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Author: Arunachalam, S.; Luyster, R.J.

Description: Research on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has rapidly expanded in recent years, yielding important developments in both theory and practice. While we have gained important insights into how children with ASD differ from typically developing (TD) children in terms of phenotypic features, less has been learned about if and how development in ASD differs from typical development in terms of underlying mechanisms of change. This article aims to provide a review of processes subserving lexical development in ASD, with the goal of identifying contributing factors to the heterogeneity of language outcomes in ASD. The focus is on available evidence of the integrity or disruption of these mechanisms in ASD, as well as their significance for vocabulary development; topics include early speech perception and preference, speech segmentation, word learning, and category formation. Significant gaps in the literature are identified and future directions are suggested. Autism Res 2016, 9: 810-828. (c) 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Subject Headings: Autism Spectrum Disorder/*complications/*physiopathology; Child; Humans; Language Development Disorders/*complications/*physiopathology; *Children; *Developmental Psychology; *Infants; *Language; *Learning; *Pediatrics

Keywords: The integrity of lexical acquisition mechanisms in autism spectrum disorders: A research review

Title: The integrity of lexical acquisition mechanisms in autism spectrum disorders: A research review

Subject headings:

Publication year: 2016

Journal or book title: Autism Research : Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research

Volume: 9

Issue: 8

Pages: 810-828

Full text can be found here: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/aur.1590

Cited by these publications: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=2302514660463845147&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2737

ISSN: 1939-3806

ISBN:
Details

Author: Asakawa, A.; Inui, A.; Kaga, T.; Yuzuriha, H.; Nagata, T.; Fujimiya, M.; Katsuura, G.; Makino, S.; Fujino, M.A.; Kasuga, M.

Description: Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, was recently identified in the rat stomach. Previous studies have shown that ghrelin potently increases growth hormone release and food intake. We examined the effects of the gastric peptide ghrelin on anxiety-like behavior in association with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in mice. Both intra-third cerebroventricular and intraperitoneal administration of ghrelin potently and significantly induced anxiogenic activities in the elevated plus maze test. Ghrelin gene expression in the stomach was increased by tail pinch stress as well as by starvation stress. Administration of a corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptor antagonist significantly inhibited ghrelin-induced anxiogenic effects. Peripherally administered ghrelin significantly increased CRH mRNA, but not urocortin mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin produced a significant dose- dependent increase in serum corticosterone levels. These findings suggest that ghrelin may have a role in mediating neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stressors and that the stomach could play an important role, not only in the regulation of appetite, but also in the regulation of anxiety.

Subject Headings: Animals; Anxiety/chemically induced/prevention & control; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/genetics/pharmacology; Gene Expression; Ghrelin; Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/physiopathology; Male; Mice; Neurosecretory Systems/*physiopathology; Pain/complications/genetics; Peptide Fragments/pharmacology; *Peptide Hormones; Peptides/genetics/*physiology; Pituitary-Adrenal System/physiopathology; RNA, Messenger/metabolism; Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone/antagonists & inhibitors; Stomach/physiopathology; Stress, Physiological/etiology/genetics/*physiopathology/*psychology

Keywords: A role of ghrelin in neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress in mice

Title: A role of ghrelin in neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to stress in mice

Subject headings:

Publication year: 2001

Journal or book title: Neuroendocrinology

Volume: 74

Issue: 3

Pages: 143-147

Full text can be found here: https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/54680

Cited by these publications: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=3268658606002916260&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2751

ISSN: 0028-3835

ISBN:
Details

Author: Ashby, J.; Tennant, R.W.

Description: An analysis is presented in which are evaluated correlations among chemical structure, mutagenicity to Salmonella, and carcinogenicity to rats and mice among 301 chemicals tested by the U.S. NTP. Overall, there was a high correlation between structural alerts to DNA reactivity and mutagenicity, but the correlation of either property with carcinogenicity was low. If rodent carcinogenicity is regarded as a singular property of chemicals, then neither structural alerts nor mutagenicity to Salmonella are effective in its prediction. Given this, the database was fragmented and new correlations sought between the derived sub-groups. First, the 301 chemicals were segregated into six broad chemical groupings. Second, the rodent cancer data were partially segregated by target tissue.

