for cognitive ability and conscientiousness. First year GPAs were assessed as criterion for performance in the first year. Results indicate active coping, denial, behavioral disengagement, and alcohol disengagement are related to first year GPA. Denial and alcohol disengagement coping strategies were significant predictors and negatively related to first year GPA in the final regression equation controlling for cognitive ability and conscientiousness. Latent growth modeling analysis demonstrated cognitive ability predicted both the intercept and slope of first year GPA. Conscientiousness was a predictor of initial GPA but not change. Lastly, coping was a significant predictor of change in GPA. Implications for research and theory are discussed.
Title: Coping strategies and first year performance in postsecondary education
Subject headings: Coping; GPA; Grade point average; College; University; First year
Publication year: 2013
Journal or book title: Journal of Applied Social Psychology
Find the full text : http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jasp.12120/full
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 1167
Author: Albani, M.; Medvigy, D.; Hurtt, G.C.; Moorcroft, P.R.
Description: Atmospheric measurements and land-based inventories imply that terrestrial ecosystems in the northern hemisphere are taking up significant amounts of anthropogenic cabon dioxide (CO2) emissions; however, there is considerable disagreement about the causes of this uptake, and its expected future trajectory. In this paper, we use the ecosystem demography (ED) model to quantify the contributions of disturbance history, CO2 fertilization and climate variability to the past, current, and future terrestrial carbon fluxes in the Eastern United States. The simulations indicate that forest regrowth following agricultural abandonment accounts for uptake of 0.11 Pg C yr−1 in the 1980s and 0.15 Pg C yr−1 in the 1990s, and regrowth following forest harvesting accounts for an additional 0.1 Pg C yr−1 of uptake during both these decades. The addition of CO2 fertilization into the model simulations increases carbon uptake rates to 0.38 Pg C yr−1 in the 1980s and 0.47 Pg C yr−1 in the 1990s. Comparisons of predicted aboveground carbon uptake to regional-scale forest inventory measurements indicate that the model's predictions in the absence of CO2 fertilization are 14% lower than observed, while in the presence of CO2 fertilization, predicted uptake rates are 28% larger than observed. Comparable results are obtained from comparisons of predicted total Net Ecosystem Productivity to the carbon fluxes observed at the Harvard Forest flux tower site and in model simulations free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. These results imply that disturbance history is the principal mechanism responsible for current carbon uptake in the Eastern United States, and that conventional biogeochemical formulations of plant growth overestimate the response of plants to rising CO2 levels. Model projections out to 2100 imply that the carbon uptake arising from forest regrowth will increasingly be dominated by forest regrowth following harvesting. Consequently, actual carbon storage declines to near zero by the end of the 21st century as the forest regrowth that has occurred since agricultural abandonment comes into equilibrium with the landscape's new disturbance regime. Incorporating interannual climate variability into the model simulations gives rise to large interannual variation in regional carbon fluxes, indicating that long-term measurements are necessary to detect the signature of processes that give rise to long-term uptake and storage.
Title: The contributions of land-use change, CO2 fertilization, and climate variability to the Eastern US carbon sink
Subject headings: Climate Variability; CO2 Fertilization; CO2 Fluxes; Disturbance History; Eastern United States; Ecosystem Demography (ED) Model; Forest Harvesting; Land-use History; Regional-scale Uptake; Terrestrial Carbon Sink
Publication year: 2006
Journal or book title: Global Change Biology
Find the full text : http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01254.x
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 875
Author: Albert, D.; Steinberg, L.
Description: In this article, we review the most important findings to have emerged during the past 10 years in the study of judgment and decision making (JDM) in adolescence and look ahead to possible new directions in this burgeoning area of research. Three inter-related shifts in research emphasis are of particular importance and serve to organize this review. First, research grounded in normative models of JDM has moved beyond the study of age differences in risk perception and toward a dynamic account of the factors predicting adolescent decisions. Second, the field has seen widespread adoption of dual‐process models of cognitive development that describe 2 relatively independent modes of information processing, typically contrasting an analytic (cold) system with an experiential (hot) one. Finally, there has been an increase in attention to the social, emotional, and self-regulatory factors that influence JDM. This shift in focus reflects the growing influence of findings from developmental neuroscience, which describe a pattern of structural and functional maturation that may set the stage for a heightened propensity to make risky decisions in adolescence.
Subject Headings: Adolescence; Decision making; Judgement; JDM
Keywords: Judgment and Decision Making in Adolescence: ADOLESCENT JDM
Title: Judgment and Decision Making in Adolescence: ADOLESCENT JDM
Subject headings: Judgment and Decision Making in Adolescence: ADOLESCENT JDM
Publication year: 2011
Journal or book title: Journal of Research on Adolescence
Find the full text : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00724.x
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 2471
Author: Albert, I.; Cicala, G.A.; Siegel, J.
