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Author: Andersson, D.R.; Bjornsson, E.; Bergquist, F.; Nissbrandt, H.

Description: Nigro-striatal neurons release dopamine not only from their axon terminals in the striatum, but also from somata and dendrites in the substantia nigra. Somatodendritic dopamine release in the substantia nigra can facilitate motor function by mechanisms that may act independently of axon terminal dopamine release in the striatum. The dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra receive a cholinergic input from the pedunculopontine nucleus. Despite recent efforts to introduce this nucleus as a potential target for deep brain stimulation to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease; and the well-known antiparkinsonian effects of anticholinergic drugs; the cholinergic influence on somatodendritic dopamine release is not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible regulation of locomotor-induced dopamine release in the substantia nigra by endogenous acetylcholine release. In intact and 6-OHDA hemi-lesioned animals alike, the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine, when perfused in the substantia nigra, amplified the locomotor-induced somatodendritic dopamine release to approximately 200% of baseline, compared to 120-130% of baseline in vehicle-treated animals. A functional importance of nigral muscarinic receptor activation was demonstrated in hemi-lesioned animals, where motor performance was significantly improved by scopolamine to 82% of pre-lesion performance, as compared to 56% in vehicle-treated controls. The results indicate that muscarinic activity in the substantia nigra is of functional importance in an animal Parkinson's disease model, and strengthen the notion that nigral dopaminergic regulation of motor activity/performance is independent of striatal dopamine release.

Title: Motor activity-induced dopamine release in the substantia nigra is regulated by muscarinic receptors

Subject headings: Analysis of Variance; Animals; Area Under Curve; Brain Injuries/chemically induced/*pathology; Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods; Dendrites/drug effects/metabolism; Disease Models, Animal; Dopamine/*metabolism; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Electrochemistry/methods; Female; Functional Laterality; Mecamylamine/pharmacology; Microdialysis/methods; Motor Activity/drug effects/*physiology; Muscarinic Antagonists/pharmacology; Nicotinic Antagonists/pharmacology; Oxidopamine; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Receptors, Muscarinic/*physiology; Rotarod Performance Test/methods; Scopolamine Hydrobromide/pharmacology; Substantia Nigra/drug effects/*metabolism/pathology; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/metabolism

Publication year: 2010

Journal or book title: Experimental Neurology

Volume: 221

Issue: 1

Pages: 251-259

Find the full text : http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0014488609004695

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 308

ISSN: 0014-4886

ISBN:
Details

Author: Andreassen, C.S.; Pallesen, S.; Griffiths, M.D.

Description: Social media has become an increasingly popular leisure activity over the last decade. Although most people's social media use is non-problematic, a small number of users appear to engage in social media excessively and/or compulsively. The main objective of this study was to examine the associations between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem. A cross-sectional convenient sample of 23,532 Norwegians (Mage=35.8years; range=16-88years) completed an open web-based survey including the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), the Narcissistic Personality Inventory-16, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results demonstrated that lower age, being a woman, not being in a relationship, being a student, lower education, lower income, lower self-esteem, and narcissism were associated with higher scores on the BSMAS, explaining a total of 17.5% of the variance. Although most effect sizes were relatively modest, the findings supported the notion of addictive social media use reflecting a need to feed the ego (i.e., narcissistic personality traits) and an attempt to inhibit a negative self-evaluation (i.e., self-esteem). The results were also consistent with demographic predictions and associations taken from central theories concerning "addiction", indicating that women may tend to develop more addictive use of activities involving social interaction than men. However, the cross-sectional study design makes inferences about directionality impossible.