Using the previously assigned structural alerts to DNA reactivity (electrophilicity), the chemicals were split into 154 alerting chemicals and 147 non-alerting chemicals. The alerting chemicals were split into three chemical groups; aromatic amino/nitro-types, alkylating agents and miscellaneous structurally-alerting groups. The non-alerting chemicals were subjectively split into three broad categories; non-alerting, non-alerting containing a non-reactive halogen group, and non-alerting chemicals with minor concerns about a possible structural alert. The tumor data for all 301 chemicals are re-presented according to these six chemical groupings.

The most significant findings to emerge from comparisons among these six groups of chemicals were as follows:
1.
(a) Most of the rodent carcinogens, including most of the 2-species and/or multiple site carcinogens, were among the structurally alerting chemicals.

2.
(b) Most of the structurally alerting chemicals were mutagenic; 84% of the carcinogens and 66% of the non-carcinogens. 100% of the 33 aromatic amino/nitro-type 2-species carcinogens were mutagenic. Thus, for structurally alerting chemicals, the Salmonella assay showed high sensitivity and low specificity (0.84 and 0.33, respectively).

3.
(c) Among the 147 non-alerting chemicals < 5% were mutagenic, whether they were carcinogens or non-carcinogens (sensitivity 0.04).


From these facts we conclude that the concepts of genotoxic and non-genotoxic rodent carcinogenicity are worthy of continued attention. Also, that it is meaningless to discuss the sensitivity/specificity of the Salmonella assay without defining the broad chemical classes under discussion. This last conclusion is important to any model for screening environmental chemicals for potential carcinogens.

Some rodent tissues, such as the lung and Zymbal's gland, are uniquely associated with genotoxic carcinogenesis, while others are equally susceptible to non-genotoxic carcinogenesis. Four such tissues are currently studied as possible sites of non-genotoxic carcinogenicity, and these were separately considered; male rat kidney-specific carcinogenic effects, rodent leukaemogens, rodent thyroid gland carcinogens and mouse liver carcinogens (the latter being the largest group, 97 of the 301 chemicals having increased tumor incidences in this tissue). Chemicals inducing tumors in these tissues were of disparate chemical classes and were predominantly non-mutagenic. These facts, together with the specificity of teh carcinogenic effects, is indicative of carcinogenicity resulting from a specific interaction between the chemical and the tissue, rather than it being an intrinsic and unique property of the chemical. Even when tumours in these four tissues were eliminated from the database, the Salmonella assay was only positive for 67% of the remaining 113 carcinogens (derived from a total of 162 carcinogens in the database). This indicates that a range of additional sites are subject to tissue-specific carcinogenesis by putative non-genotoxins.

A distribution chart is presented which represents the 301 chemicals according to the 6 chemical groupings and the level of carcinogenic effect. From this it becomes apparent that the NTP database is dominated by two major groups of chemicals. First, a group of structurally-alerting and mutagenic carcinogens that are predominantly active in both species and/or at multiple sites, and second a group of non-alerting, non-mutagenic non-carcinogens. In between these two groups is a diffusely spread group of species/sex/tissue specific carcinogens, only some of which are mutagenic and/or structurally alerting. It is among the last group of carcinogens that reseach is required to understand their mechanism of action and their significance to man. The in vivo mammalian cell genotoxicity database of the TNP failed to distinguish these last carcinogens from the non-carcinogens, and this endorses that research into the mode of action of these carcinogens should not be concerned with their genotoxicity.

Our overall conclusion is that rodent carcinogenicity can no longer be regarded as a single entity. Structural alerts and mutagenicity to Salmonella are useful but non-definitive indicators of the overt carcinogens in the database, and the activity of the remaining (putative non-genotoxic) carcinogens is no predictable using current techniques. To pool rodent carcinogens and to attempt to find a single method for their prediction is no longer tenable. Rather, it is suggested that genotoxic carcinogens should be predicted by reference to chemical structure and the intelligent use of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays, and that non-genotoxic carcinogens require basic studies to understand the subtle effects that occur in rodents upon protracted dosing with chemicals. It will also be necessary to consider which of these effects may be ancillary and which are critical to increases in tumor incidences. Some such indicators are emerging (e.g. peroxisome proliferation in the rodent liver), but much uncertainty remains in this area. The suspected nature of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis indicates that studies into its mechanisms and prediction will be most effectively progressed in vivo, rather than in vitro.

