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Author: Altman, S.E.; Shankman, S.A.

Description: Because eating disorders (EDs) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) co-occur at high rates and can have functionally similar clinical presentations, it has been suggested that both constructs might be part of a common spectrum of disorders. Identifying the relationship between EDs and OCD may lead to the discovery of important shared core disease processes and/or mechanisms for maintenance. The objective of this paper is to understand the relationship between EDs and OCD by systematically reviewing epidemiological, longitudinal and family studies guided by five models of comorbidity posited by Klein and Riso (1993) and others. Though this literature is relatively small, the preponderance of evidence from these studies largely suggests that OCD/ED co-occur because of a shared etiological relationship. Limitations to extant literature, and suggestions for future research are discussed.

Title: What is the association between obsessive-compulsive disorder and eating disorders?

Subject headings: Anorexia Nervosa/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Bulimia Nervosa/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology; Causality; Comorbidity; Cross-Sectional Studies; Diseases in Twins/genetics/psychology; Feeding and Eating Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/*psychology; Genotype; Humans; Longitudinal Studies; Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/*psychology; Personality Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/genetics/psychology

Year: 2009

Publication: Clinical Psychology Review

Volume: 29

Issue: 7

Pages: 638-646

Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0272735809001081

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=14708241189379766438&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0272-7358

ISBN:
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Author: Alvarez, J.; Fadic, R.

Description: In toads Xenopus laevis living at 11 degrees (winter), the microtubular density of 4-microns myelinated axons of lumbosacral nerves was assessed with the electron microscope. In controls, the density was 11.2 microtubules/microns2. In nerves incubated at 0 degrees, microtubules decreased following a simple exponential curve with a half time of 4.7 min (k = 0.149 min-1); residual microtubules were 4.5%. After rewarming, the full complement of microtubules reappeared within 60 min. In steady state, the microtubular density exhibited a linear relationship with temperature (range: 0-22 degrees; slope 0.94 microtubules/microns 2 per degree; r, 0.96). After heating the nerve by 11 degrees above the physiological temperature, microtubules increased by 83%, whereby the pool of unpolymerized tubulin was at least 2.7 mg/ml of axoplasm. A seasonal variation of the microtubular density was observed which accorded with the environmental temperature. The macroscopic kinetics of microtubule disassembly in the axoplasm is similar to that reported for purified tubulin but that of assembly is slower. Microtubules of peripheral axons of Xenopus are cold-labile and vary during the annual cycle.

Title: Assembly and disassembly of axonal microtubules of the toad Xenopus laevis under the effect of temperature

Subject headings: Animals; Axons/*physiology; Cytoplasm/metabolism; Kinetics; Microtubules/*physiology; Seasons; *Temperature; Tubulin/metabolism; Xenopus laevis

Year: 1992

Publication: The Journal of Experimental Zoology

Volume: 264

Issue: 3

Pages: 261-266

Full text: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jez.1402640305/abstract

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=16698765321519465604&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0022-104X

ISBN:
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Author: Amaku, M.; Coutinho, F.A.B.; Massad, E.

Description: Urban yellow fever and dengue coexist in Africa but not in Asia and South America. In this paper, we examine four hypotheses (and various combinations thereof) to explain the absence of yellow fever in urban areas of Asia and South America. In addition, we examine an additional hypothesis that offers an explanation of the coexistence of the infections in Africa while at the same time explaining their lack of coexistence in Asia. The hypotheses we tested to explain the nonexistence of yellow fever in Asia are the following: (1) the Asian Aedes aegypti is relatively incompetent to transmit yellow fever; (2) there would exist a competition between dengue and yellow fever viruses within the mosquitoes, as suggested by in vitro studies in which the dengue virus always wins; (3) when an A. aegypti mosquito that is infected by or latent for yellow fever acquires dengue, it becomes latent for dengue due to internal competition within the mosquito between the two viruses; (4) there is an important cross-immunity between yellow fever and other flaviviruses, dengue in particular, such that a person recovered from a bout of dengue exhibits a diminished susceptibility to yellow fever. This latter hypothesis is referred to below as the "Asian hypothesis." Finally, we hypothesize that: (5) the coexistence of the infections in Africa is due to the low prevalence of the mosquito Aedes albopictus in Africa, as it competes with A. aegypti. We will refer to this latter hypothesis as the "African hypothesis." We construct a model of transmission that allows all of the above hypotheses to be tested. We conclude that the Asian and the African hypotheses can explain the observed phenomena, whereas other hypotheses fail to do so.

Title: Why dengue and yellow fever coexist in some areas of the world and not in others?

Subject headings: Adaptive Immunity/*immunology; Aedes/*virology; Africa/epidemiology; Animals; Asia/epidemiology; Computer Simulation; *Demography; Dengue/*epidemiology/immunology/transmission; Humans; Insect Vectors/*virology; *Models, Biological; South America/epidemiology; Species Specificity; Yellow Fever/*epidemiology/immunology/transmission

Year: 2011

Publication: Bio Systems

Volume: 106

Issue: 2-3

Pages: 111-120

Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0303264711001353

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=4889323697820691488&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0303-2647

ISBN:
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Author: Amato, P.R.

