Author: Arrant, A.E.; Schramm-Sapyta, N.L.; Kuhn, C.M.
Description: The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the alpha(2) adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence.
Title: Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats
Subject headings: Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology; Age Factors; Animals; Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology; Anxiety/*diagnosis/drug therapy; Carbolines/pharmacology; Exploratory Behavior/drug effects; Factor Analysis, Statistical; *Light; Male; Motor Activity/drug effects; *Neuropsychological Tests; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Regression Analysis; Risk-Taking; Time Factors; Yohimbine/pharmacology; Adolescence; Anxiety; Fg-7142; Factor analysis; Light/dark test; Yohimbine
Publication year: 2013
Journal or book title: Behavioural Brain Research
Find the full text : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23721963
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 1614
Author: Arun Kumar, M.; Rohitha, C.; Kulkarni, S.; Narender, N.
Description: A simple, efficient and mild method for the selective bromination of activated aromatic compounds using ammonium bromide as the source of bromine and Oxone® as the oxidant in methanol or water as solvent is reported. The reaction proceeds at ambient temperature in yields ranging from moderate to excellent without a catalyst.
Title: Bromination of Aromatic Compounds Using Ammonium Bromide and Oxone®
Subject headings: Bromination; Aromatic compounds; Ammonium bromide; Selectivity
Publication year: 2010
Journal or book title: Synthesis
Find the full text : http://www.thieme-connect.de/DOI/DOI?10.1055/s-0029-1218723
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 779
Author: Arunachalam, S.; Luyster, R.J.
Description: Research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has rapidly expanded in recent years, yielding important developments in both theory and practice. While we have gained important insights into how children with ASD differ from typically developing (TD) children in terms of phenotypic features, less has been learned about if and how development in ASD differs from typical development in terms of underlying mechanisms of change. This article aims to provide a review of processes subserving lexical development in ASD, with the goal of identifying contributing factors to the heterogeneity of language outcomes in ASD. The focus is on available evidence of the integrity or disruption of these mechanisms in ASD, as well as their significance for vocabulary development; topics include early speech perception and preference, speech segmentation, word learning, and category formation. Significant gaps in the literature are identified and future directions are suggested. Autism Res 2016, 9: 810-828. (c) 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Subject Headings: Autism Spectrum Disorder/*complications/*physiopathology; Child; Humans; Language Development Disorders/*complications/*physiopathology; *Children; *Developmental Psychology; *Infants; *Language; *Learning; *Pediatrics
Keywords: The integrity of lexical acquisition mechanisms in autism spectrum disorders: A research review
Title: The integrity of lexical acquisition mechanisms in autism spectrum disorders: A research review
Publication year: 2016
Journal or book title: Autism Research : Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Find the full text : https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/aur.1590
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 2737
Author: Asakawa, A.; Inui, A.; Kaga, T.; Yuzuriha, H.; Nagata, T.; Fujimiya, M.; Katsuura, G.; Makino, S.; Fujino, M.A.; Kasuga, M.
Description: Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, was recently identified in the rat stomach. Previous studies have shown that ghrelin potently increases growth hormone release and food intake. We examined the effects of the gastric peptide ghrelin on anxiety-like behavior in association with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in mice. Both intra-third cerebroventricular and intraperitoneal administration of ghrelin potently and significantly induced anxiogenic activities in the elevated plus maze test. Ghrelin gene expression in the stomach was increased by tail pinch stress as well as by starvation stress. Administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor antagonist significantly inhibited ghrelin-induced anxiogenic effects. Peripherally administered ghrelin significantly increased CRH mRNA, but not urocortin mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin produced a significant dose- dependent increase in serum corticosterone levels. These findings suggest that ghrelin may have a role in mediating neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stressors and that the stomach could play an important role, not only in the regulation of appetite, but also in the regulation of anxiety.
Subject Headings: Animals; Anxiety/chemically induced/prevention & control; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/genetics/pharmacology; Gene Expression; Ghrelin; Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology; Male; Mice; Neurosecretory Systems/*physiopathology; Pain/complications/genetics; Peptide Fragments/pharmacology; *Peptide Hormones; Peptides/genetics/*physiology; Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology; RNA, Messenger/metabolism; Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/antagonists & inhibitors; Stomach/physiopathology; Stress, Physiological/etiology/genetics/*physiopathology/*psychology
Keywords: A role of ghrelin in neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress in mice
Title: A role of ghrelin in neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress in mice
Publication year: 2001
Journal or book title: Neuroendocrinology
Find the full text : https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/54680
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 2751
Author: Asbrand, J.; Hudson, J.; Schmitz, J.; Tuschen-Caffier, B.