Subject Headings: Rodent carcinogenicity bioassay; DNA reactivity; Classification according to chemical structure/mutagenicity

Keywords: Definitive relationships among chemical structure, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity for 301 chemicals tested by the U.S. NTP

Title: Definitive relationships among chemical structure, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity for 301 chemicals tested by the U.S. NTP

Subject headings:

Publication year: 1991

Journal or book title: Mutation Research/Reviews in Genetic Toxicology

Volume: 257

Issue: 3

Pages: 229-306

Full text can be found here: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/016511109190003E

Cited by these publications: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=2453490477832827272&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2521

ISSN: 0165-1110

ISBN:
Details

Author: Ashoori, R.C.

Description: Progress in semiconductor technology has enabled the fabrication of structures so small that they can contain just one mobile electron. By varying controllably the number of electrons in these 'artificial atoms' and measuring the energy required to add successive electrons, one can conduct atomic physics experiments in a regime that is inaccessible to experiments on real atoms.

Subject Headings: Atoms; Electrons; Artificial;

Keywords: Electrons in artificial atoms

Title: Electrons in artificial atoms

Subject headings:

Publication year: 1996

Journal or book title: Nature

Volume: 379

Issue: 6564

Pages: 413-419

Full text can be found here: https://www.nature.com/articles/379413a0

Cited by these publications: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=12027157654389664963&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2738

ISSN: 0028-0836

ISBN:
Details

Author: Ashraf, M.; Habib-ur-Rehman,

Description: The interactive effect of additional amount of NO3-N and long-term waterlogging on maize was studied in glasshouse conditions. Forty-two-day-old plants were subjected to continuous flooding for 21 days at three different NO3-N regimes (196, 294 and 392 mg N kg&#8722;1 soil). Shoot fresh mass and leaf area of waterlogged plants reduced significantly at two higher NO3 regimes. Leaf water potential was generally decreased, whereas osmotic potential increased in all waterlogged plants but much reduction in leaf water potential was found at the highest external NO3 regime. Leaf turgor potential decreased due to waterlogging but this decrease progressed with increase in external NO3 concentration. Chlorophylls ‘a’ and ‘b’ increased in non-waterlogged plants with increase in NO3 concentration of the growth medium, but these two pigments decreased significantly due to waterlogging particularly at the two higher NO3 regimes. Chlorophyll a/b ratio increased linearly in non-waterlogged plants with increase in external NO3 regimes but the ratio remained almost unchanged due to waterlogging. Waterlogging caused a reduction in net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance but no effect of additional amount of NO3 was observed on these two variables. Transpiration was also decreased as a result of waterlogging but a marked reduction in this variable was observed at the highest external NO3 concentration. Water-use efficiency increased with increase in external NO3 concentration in both waterlogged and non-waterlogged plants. Although waterlogging caused a reduction in substomatal CO2 concentration, it generally increased in both waterlogged and non-waterlogged plants due to supplementary NO3, particularly at its highest concentration. From these results, it is clear that supplementary NO3 in the growth medium of maize plants experiencing long-term waterlogging had injurious effect on growth.

Title: Interactive effects of nitrate and long-term waterlogging on growth, water relations, and gaseous exchange properties of maize (Zea mays L.)

Subject headings: Growth; Chlorophyll contents; Maize; Net assimilation; Stomatal conductance; Waterlogging

Publication year: 1999

Journal or book title: Plant Science

Volume: 144

Issue: 1

Pages: 35-43

Full text can be found here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168945299000552

Cited by these publications: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=1301568218844582801&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 618

ISSN: 0168-9452

ISBN:
Details

Author: Aspinall, P.J.

Description: The routine use in medical research of an ostensibly homogeneous "white" category in ethnic group classifications has meant that white minorities, such as the Irish, Turks and Cypriots, have remained hidden, even though such groups are subject to discrimination and disadvantage common to other minority groups. The terms "white" and "Caucasian" are frequently and increasingly employed in the scientific literature in spite of widespread concern about the medicalization of race. Moreover, in Great Britain ethnic monitoring of hospital inpatients has revealed negligible interest in utilising codes that subdivide the white group. Yet recent research has shown, for example, substantially elevated age standardised limiting long-term illness rates in the first generation Irish and excess mortality in the second generation living in Britain. The health needs of these white minorities can only properly be identified through the availability of census denominator data of the kind now collected in the U.S. and Canadian decennial census questions on ethnic origin. The opportunity for government to make such provision in the forthcoming Great Britain 2001 Census should be seized whilst it is still available and recommendations for subdividing the "white" group are made.