Title: The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey

Subject headings: Adolescent; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Behavior, Addictive/*epidemiology/*psychology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Humans; Male; Marital Status/statistics & numerical data; Middle Aged; *Narcissism; Norway/epidemiology; *Self Concept; Sex Factors; Social Media/*statistics & numerical data; *Surveys and Questionnaires; Young Adult; *Behavioral addiction; *Narcissism; *Online social networking addiction; *Personality; *Self-esteem

Publication year: 2017

Journal or book title: Addictive Behaviors

Volume: 64

Issue:

Pages: 287-293

Find the full text : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306460316301095

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 3012

ISSN: 0306-4603

ISBN:
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Author: Andrieux, M.; Proteau, L.

Description: Observation aids motor skill learning. When multiple models or different levels of performance are observed, does learning improve when the observer is informed of the performance quality prior to each observation trial or after each trial? We used a knock-down barrier task and asked participants to learn a new relative timing pattern that differed from that naturally emerging from the task constraints (Blandin et al., 1999). Following a physical execution pre-test, the participants observed two models demonstrating different levels of performance and were either informed of this performance prior to or after each observation trial. The results of the physical execution retention tests of the two experiments reported in the present study indicated that informing the observers of the demonstration quality they were about to see aided learning more than when this information was provided after each observation trial. Our results suggest that providing advanced information concerning the quality of the observation may help participants detect errors in the model's performance, which is something that novice participants have difficulty doing, and then learn from these observations.

Subject Headings: action observation network; feedback; feedforward; knowledge of results; motor learning; relative timing

Keywords: Observational Learning: Tell Beginners What They Are about to Watch and They Will Learn Better

Title: Observational Learning: Tell Beginners What They Are about to Watch and They Will Learn Better

Subject headings:

Publication year: 2016

Journal or book title: Frontiers in Psychology

Volume: 7

Issue:

Pages: 51

Find the full text : https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00051

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2718

ISSN: 1664-1078

ISBN:
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Author: Angarne-Lindberg, T.; Wadsby, M.

Description: The children who experienced their parents' divorce when the divorce rate in Sweden had begun to grow to higher levels than in preceding decades are today adults. The aim of this study was to investigate if adults who had experienced parental divorce 15 years before the time of our study, differed in mental health from those with continuously married parents, taking into account life events other than the divorce. Instruments used were the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) measuring mental health and the Life Event questionnaire capturing the number and experience of occurred events. Forty-eight persons, who were 7-18 years old when their parents divorced, constituted the divorce group, and 48 persons matched on age, sex and growth environment formed the study groups. The SCL-90 showed a limited difference between the groups, but not concerning total mental health. A main finding was a difference with regard to sex and age; women aged 22-27 in the divorce group displayed poorer mental health than other participants in both groups. The results from the Life Event questionnaire showed that the divorce group had experienced a significantly larger number of events, and more life events were described as negative with difficult adjustment. A regression analysis showed a significant relation between the SCL-90, Global Severity Index and life events experienced as negative with difficult adjustment, divorce events excluded, but not with the divorce itself. It seems highly desirable to pay more attention than has thus far been paid to girls with experience of childhood divorce at age 7-12.

Title: Fifteen years after parental divorce: mental health and experienced life-events

Subject headings: *Adaptation, Psychological; Adjustment Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Adult Children/*psychology; Age Factors; Child; Child, Preschool; Cross-Sectional Studies; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Humans; Infant; *Life Change Events; Longitudinal Studies; Male; Middle Aged; Risk Factors; Sweden; Young Adult

Publication year: 2009

Journal or book title: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry

Volume: 63

Issue: 1

Pages: 32-43

Find the full text : http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08039480802098386

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 278

ISSN: 0803-9488

ISBN:
Details

Author: Anisimov, O.A.; Nelson, F.E.

Description: The proportion of the Earth's land area underlain by permafrost, currently about 25%, is expected to contract substantially in response to climatic warming. Maps of permafrost distribution in the northern hemisphere were generated using three general circulation models and an empirical paleoreconstruction, all scaled to a 2°C global warming, in conjunction with a permafrost model that has successfully replicated the arrangement of contemporary permafrost zones in several high-latitude regions. The simulations indicate a 25–44% reduction in the total area occupied by equilibrium permafrost. Conditions specified by the climate models result in a poleward (north-northeast) displacement of all permafrost zones. The continuous permafrost zone was most severely impacted in the simulations, with reductions in its areal extent ranging from 29% to 67%. The permafrost model was also used to hindcast the distribution of permafrost in Russia during the Holocene climatic optimum and Eemian interglacial. Agreement of modeled results with mappings based on independent criteria confirm the motel's effectiveness.