Description: Four experiments were performed to test the behavioral effects of REM deprivation on rats. Two studies of avoidance learning showed that shuttle avoidance and runway avoidance were unaffected by REM deprivation. REM deprivation produced an enhancement of activity, and the addition of periodic shock demonstrated a failure of adaptation for REM-deprived subjects.
These data were interpreted as indicating that REM deprivation produces motivational effects on rat behavior and that electric shock-induced pain and REM deprivation interact to change activity patterns. It was concluded that the findings of the present experiment can be explained most parsimoniously in terms of increased sensitivity of REM-deprived subjects to environmental stimulation.
Subject headings: Animals; Avoidance Learning; Behavior, Animal; Electroshock; Male; Memory; Motivation; Motor Activity; Rats; Sleep Deprivation; Sleep, REM
Keywords: The behavioral effects of REM sleep deprivation in rats
Title: The behavioral effects of REM sleep deprivation in rats
Publication year: 1970
Journal or book title: Psychophysiology
Find the full text : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1970.tb02244.x
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 2985
Author: Albuquerque, E.X.; Pereira, E.F.R.; Alkondon, M.; Rogers, S.W.
Description: The classical studies of nicotine by Langley at the turn of the 20th century introduced the concept of a "receptive substance," from which the idea of a "receptor" came to light. Subsequent studies aided by the Torpedo electric organ, a rich source of muscle-type nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), and the discovery of alpha-bungarotoxin, a snake toxin that binds pseudo-irreversibly to the muscle nAChR, resulted in the muscle nAChR being the best characterized ligand-gated ion channel hitherto. With the advancement of functional and genetic studies in the late 1980s, the existence of nAChRs in the mammalian brain was confirmed and the realization that the numerous nAChR subtypes contribute to the psychoactive properties of nicotine and other drugs of abuse and to the neuropathology of various diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and schizophrenia, has since emerged. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these findings and the more recent revelations of the impact that the rich diversity in function and expression of this receptor family has on neuronal and nonneuronal cells throughout the body. Despite these numerous developments, our understanding of the contributions of specific neuronal nAChR subtypes to the many facets of physiology throughout the body remains in its infancy.
Title: Mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from structure to function
Subject headings: Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology; Animals; Brain/physiology; Disease Models, Animal; Gene Expression Regulation/physiology; Humans; Parkinson Disease/physiopathology; Receptors, Nicotinic/*chemistry/*physiology
Publication year: 2009
Journal or book title: Physiological Reviews
Find the full text : http://physrev.physiology.org/content/89/1/73.full.pdf+html
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 1876
Author: Alcock, J.; Maley, C.C.; Aktipis, C.A.
Description: Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating.
Title: Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms
Subject headings: Animals; *Biological Evolution; *Feeding Behavior; Gastrointestinal Tract/*microbiology; Humans; *Microbiota; Models, Biological; Obesity/etiology; Cravings; Evolutionary conflict; Host manipulation; Microbiome; Obesity
Publication year: 2014
Journal or book title: BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Find the full text : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4270213/
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 2002
Author: Alexander, P.C.; Anderson, C.L.; Brand, B.; Schaeffer, C.M.; Grelling, B.Z.; Kretz, L.
Description: Objective: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that adult attachment is related to distress and personality disorders in incest survivors.
Method: Adult female incest survivors recruited from the community participated in a structured interview (Family Attachment Interview; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991) and completed measures of current functioning (Impact of Event Scale, SCL-10, Beck Depression Inventory) and personality (MCMI-II). Complete data from 92 cases out of the total sample of 112 were analyzed.
Results: Analyses of variance suggested that attachment (as represented by a category) was significantly related to personality structure, with fearful individuals showing more avoidant, self-defeating, and borderline tendencies and preoccupied individuals showing more dependent, self-defeating, and borderline tendencies than secure or dismissing individuals. Results of hierarchical regression analyses suggested that attachment (as represented by four dimensions) was significantly associated with personality structure, depression and distress, and abuse severity with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (intrusive thoughts and avoidance of memories) and depression.
Conclusions: The findings demonstrated the propensity for insecure attachment among incest survivors. Sexual abuse severity and attachment have significant but distinct effects on longterm outcome; abuse characteristics predict classic PTSD symptoms and attachment insecurity predicts distress, depression, and personality disorders above and beyond any effects of abuse severity.
Title: Adult attachment and longterm effects in survivors of incest
Subject headings: Incest; Attachment theory; Longterm effects
Publication year: 1998
Journal or book title: Child Abuse & Neglect
Find the full text : http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0145213497001208
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 1477