Title: Describing the "white" ethnic group and its composition in medical research

Subject headings: Canada; Ethnic Groups/*classification; European Continental Ancestry Group/*classification; Great Britain; Humans; *Minority Groups; *Research; Social Identification; State Medicine; United States

Publication year: 1998

Journal or book title: Social Science & Medicine (1982)

Volume: 47

Issue: 11

Pages: 1797-1808

Full text can be found here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953698002391

Cited by these publications: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=6388543847064763663&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 105

ISSN: 0277-9536

ISBN:
Details

Author: Ataya, A.F.; Adams, S.; Mullings, E.; Cooper, R.M.; Attwood, A.S.; Munafo, M.R.

Description: AIMS: There is growing interest in cognitive biases related to substance use, but evidence from the anxiety literature suggests that tasks commonly used to assess these may suffer from low internal reliability. We examined the internal reliability of the visual probe and modified Stroop tasks. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of visual probe and modified Stroop task data collected across seven independent studies. SETTING: Human laboratory study. PARTICIPANTS: Healthy volunteers (n=408 across seven independent studies) recruited from the general population on the basis of alcohol or tobacco use. MEASUREMENTS: Visual probe and modified Stroop task measures of substance-related cognitive bias. FINDINGS: Measures of cognitive bias for substance-related cues, as assayed by the visual probe and the modified Stroop tasks, may not be reliable. In particular, the visual probe task showed poor internal reliability, as did unblocked versions of the modified Stroop task. CONCLUSIONS: The modified Stroop task is preferable to the visual probe task as a measure of substance-related cognitive bias, on the basis of its psychometric properties. Studies using cognitive bias tasks should not assume they are reliable, and should routinely report reliability estimates where possible.

Subject Headings: Adult; Alcohol Drinking/*psychology; Attention/*physiology; Cues; Female; Humans; Male; Neuropsychological Tests; Reaction Time/physiology; Reproducibility of Results; Smoking/*psychology

Keywords: Internal reliability of measures of substance-related cognitive bias

Title: Internal reliability of measures of substance-related cognitive bias

Subject headings:

Publication year: 2012

Journal or book title: Drug and Alcohol Dependence

Volume: 121

Issue: 1-2

Pages: 148-151

Full text can be found here: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376871611003802

Cited by these publications: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=10530220518057060157&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2653

ISSN: 0376-8716

ISBN:
Details

Author: Atherton, P.J.; Babraj, J.; Smith, K.; Singh, J.; Rennie, M.J.; Wackerhage, H.

Description: Endurance training induces a partial fast-to-slow muscle phenotype transformation and mitochondrial biogenesis but no growth. In contrast, resistance training mainly stimulates muscle protein synthesis resulting in hypertrophy. The aim of this study was to identify signaling events that may mediate the specific adaptations to these types of exercise. Isolated rat muscles were electrically stimulated with either high frequency (HFS; 6x10 repetitions of 3 s-bursts at 100 Hz to mimic resistance training) or low frequency (LFS; 3 h at 10 Hz to mimic endurance training). HFS significantly increased myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic protein synthesis 3 h after stimulation 5.3- and 2.7-fold, respectively. LFS had no significant effect on protein synthesis 3 h after stimulation but increased UCP3 mRNA 11.7-fold, whereas HFS had no significant effect on UCP3 mRNA. Only LFS increased AMPK phosphorylation significantly at Thr172 by approximately 2-fold and increased PGC-1alpha protein to 1.3 times of control. LFS had no effect on PKB phosphorylation but reduced TSC2 phosphorylation at Thr1462 and deactivated translational regulators. In contrast, HFS acutely increased phosphorylation of PKB at Ser473 5.3-fold and the phosphorylation of TSC2, mTOR, GSK-3beta at PKB-sensitive sites. HFS also caused a prolonged activation of the translational regulators p70 S6k, 4E-BP1, eIF-2B, and eEF2. These data suggest that a specific signaling response to LFS is a specific activation of the AMPK-PGC-1alpha signaling pathway which may explain some endurance training adaptations. HFS selectively activates the PKB-TSC2-mTOR cascade causing a prolonged activation of translational regulators, which is consistent with increased protein synthesis and muscle growth. We term this behavior the "AMPK-PKB switch." We hypothesize that the AMPK-PKB switch is a mechanism that partially mediates specific adaptations to endurance and resistance training, respectively.