Title: Permafrost distribution in the Northern Hemisphere under scenarios of climatic change

Subject headings: Permafrost; Paleoreconstruction

Publication year: 1996

Journal or book title: Global and Planetary Change

Volume: 14

Issue: 1-2

Pages: 59-72

Find the full text : http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0921818196000021

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 1515

ISSN: 0921-8181

ISBN:
Details

Author: Ansaldo, A.I.; Marcotte, K.; Scherer, L.; Raboyeau, G.

Description: Given the increasing number of bilinguals around the world, bilingual aphasia has become a hot topic in the field of clinical and theoretical research in communication sciences. The aim of this article is to provide data-driven cues for intervention with bilingual aphasia. First, the impact of a number of factors considered to influence second language processing will be discussed with reference to neurolinguistic and neuroimaging data. The discussion will then move to bilingual aphasia. Specifically, we shall describe the recovery patterns following bilingual aphasia, and discuss the issues of pathological mixing and switching. The literature and clinical evidence will provide the framework for a discussion of data-driven cues for intervention with bilingual aphasia.

Title: Language therapy and bilingual aphasia: Clinical implications of psycholinguistic and neuroimaging research

Subject headings: Bilingual aphasia; Therapy; Data-driven

Publication year: 2008

Journal or book title: Journal of Neurolinguistics

Volume: 21

Issue: 6

Pages: 539-557

Find the full text : http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0911604408000146

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 905

ISSN: 0911-6044

ISBN:
Details

Author: Anto, R.J.; Sukumaran, K.; Kuttan, G.; Rao, M.N.; Subbaraju, V.; Kuttan, R.

Description: Nineteen synthetic chalcones and ten structurally related compounds were investigated for their cytotoxic, tumour reducing and antioxidant activities. Methyl and hydroxy substituted chalcones were found to be cytotoxic in vitro whereas only hydroxy substituted chalcones could reduce ascites tumour in animals. Although most of the compounds analysed showed antioxidant activity, hydroxy and methyl substituted compounds were found to be the most potent antioxidants.

Subject Headings: Animals; *Antineoplastic Agents; *Antioxidants; Ascites; Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor; Chalcone/analogs & derivatives/*pharmacology; Lymphoma; Mice; Structure-Activity Relationship; Superoxides/metabolism; Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects

Keywords: Anticancer and antioxidant activity of synthetic chalcones and related compounds

Title: Anticancer and antioxidant activity of synthetic chalcones and related compounds

Subject headings:

Publication year: 1995

Journal or book title: Cancer Letters

Volume: 97

Issue: 1

Pages: 33-37

Find the full text : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/030438359503945S

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2824

ISSN: 0304-3835

ISBN:
Details

Author: Anton, S.D.; Martin, C.K.; Han, H.; Coulon, S.; Cefalu, W.T.; Geiselman, P.; Williamson, D.A.

