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Author: Armstrong-Brown, J.; Eng, E.; Hammond, W.P.; Zimmer, C.; Bowling, J.M.

Description: Physical inactivity is one of the factors contributing to disproportionate disease rates among older African Americans. Previous literature indicates that older African Americans are more likely to live in racially segregated neighborhoods and that racial residential segregation is associated with limited opportunities for physical activity. A cross-sectional mixed methods study was conducted guided by the concept of therapeutic landscapes. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that racial residential segregation was associated with more minutes of physical activity and greater odds of meeting physical activity recommendations. Qualitative interviews revealed the following physical activity related themes: aging of the neighborhood, knowing your neighbors, feeling of safety, and neighborhood racial identity. Perceptions of social cohesion enhanced participants' physical activity, offering a plausible explanation to the higher rates of physical activity found in this population. Understanding how social cohesion operates within racially segregated neighborhoods can help to inform the design of effective interventions for this population.

Title: Redefining racial residential segregation and its association with physical activity among African Americans 50 years and older: a mixed methods approach

Subject headings: African Americans/*statistics & numerical data; Age Factors; Aged; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Cross-Sectional Studies; Exercise/*physiology; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Life Style; Male; Middle Aged; Motor Activity/*physiology; Multivariate Analysis; Racism/ethnology/*statistics & numerical data; Regression Analysis; Risk Assessment; Sex Factors; Time Factors; United States

Year: 2015

Publication: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity

Volume: 23

Issue: 2

Pages: 237-246

Full text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4900142/

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=5883290697841385381&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 1063-8652

ISBN:
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Author: Aro, H.M.; Palosaari, U.K.

Description: In a long-term study of the effects of divorce, children in a Finnish town who had completed questionnaires in school at age 16 were followed up with postal questionnaires at age 22. Depression in young adulthood was found to be slightly more common among children from divorced families. In addition, the life trajectories of children in divorced families revealed more stressful paths and more distress in both adolescence and young adulthood.

Title: Parental divorce, adolescence, and transition to young adulthood: a follow-up study

Subject headings: Achievement; Adaptation, Psychological; Adolescent; *Adolescent Psychology; Adult; Cohort Studies; Depression/psychology; Divorce/*psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Humans; Interpersonal Relations; Male; *Personality Development; Self Concept; Social Adjustment; Somatoform Disorders/psychology

Year: 1992

Publication: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry

Volume: 62

Issue: 3

Pages: 421-429

Full text: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1037/h0079342/abstract

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=3870804106707681979&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0002-9432

ISBN:
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Author: Arolfo, M.P.; Brioni, J.D.

Description: The effect of diazepam (0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 mg/kg) on the acquisition and retention of place learning was evaluated. The analysis of escape latencies indicates that 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg diazepam significantly impaired the retention of spatial information. When a free swim trial was carried out only control animals showed spatial bias to the target quadrant. The absence of spatial bias in the group that received 0.3 mg/kg suggests that the amnesic effect of diazepam can be seen at doses similar to or even lower than the anxiolytic ones, and that the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex is highly sensitive to the cognitive impairment induced by diazepam in spatial tasks.

Title: Diazepam impairs place learning in the Morris water maze

Subject headings: Animals; Diazepam/*pharmacology; Discrimination Learning/*drug effects; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Escape Reaction/*drug effects; Male; Mental Recall/drug effects; Orientation/*drug effects; Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains; Reaction Time/drug effects; Retention (Psychology)/*drug effects

Year: 1991

Publication: Behavioral and Neural Biology

Volume: 55

Issue: 1

Pages: 131-136

Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016310479180133Y

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=17636000148171888203&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0163-1047

ISBN:
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Author: Aronson, J.; Fried, C.B.; Good, C.

Description: African American college students tend to obtain lower grades than their White counterparts, even when they enter college with equivalent test scores. Past research suggests that negative stereotypes impugning Black students' intellectual abilities play a role in this underperformance. Awareness of these stereotypes can psychologically threaten African Americans, a phenomenon known as "stereotype threat" (Steele & Aronson, 1995), which can in turn provoke responses that impair both academic performance and psychological engagement with academics. An experiment was performed to test a method of helping students resist these responses to stereotype threat. Specifically, students in the experimental condition of the experiment were encouraged to see intelligence "the object of the stereotype" as a malleable rather than fixed capacity. This mind-set was predicted to make students' performances less vulnerable to stereotype threat and help them maintain their psychological engagement with academics, both of which could help boost their college grades. Results were consistent with predictions. The African American students (and, to some degree, the White students) encouraged to view intelligence as malleable reported greater enjoyment of the academic process, greater academic engagement, and obtained higher grade point averages than their counterparts in two control groups.

Title: Reducing the Effects of Stereotype Threat on African American College Students by Shaping Theories of Intelligence

Subject headings: African American; College students; Stereotypes; Stereotype threat; Academic performance; Grades

Year: 2002

Publication: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

Volume: 38

Issue: 2

Pages: 113-125

Full text: http://steinhardt.nyu.edu/scmsAdmin/uploads/004/308/Aronson%20Fried%20%20Good.pdf

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=16987081506090244106&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0022-1031

ISBN:
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Author: Arrant, A.E.; Schramm-Sapyta, N.L.; Kuhn, C.M.