Description: Etiological models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest parenting is involved in the development of SAD. However, previous studies have often neglected potential contributions of child behaviour to parenting behaviour. Further, parent-child interaction has often been assessed in artificial laboratory settings thereby impairing ecological validity. Children (aged 9-13 years) with SAD (n=27) and healthy controls (HC, n=27) completed a puzzle task with mothers present at home. Parent-child interactions were analysed for parenting (e.g., negativity, involvement) and child behaviour (e.g., dependence, helplessness). Mothers of children with SAD showed more involvement than mothers of HC children. Maternal involvement was related to child dependence in HC dyads only, while maternal negativity was correlated with negative child behaviour in both groups. The study indicates maternal over-involvement in their interactions with children with SAD at home. The lack of relation to child behaviour in SAD dyads points to inflexibility in mother-child interactions.
Subject headings: behavior; social anxiety disorder; parenting; mothers
Keywords: Maternal Parenting and Child Behaviour: An Observational Study of Childhood Social Anxiety Disorder
Title: Maternal Parenting and Child Behaviour: An Observational Study of Childhood Social Anxiety Disorder
Publication year: 2017
Journal or book title: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Find the full text : https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10608-016-9828-3
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 2990
Author: Ashby, J.; Tennant, R.W.
Description: An analysis is presented in which are evaluated correlations among chemical structure, mutagenicity to Salmonella, and carcinogenicity to rats and mice among 301 chemicals tested by the U.S. NTP. Overall, there was a high correlation between structural alerts to DNA reactivity and mutagenicity, but the correlation of either property with carcinogenicity was low. If rodent carcinogenicity is regarded as a singular property of chemicals, then neither structural alerts nor mutagenicity to Salmonella are effective in its prediction. Given this, the database was fragmented and new correlations sought between the derived sub-groups. First, the 301 chemicals were segregated into six broad chemical groupings. Second, the rodent cancer data were partially segregated by target tissue.
Using the previously assigned structural alerts to DNA reactivity (electrophilicity), the chemicals were split into 154 alerting chemicals and 147 non-alerting chemicals. The alerting chemicals were split into three chemical groups; aromatic amino/nitro-types, alkylating agents and miscellaneous structurally-alerting groups. The non-alerting chemicals were subjectively split into three broad categories; non-alerting, non-alerting containing a non-reactive halogen group, and non-alerting chemicals with minor concerns about a possible structural alert. The tumor data for all 301 chemicals are re-presented according to these six chemical groupings.
The most significant findings to emerge from comparisons among these six groups of chemicals were as follows:
(a) Most of the rodent carcinogens, including most of the 2-species and/or multiple site carcinogens, were among the structurally alerting chemicals.
(b) Most of the structurally alerting chemicals were mutagenic; 84% of the carcinogens and 66% of the non-carcinogens. 100% of the 33 aromatic amino/nitro-type 2-species carcinogens were mutagenic. Thus, for structurally alerting chemicals, the Salmonella assay showed high sensitivity and low specificity (0.84 and 0.33, respectively).
(c) Among the 147 non-alerting chemicals < 5% were mutagenic, whether they were carcinogens or non-carcinogens (sensitivity 0.04).
From these facts we conclude that the concepts of genotoxic and non-genotoxic rodent carcinogenicity are worthy of continued attention. Also, that it is meaningless to discuss the sensitivity/specificity of the Salmonella assay without defining the broad chemical classes under discussion. This last conclusion is important to any model for screening environmental chemicals for potential carcinogens.