Title: Selective activation of AMPK-PGC-1alpha or PKB-TSC2-mTOR signaling can explain specific adaptive responses to endurance or resistance training-like electrical muscle stimulation

Subject headings: Adaptation, Physiological; Adenylate Kinase/*metabolism; Animals; Electric Stimulation; Enzyme Activation; Male; Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism; Muscle Contraction; Muscle Proteins/biosynthesis; Muscle, Skeletal/*physiology; Myofibrils/metabolism; Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha; Phosphorylation; Physical Conditioning, Animal; Physical Endurance/physiology; Physical Exertion; Protein Kinases/*metabolism; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/*metabolism; RNA-Binding Proteins/*metabolism; Rats; Rats, Wistar; Sarcoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism; Signal Transduction; TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; Transcription Factors/*metabolism; Tumor Suppressor Proteins/*metabolism

Publication year: 2005

Journal or book title: FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology

Volume: 19

Issue: 7

Pages: 786-788

Full text can be found here: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ken_Smith8/publication/8017541_Selective_activation_of_AMPK-PGC-1alpha_or_PKB-TSC2-mTOR_signaling_can_explain_specific_adaptive_responses_to_endurance_or_resistance_training-like_electrical_muscle_stimulation/links/56a

Cited by these publications: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=5922207386310880155&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 2075

ISSN: 0892-6638

ISBN:
Details

Author: Atkinson, C.M.; Drysdale, K.A.; Fulham, W.R.

Description: In the Stroop task, the latency of response to a colour is either faster or slower in the presence of a congruent or incongruent colour-word (J. Exp. Psychol. 18 (1935) 643). Debate remains as to whether this effect occurs during early stimulus processing or late response competition. The present study examined the task using reaction time (RT) and event-related potentials to determine temporal differences in this processing. The 'reverse Stroop' effect (where colour interferes with processing of a colour-word) which is much less well established, was also examined. Standard Stroop interference was found as well as reverse Stroop interference. A late lateralised negativity at frontal sites was greater for Incongruent trials and also for the word-response (reverse Stroop) task, and was interpreted as semantic selection and word-rechecking effects. Late positive component latency effects generally mirrored the speed of processing of the different conditions found in RT data. Stroop effects were also found in early temporal N100 and parietal P100 components, which differentiated Congruent from Incongruent trials in the reverse Stroop but not the standard Stroop, and were interpreted as early perception of physical mismatch between the colour and word. It was concluded that Stroop stimuli are processed in parallel in a network of brain areas rather than a particular structure and that Stroop interference arises at the output stage.

Title: Event-related potentials to Stroop and reverse Stroop stimuli

Subject headings: Adult; Analysis of Variance; Attention/*physiology; Electroencephalography/methods; Evoked Potentials/*physiology; Humans; Middle Aged; Reaction Time/physiology

Publication year: 2003

Journal or book title: International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology

Volume: 47

Issue: 1

Pages: 1-21

Full text can be found here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167876002000387

Cited by these publications: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=3326588888198453943&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 235

ISSN: 0167-8760

ISBN:
Details

Author: Attiwill, P.M.

Description: The alteration of the ionic composition of rainwater by vegetation has been attributed in the literature both to foliar leaching (representing circulation of elements within an ecosystem) and to the washing from leaves of particulate matter (an addition of elements to the ecosystem). The purpose of this study was to estimate the magnitudes of these components in a matureEucalyptus obliqua forest on the Great Dividing Range, Australia.

Rainwater samples collected both within the forest and from an opening devoid of trees at regular intervals during a two year period were analyzed for sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus. The ionic composition of rainwater sampled at the open area fits an expected geographical distribution pattern, and the origin of the ions is considered to be mainly oceanic and partly terrestrial. The concentration of ions in rainwater collected both at the open area and from within the forest is related, inversely and exponentially, to the intensity of rainfall during a collection period.

Ionic concentrations in rainwater collected beneath the forest canopy were greater than concentrations in rainwater collected at the open area. Considerations of ionic ratios lead to the conclusion that this increase is principally the result of foliar leaching. Furthermore the data for this mature forest conform closely to the results, reported in the literature of leaching experiments carried out under controlled conditions with small, individual plants.

Title: The chemical composition of rainwater in relation to cycling of nutrients in mature eucalyptus forest

Subject headings:

Publication year: 1966

Journal or book title: Plant and Soil

Volume: 24

Issue: 3

Pages: 390-406

Full text can be found here: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF01374047?LI=true

Cited by these publications: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?cites=12028051989470193701&as_sdt=1000005&sciodt=0,16&hl=en

Type: Journal Article

Serial number: 1852

ISSN: 0032-079X

ISBN:





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