Description: The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the alpha(2) adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.

Title: Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats

Subject headings: Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology; Age Factors; Animals; Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology; Anxiety/*diagnosis/drug therapy; Carbolines/pharmacology; Exploratory Behavior/drug effects; Factor Analysis, Statistical; *Light; Male; Motor Activity/drug effects; *Neuropsychological Tests; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Regression Analysis; Risk-Taking; Time Factors; Yohimbine/pharmacology; Adolescence; Anxiety; Fg-7142; Factor analysis; Light/dark test; Yohimbine

Year: 2013

Publication: Behavioural Brain Research

Volume: 256

Issue:

Pages: 119-127

Full text: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23721963

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=8406735889656475174&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0166-4328

ISBN:
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Author: Arun Kumar, M.; Rohitha, C.; Kulkarni, S.; Narender, N.

Description: A simple, efficient and mild method for the selective bromination of activated aromatic compounds using ammonium bromide as the source of bromine and Oxone® as the oxidant in methanol or water as solvent is reported. The reaction proceeds at ambient temperature in yields ranging from moderate to excellent without a catalyst.

Title: Bromination of Aromatic Compounds Using Ammonium Bromide and Oxone®

Subject headings: Bromination; Aromatic compounds; Ammonium bromide; Selectivity

Year: 2010

Publication: Synthesis

Volume: 2010

Issue: 10

Pages: 1629-1632

Full text: http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0029-1218723

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=920397205792649158&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0039-7881

ISBN:
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Author: Ashraf, M.; Habib-ur-Rehman,

Description: The interactive effect of additional amount of NO3-N and long-term waterlogging on maize was studied in glasshouse conditions. Forty-two-day-old plants were subjected to continuous flooding for 21 days at three different NO3-N regimes (196, 294 and 392 mg N kg−1 soil). Shoot fresh mass and leaf area of waterlogged plants reduced significantly at two higher NO3 regimes. Leaf water potential was generally decreased, whereas osmotic potential increased in all waterlogged plants but much reduction in leaf water potential was found at the highest external NO3 regime. Leaf turgor potential decreased due to waterlogging but this decrease progressed with increase in external NO3 concentration. Chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’ increased in non-waterlogged plants with increase in NO3 concentration of the growth medium, but these two pigments decreased significantly due to waterlogging particularly at the two higher NO3 regimes. Chlorophyll a/b ratio increased linearly in non-waterlogged plants with increase in external NO3 regimes but the ratio remained almost unchanged due to waterlogging. Waterlogging caused a reduction in net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance but no effect of additional amount of NO3 was observed on these two variables. Transpiration was also decreased as a result of waterlogging but a marked reduction in this variable was observed at the highest external NO3 concentration. Water-use efficiency increased with increase in external NO3 concentration in both waterlogged and non-waterlogged plants. Although waterlogging caused a reduction in substomatal CO2 concentration, it generally increased in both waterlogged and non-waterlogged plants due to supplementary NO3, particularly at its highest concentration. From these results, it is clear that supplementary NO3 in the growth medium of maize plants experiencing long-term waterlogging had injurious effect on growth.

Title: Interactive effects of nitrate and long-term waterlogging on growth, water relations, and gaseous exchange properties of maize (Zea mays L.)

Subject headings: Growth; Chlorophyll contents; Maize; Net assimilation; Stomatal conductance; Waterlogging

Year: 1999

Publication: Plant Science

Volume: 144

Issue: 1

Pages: 35-43

Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168945299000552

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=1301568218844582801&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0168-9452

ISBN:
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Author: Aspinall, P.J.

Description: The routine use in medical research of an ostensibly homogeneous "white" category in ethnic group classifications has meant that white minorities, such as the Irish, Turks and Cypriots, have remained hidden, even though such groups are subject to discrimination and disadvantage common to other minority groups. The terms "white" and "Caucasian" are frequently and increasingly employed in the scientific literature in spite of widespread concern about the medicalization of race. Moreover, in Great Britain ethnic monitoring of hospital inpatients has revealed negligible interest in utilising codes that subdivide the white group. Yet recent research has shown, for example, substantially elevated age standardised limiting long-term illness rates in the first generation Irish and excess mortality in the second generation living in Britain. The health needs of these white minorities can only properly be identified through the availability of census denominator data of the kind now collected in the U.S. and Canadian decennial census questions on ethnic origin. The opportunity for government to make such provision in the forthcoming Great Britain 2001 Census should be seized whilst it is still available and recommendations for subdividing the "white" group are made.