Description: The present study updates the P. R. Amato and B. Keith (1991) meta-analysis of children and divorce with a new analysis of 67 studies published in the 1990s. Compared with children with continuously married parents, children with divorced parents continued to score significantly lower on measures of academic achievement, conduct, psychological adjustment, self-concept, and social relations. After controlling for study characteristics, curvilinear trends with respect to decade of publication were present for academic achievement, psychological well-being, self-concept, and social relations. For these outcomes, the gap between children with divorced and married parents decreased during the 1980s and increased again during the 1990s.

Title: Children of divorce in the 1990s: an update of the Amato and Keith (1991) meta-analysis

Subject headings: Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Child; Child Psychology; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Educational Status; Female; Humans; Male; Marriage--psychology; Mental Health; Research Design; Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Adjustment; United States--epidemiology

Year: 2001

Publication: Journal of Family Psychology : JFP : Journal of the Division of Family Psychology of the American Psychological Association (Division 43)

Volume: 15

Issue: 3

Pages: 355-370

Full text: http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2001-11319-001

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=5148695267791447791&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0893-3200

ISBN:
Details

Author: Amato, P.R.; Keith, B.

Description: This meta-analysis involved 92 studies that compared children living in divorced single-parent families with children living in continuously intact families on measures of well-being. Children of divorce scored lower than children in intact families across a variety of outcomes, with the median effect size being .14 of a standard deviation. For some outcomes, methodologically sophisticated studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did other studies. In addition, for some outcomes, more recent studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did studies carried out during earlier decades. Some support was found for theoretical perspectives emphasizing parental absence and economic disadvantage, but the most consistent support was found for a family conflict perspective.

Title: Parental divorce and the well-being of children: a meta-analysis

Subject headings: Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; Child; Child, Preschool; Divorce--psychology; Female; Humans; Male; Meta-Analysis as Topic; Parent-Child Relations; Personality Development

Year: 1991

Publication: Psychological Bulletin

Volume: 110

Issue: 1

Pages: 26-46

Full text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1832495

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=5148695267791447791&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0033-2909

ISBN:
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Author: Ambrosone, A.; Costa, A.; Leone, A.; Grillo, S.

Description: RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) govern many aspects of RNA metabolism, including pre-mRNA processing, transport, stability/decay and translation. Although relatively few plant RNA-binding proteins have been characterized genetically and biochemically, more than 200 RBP genes have been predicted in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, suggesting that they might serve specific plant functions. Besides their role in normal cellular functions, RBPs are emerging also as an interesting class of proteins involved in a wide range of post-transcriptional regulatory events that are important in providing plants with the ability to respond rapidly to changes in environmental conditions. Here, we review the most recent results and evidence on the functional role of RBPs in plant adaptation to various unfavourable environmental conditions and their contribution to enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stresses, with special emphasis on osmotic and temperature stress.

Title: Beyond transcription: RNA-binding proteins as emerging regulators of plant response to environmental constraints

Subject headings: Abscisic Acid/metabolism; Acclimatization/*physiology; Gene Expression Regulation, Plant; Osmotic Pressure/physiology; *Plant Physiological Processes; Plants/genetics; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism/*physiology; Transcription, Genetic

Year: 2012

Publication: Plant Science : an International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology

Volume: 182

Issue:

Pages: 12-18

Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168945211000471

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=437230087177569341&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0168-9452

ISBN:
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Author: Amici, M.; Eusebi, F.; Miledi, R.

Description: Medical treatment with the aminoglycosidic antibiotic gentamicin may produce side effects that include neuromuscular blockage and ototoxicity; which are believed to result from a dysfunction of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Gentamicin is known to reversibly block ACh-currents generated by the activation of muscle-type alphabetagammadelta-AChR and neuronal alpha9-AChR. We studied the effects of gentamicin on heteromeric alphabetagammadelta-AChR and homomeric alpha7-AChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Prolonged treatment with gentamicin, and other antibiotics, differentially altered alphabetagammadelta- and alpha7-AChR responses. Specifically, gentamicin accelerated desensitization and did not reduce ACh-currents in oocytes expressing alphabetagammadelta-AChRs, whereas ACh-currents were reduced and desensitization was unaltered in oocytes expressing alpha7-AChRs. Moreover, acutely applied gentamicin acted as a competitive antagonist on both types of receptors and increased the rate of desensitization in alphabetagammadelta-AChR while reducing the rate of desensitization in alpha7-AChR. This data helps to better understand the action of gentamicin on muscle and nervous tissues, providing mechanistic insights that could eventually lead to improving the medical use of aminoglycosides.

Title: Effects of the antibiotic gentamicin on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

Subject headings: Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents--pharmacology; Cochlea--drug effects; DNA, Complementary--biosynthesis; Electrophysiology; Gentamicins--pharmacology; Humans; Membrane Potentials--drug effects, physiology; Mice; Nicotinic Antagonists; Oocytes--metabolism; Patch-Clamp Techniques; RNA, Complementary--biosynthesis; Receptors, Nicotinic--biosynthesis, drug effects, genetics; Torpedo; Vestibule, Labyrinth--drug effects; Xenopus; alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

Year: 2005

Publication: Neuropharmacology

Volume: 49

Issue: 5

Pages: 627-637

Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0028390805001644

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=15032606533823385460&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0028-3908

ISBN:
Details

Author: Amorim, K.N.S.; Chagas, D.C.G.; Sulczewski, F.B.; Boscardin, S.B.