Description: UNLABELLED: Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages may be one of the dietary causes of metabolic disorders, such as obesity. Therefore, substituting sugar with low calorie sweeteners may be an efficacious weight management strategy. We tested the effect of preloads containing stevia, aspartame, or sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels. DESIGN: 19 healthy lean (BMI=20.0-24.9) and 12 obese (BMI=30.0-39.9) individuals 18-50 years old completed three separate food test days during which they received preloads containing stevia (290kcal), aspartame (290kcal), or sucrose (493kcal) before the lunch and dinner meal. The preload order was balanced, and food intake (kcal) was directly calculated. Hunger and satiety levels were reported before and after meals, and every hour throughout the afternoon. Participants provided blood samples immediately before and 20min after the lunch preload. Despite the caloric difference in preloads (290kcal vs. 493kcal), participants did not compensate by eating more at their lunch and dinner meals when they consumed stevia and aspartame versus sucrose in preloads (mean differences in food intake over entire day between sucrose and stevia=301kcal, p<.01; aspartame=330kcal, p<.01). Self-reported hunger and satiety levels did not differ by condition. Stevia preloads significantly reduced postprandial glucose levels compared to sucrose preloads (p<.01), and postprandial insulin levels compared to both aspartame and sucrose preloads (p<.05). When consuming stevia and aspartame preloads, participants did not compensate by eating more at either their lunch or dinner meal and reported similar levels of satiety compared to when they consumed the higher calorie sucrose preload.

Subject Headings: Adolescent; Adult; Aspartame/pharmacology; Blood Glucose/*analysis; Body Mass Index; Eating/*drug effects; Female; Food; Humans; Hunger/drug effects; Insulin/*blood; Male; Middle Aged; Obesity/*blood/therapy; Satiation/*drug effects; Stevia; Sucrose/pharmacology; Sweetening Agents/*pharmacology; Taste

Keywords: Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

Title: Effects of stevia, aspartame, and sucrose on food intake, satiety, and postprandial glucose and insulin levels

Subject headings:

Publication year: 2010

Journal or book title: Appetite

Volume: 55

Issue: 1

Pages: 37-43

Find the full text : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2900484/

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2714

ISSN: 0195-6663

ISBN:
Details

Author: Arai, L.

Description: Geographic variation in teenage pregnancy is attributable to social and cultural, as well as demographic, factors. In some communities and social networks early childbearing may be acceptable, or even normative. It is these places that are the focus of policy initiatives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study of neighbourhood and peer influences on the transition from pregnancy to fertility among 15 young mothers in three English locations. Data were also collected from nine local health workers. The findings show that, from the mothers' perspective, there was no evidence that peers influenced behaviour. However, the data did suggest that early childbearing might be normative in some communities.

Title: Peer and neighbourhood influences on teenage pregnancy and fertility: qualitative findings from research in English communities

Subject headings: Abortion, Induced/utilization; Adolescent; Adult; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Birth Rate; England; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Mothers/education/psychology; *Peer Group; Pregnancy; Pregnancy in Adolescence/*ethnology/psychology; Qualitative Research; Residence Characteristics/*classification; *Social Class; *Social Conformity; Social Values/ethnology; Socioeconomic Factors

Publication year: 2007

Journal or book title: Health & Place

Volume: 13

Issue: 1

Pages: 87-98

Find the full text : http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S135382920500081X

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 1343

ISSN: 1353-8292

ISBN:
Details

Author: Ardiel, E.L.; Rankin, C.H.

Description: As self-fertilizing nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans do not normally come to mind when one thinks of social animals. However, their reproductive mode is optimized for rapid population growth, and although they do not form structured societies, conspecifics are an important source of sensory input. A pheromone signal underlies multiple complex behaviors, including diapause, male-mating, and aggregation. The use of C. elegans in sociogenetics research allows for the analysis of social interactions at the level of genes, circuits, and behaviors. This chapter describes natural polymorphisms in mab-23, plg-1, npr-1, and glb-5 as they relate to two C. elegans social behaviors: male-mating and aggregation.

Title: C. elegans: social interactions in a "nonsocial" animal

Subject headings: Animals; Behavior, Animal; Caenorhabditis elegans/genetics/*physiology; Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics; Ecosystem; Female; Genetics, Behavioral; Male; Pheromones/physiology; Social Behavior

Publication year: 2009

Journal or book title: Advances in Genetics

Volume: 68

Issue:

Pages: 1-22

Find the full text : http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0065266009680019

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Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 1074

ISSN: 0065-2660

ISBN:





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