Title: Describing the "white" ethnic group and its composition in medical research

Subject headings: Canada; Ethnic Groups/*classification; European Continental Ancestry Group/*classification; Great Britain; Humans; *Minority Groups; *Research; Social Identification; State Medicine; United States

Year: 1998

Publication: Social Science & Medicine (1982)

Volume: 47

Issue: 11

Pages: 1797-1808

Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953698002391

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=6388543847064763663&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0277-9536

ISBN:
Details

Author: Atherton, P.J.; Babraj, J.; Smith, K.; Singh, J.; Rennie, M.J.; Wackerhage, H.

Description: Endurance training induces a partial fast-to-slow muscle phenotype transformation and mitochondrial biogenesis but no growth. In contrast, resistance training mainly stimulates muscle protein synthesis resulting in hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to identify signaling events that may mediate the specific adaptations to these types of exercise. Isolated rat muscles were electrically stimulated with either high frequency (HFS; 6x10 repetitions of 3 s-bursts at 100 Hz to mimic resistance training) or low frequency (LFS; 3 h at 10 Hz to mimic endurance training). HFS significantly increased myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis 3 h after stimulation 5.3- and 2.7-fold, respectively. LFS had no significant effect on protein synthesis 3 h after stimulation but increased UCP3 mRNA 11.7-fold, whereas HFS had no significant effect on UCP3 mRNA. Only LFS increased AMPK phosphorylation significantly at Thr172 by approximately 2-fold and increased PGC-1alpha protein to 1.3 times of control. LFS had no effect on PKB phosphorylation but reduced TSC2 phosphorylation at Thr1462 and deactivated translational regulators. In contrast, HFS acutely increased phosphorylation of PKB at Ser473 5.3-fold and the phosphorylation of TSC2, mTOR, GSK-3beta at PKB-sensitive sites. HFS also caused a prolonged activation of the translational regulators p70 S6k, 4E-BP1, eIF-2B, and eEF2. These data suggest that a specific signaling response to LFS is a specific activation of the AMPK-PGC-1alpha signaling pathway which may explain some endurance training adaptations. HFS selectively activates the PKB-TSC2-mTOR cascade causing a prolonged activation of translational regulators, which is consistent with increased protein synthesis and muscle growth. We term this behavior the "AMPK-PKB switch." We hypothesize that the AMPK-PKB switch is a mechanism that partially mediates specific adaptations to endurance and resistance training, respectively.

Title: Selective activation of AMPK-PGC-1alpha or PKB-TSC2-mTOR signaling can explain specific adaptive responses to endurance or resistance training-like electrical muscle stimulation

Subject headings: Adaptation, Physiological; Adenylate Kinase/*metabolism; Animals; Electric Stimulation; Enzyme Activation; Male; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism; Muscle Contraction; Muscle Proteins/biosynthesis; Muscle, Skeletal/*physiology; Myofibrils/metabolism; Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha; Phosphorylation; Physical Conditioning, Animal; Physical Endurance/physiology; Physical Exertion; Protein Kinases/*metabolism; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/*metabolism; RNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism; Signal Transduction; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; Transcription Factors/*metabolism; Tumor Suppressor Proteins/*metabolism

Year: 2005

Publication: FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

Volume: 19

Issue: 7

Pages: 786-788

Full text: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ken_Smith8/publication/8017541_Selective_activation_of_AMPK-PGC-1alpha_or_PKB-TSC2-mTOR_signaling_can_explain_specific_adaptive_responses_to_endurance_or_resistance_training-like_electrical_muscle_stimulation/links/56a

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=5922207386310880155&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0892-6638

ISBN:
Details

Author: Atkinson, C.M.; Drysdale, K.A.; Fulham, W.R.

Description: In the Stroop task, the latency of response to a colour is either faster or slower in the presence of a congruent or incongruent colour-word (J. Exp. Psychol. 18 (1935) 643). Debate remains as to whether this effect occurs during early stimulus processing or late response competition. The present study examined the task using reaction time (RT) and event-related potentials to determine temporal differences in this processing. The 'reverse Stroop' effect (where colour interferes with processing of a colour-word) which is much less well established, was also examined. Standard Stroop interference was found as well as reverse Stroop interference. A late lateralised negativity at frontal sites was greater for Incongruent trials and also for the word-response (reverse Stroop) task, and was interpreted as semantic selection and word-rechecking effects. Late positive component latency effects generally mirrored the speed of processing of the different conditions found in RT data. Stroop effects were also found in early temporal N100 and parietal P100 components, which differentiated Congruent from Incongruent trials in the reverse Stroop but not the standard Stroop, and were interpreted as early perception of physical mismatch between the colour and word. It was concluded that Stroop stimuli are processed in parallel in a network of brain areas rather than a particular structure and that Stroop interference arises at the output stage.

Title: Event-related potentials to Stroop and reverse Stroop stimuli

Subject headings: Adult; Analysis of Variance; Attention/*physiology; Electroencephalography/methods; Evoked Potentials/*physiology; Humans; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology

Year: 2003

Publication: International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology

Volume: 47

Issue: 1

Pages: 1-21

Full text: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167876002000387

Cited by: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=3326588888198453943&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Format: Journal Article

ISSN: 0167-8760

ISBN:





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