Description: Dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the initiation of adaptive immune responses, efficiently presenting antigens to T cells. This ability relies on the presence of numerous surface and intracellular receptors capable of sensing microbial components as well as inflammation and on a very efficient machinery for antigen presentation. In this way, DCs sense the presence of a myriad of pathogens, including Plasmodium spp., the causative agent of malaria. Despite many efforts to control this infection, malaria is still responsible for high rates of morbidity and mortality. Different groups have shown that DCs act during Plasmodium infection, and data suggest that the phenotypically distinct DCs subsets are key factors in the regulation of immunity during infection. In this review, we will discuss the importance of DCs for the induction of immunity against the different stages of Plasmodium, the outcomes of DCs activation, and also what is currently known about Plasmodium components that trigger such activation.

Title: Dendritic Cells and Their Multiple Roles during Malaria Infection

Subject headings: Antigen Presentation; Dendritic Cells/*immunology; Humans; Immunologic Tests; Life Cycle Stages; Malaria/*immunology/parasitology; Plasmodium/growth & development/immunology; T-Lymphocytes/immunology

Year: 2016

Publication: Journal of Immunology Research

Volume: 2016

Issue:

Pages: 2926436

Full text: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4823477/

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=8822898220188093108&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 2314-7156

ISBN:
Details

Author: Amsden, A.H.

Description: Like Narcissus, the World Bank sees its own reflection in East Asia's success. It attributes the East Asian miracle to macroeconomic basics–high saving and investment rates, expenditures on education, and exports–but in reality, these are anchored in micro-institutions that exhibit pervasive state intervention. East Asia created competitiveness by subsidizing learning, whereas Bank policy emphasizes methods that effectively cut real wages. The Report is rich in empirical data, but they do not support the Bank's dismissal of industrial policy as “ineffective,” and they are presented in a way that makes it difficult for students to corroborate Bank findings. The greatest disappointment of the Report's market fundamentalism is a failure to study seriously how elements of the East Asian model can be adapted to suit conditions in other countries.

Title: Why isn't the whole world experimenting with the East Asian model to develop?: Review of the East Asian miracle

Subject headings: World Bank; Micro-institutions; State intervention; East Asia

Year: 1994

Publication: World Development

Volume: 22

Issue: 4

Pages: 627-633

Full text: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0305750X94901171

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=13362678225346444345&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0305750X

ISBN:
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Author: Andersen, S.B.; Karstoft, K.-I.; Bertelsen, M.; Madsen, T.

Description: OBJECTIVE: To identify trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from before to 2.5 years after deployment and to assess risk factors for symptom fluctuations and late-onset PTSD. METHOD: 743 soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 were assessed for PTSD symptoms using the PTSD Checklist (PCL) at 6 occasions from predeployment to 2.5 years postdeployment (study sample = 561). Predeployment vulnerabilities and deployment and postdeployment stressors were also assessed. RESULTS: Six trajectories were identified: a resilient trajectory with low symptom levels across all assessments (78.1%) and 5 trajectories showing symptom fluctuations. These included a trajectory of late onset (5.7%), independently predicted by earlier emotional problems (OR = 5.59; 95% CI, 1.57-19.89) and predeployment and postdeployment traumas (OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17 and OR = 1.13; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26). Two trajectories of symptom fluctuations in the low-to-moderate range (7.5% and 4.1%); a trajectory of symptom relief during deployment, but with a drastic increase at the final assessments (2.0%); and a trajectory with mild symptom increase during deployment followed by relief at return (2.7%) were also found. Symptom fluctuation was predicted independently by predeployment risk factors (depression [OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.16-1.39], neuroticism [OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21], and earlier traumas [OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.16]) and deployment-related stressors (danger/injury exposure [OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.40]), but not by postdeployment stressors. DISCUSSION: The results confirm earlier findings of stress response heterogeneity following military deployment and highlight the impact of predeployment, perideployment, and postdeployment risk factors in predicting PTSD symptomatology and late-onset PTSD symptoms.

Title: Latent trajectories of trauma symptoms and resilience: the 3-year longitudinal prospective USPER study of Danish veterans deployed in Afghanistan

Subject headings: Adult; Afghan Campaign 2001-; Denmark/epidemiology; Female; Humans; Male; Military Personnel/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Prospective Studies; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; *Resilience, Psychological; Risk Factors; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology/*etiology/psychology; Time Factors; Veterans/*psychology/statistics & numerical data; Young Adult

Year: 2014

Publication: The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

Volume: 75

Issue: 9

Pages: 1001-1008

Full text: http://www.psychiatrist.com/jcp/article/Pages/2014/v75n09/v75n0920.aspx

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=13577523286600362765&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0160-6689

ISBN:





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