Some rodent tissues, such as the lung and Zymbal's gland, are uniquely associated with genotoxic carcinogenesis, while others are equally susceptible to non-genotoxic carcinogenesis. Four such tissues are currently studied as possible sites of non-genotoxic carcinogenicity, and these were separately considered; male rat kidney-specific carcinogenic effects, rodent leukaemogens, rodent thyroid gland carcinogens and mouse liver carcinogens (the latter being the largest group, 97 of the 301 chemicals having increased tumor incidences in this tissue). Chemicals inducing tumors in these tissues were of disparate chemical classes and were predominantly non-mutagenic. These facts, together with the specificity of teh carcinogenic effects, is indicative of carcinogenicity resulting from a specific interaction between the chemical and the tissue, rather than it being an intrinsic and unique property of the chemical. Even when tumours in these four tissues were eliminated from the database, the Salmonella assay was only positive for 67% of the remaining 113 carcinogens (derived from a total of 162 carcinogens in the database). This indicates that a range of additional sites are subject to tissue-specific carcinogenesis by putative non-genotoxins.
A distribution chart is presented which represents the 301 chemicals according to the 6 chemical groupings and the level of carcinogenic effect. From this it becomes apparent that the NTP database is dominated by two major groups of chemicals. First, a group of structurally-alerting and mutagenic carcinogens that are predominantly active in both species and/or at multiple sites, and second a group of non-alerting, non-mutagenic non-carcinogens. In between these two groups is a diffusely spread group of species/sex/tissue specific carcinogens, only some of which are mutagenic and/or structurally alerting. It is among the last group of carcinogens that reseach is required to understand their mechanism of action and their significance to man. The in vivo mammalian cell genotoxicity database of the TNP failed to distinguish these last carcinogens from the non-carcinogens, and this endorses that research into the mode of action of these carcinogens should not be concerned with their genotoxicity.
Our overall conclusion is that rodent carcinogenicity can no longer be regarded as a single entity. Structural alerts and mutagenicity to Salmonella are useful but non-definitive indicators of the overt carcinogens in the database, and the activity of the remaining (putative non-genotoxic) carcinogens is no predictable using current techniques. To pool rodent carcinogens and to attempt to find a single method for their prediction is no longer tenable. Rather, it is suggested that genotoxic carcinogens should be predicted by reference to chemical structure and the intelligent use of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays, and that non-genotoxic carcinogens require basic studies to understand the subtle effects that occur in rodents upon protracted dosing with chemicals. It will also be necessary to consider which of these effects may be ancillary and which are critical to increases in tumor incidences. Some such indicators are emerging (e.g. peroxisome proliferation in the rodent liver), but much uncertainty remains in this area. The suspected nature of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis indicates that studies into its mechanisms and prediction will be most effectively progressed in vivo, rather than in vitro.
Subject Headings: Rodent carcinogenicity bioassay; DNA reactivity; Classification according to chemical structure/mutagenicity
Keywords: Definitive relationships among chemical structure, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity for 301 chemicals tested by the U.S. NTP
Title: Definitive relationships among chemical structure, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity for 301 chemicals tested by the U.S. NTP
Publication year: 1991
Journal or book title: Mutation Research/Reviews in Genetic Toxicology
Find the full text : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016511109190003E
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 2521
Author: Ashoori, R.C.
Description: Progress in semiconductor technology has enabled the fabrication of structures so small that they can contain just one mobile electron. By varying controllably the number of electrons in these 'artificial atoms' and measuring the energy required to add successive electrons, one can conduct atomic physics experiments in a regime that is inaccessible to experiments on real atoms.
Subject Headings: Atoms; Electrons; Artificial;
Keywords: Electrons in artificial atoms
Title: Electrons in artificial atoms
Publication year: 1996
Journal or book title: Nature
Find the full text : https://www.nature.com/articles/379413a0
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 2738
Author: Ashraf, M.; Habib-ur-Rehman,
Description: The interactive effect of additional amount of NO3-N and long-term waterlogging on maize was studied in glasshouse conditions. Forty-two-day-old plants were subjected to continuous flooding for 21 days at three different NO3-N regimes (196, 294 and 392 mg N kg−1 soil). Shoot fresh mass and leaf area of waterlogged plants reduced significantly at two higher NO3 regimes. Leaf water potential was generally decreased, whereas osmotic potential increased in all waterlogged plants but much reduction in leaf water potential was found at the highest external NO3 regime. Leaf turgor potential decreased due to waterlogging but this decrease progressed with increase in external NO3 concentration. Chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’ increased in non-waterlogged plants with increase in NO3 concentration of the growth medium, but these two pigments decreased significantly due to waterlogging particularly at the two higher NO3 regimes. Chlorophyll a/b ratio increased linearly in non-waterlogged plants with increase in external NO3 regimes but the ratio remained almost unchanged due to waterlogging. Waterlogging caused a reduction in net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance but no effect of additional amount of NO3 was observed on these two variables. Transpiration was also decreased as a result of waterlogging but a marked reduction in this variable was observed at the highest external NO3 concentration. Water-use efficiency increased with increase in external NO3 concentration in both waterlogged and non-waterlogged plants. Although waterlogging caused a reduction in substomatal CO2 concentration, it generally increased in both waterlogged and non-waterlogged plants due to supplementary NO3, particularly at its highest concentration. From these results, it is clear that supplementary NO3 in the growth medium of maize plants experiencing long-term waterlogging had injurious effect on growth.
Title: Interactive effects of nitrate and long-term waterlogging on growth, water relations, and gaseous exchange properties of maize (Zea mays L.)
Subject headings: Growth; Chlorophyll contents; Maize; Net assimilation; Stomatal conductance; Waterlogging
Publication year: 1999
Journal or book title: Plant Science
Find the full text : http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168945299000552
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 618
Author: Aspinall, P.J.
Description: The routine use in medical research of an ostensibly homogeneous "white" category in ethnic group classifications has meant that white minorities, such as the Irish, Turks and Cypriots, have remained hidden, even though such groups are subject to discrimination and disadvantage common to other minority groups. The terms "white" and "Caucasian" are frequently and increasingly employed in the scientific literature in spite of widespread concern about the medicalization of race. Moreover, in Great Britain ethnic monitoring of hospital inpatients has revealed negligible interest in utilising codes that subdivide the white group. Yet recent research has shown, for example, substantially elevated age standardised limiting long-term illness rates in the first generation Irish and excess mortality in the second generation living in Britain. The health needs of these white minorities can only properly be identified through the availability of census denominator data of the kind now collected in the U.S. and Canadian decennial census questions on ethnic origin. The opportunity for government to make such provision in the forthcoming Great Britain 2001 Census should be seized whilst it is still available and recommendations for subdividing the "white" group are made.
Title: Describing the "white" ethnic group and its composition in medical research
Subject headings: Canada; Ethnic Groups/*classification; European Continental Ancestry Group/*classification; Great Britain; Humans; *Minority Groups; *Research; Social Identification; State Medicine; United States
Publication year: 1998
Journal or book title: Social Science & Medicine (1982)
Find the full text : http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953698002391
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 105
Author: Ataya, A.F.; Adams, S.; Mullings, E.; Cooper, R.M.; Attwood, A.S.; Munafo, M.R.
Description: AIMS: There is growing interest in cognitive biases related to substance use, but evidence from the anxiety literature suggests that tasks commonly used to assess these may suffer from low internal reliability. We examined the internal reliability of the visual probe and modified Stroop tasks. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of visual probe and modified Stroop task data collected across seven independent studies. SETTING: Human laboratory study. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy volunteers (n=408 across seven independent studies) recruited from the general population on the basis of alcohol or tobacco use. MEASUREMENTS: Visual probe and modified Stroop task measures of substance-related cognitive bias. FINDINGS: Measures of cognitive bias for substance-related cues, as assayed by the visual probe and the modified Stroop tasks, may not be reliable. In particular, the visual probe task showed poor internal reliability, as did unblocked versions of the modified Stroop task. CONCLUSIONS: The modified Stroop task is preferable to the visual probe task as a measure of substance-related cognitive bias, on the basis of its psychometric properties. Studies using cognitive bias tasks should not assume they are reliable, and should routinely report reliability estimates where possible.
Subject Headings: Adult; Alcohol Drinking/*psychology; Attention/*physiology; Cues; Female; Humans; Male; Neuropsychological Tests; Reaction Time/physiology; Reproducibility of Results; Smoking/*psychology
Keywords: Internal reliability of measures of substance-related cognitive bias
Title: Internal reliability of measures of substance-related cognitive bias
Publication year: 2012
Journal or book title: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Find the full text : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376871611003802
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Type: Journal Article
Serial number: 2653