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Author (up) Bieling, P.; Laan, L.; Schek, H.; Munteanu, E.L.; Sandblad, L.; Dogterom, M.; Brunner, D.; Surrey, T. file  url
openurl 
  Title Reconstitution of a microtubule plus-end tracking system in vitro Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 450 Issue 7172 Pages 1100-1105  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The microtubule cytoskeleton is essential to cell morphogenesis. Growing microtubule plus ends have emerged as dynamic regulatory sites in which specialized proteins, called plus-end-binding proteins (+TIPs), bind and regulate the proper functioning of microtubules. However, the molecular mechanism of plus-end association by +TIPs and their ability to track the growing end are not well understood. Here we report the in vitro reconstitution of a minimal plus-end tracking system consisting of the three fission yeast proteins Mal3, Tip1 and the kinesin Tea2. Using time-lapse total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we show that the EB1 homologue Mal3 has an enhanced affinity for growing microtubule end structures as opposed to the microtubule lattice. This allows it to track growing microtubule ends autonomously by an end recognition mechanism. In addition, Mal3 acts as a factor that mediates loading of the processive motor Tea2 and its cargo, the Clip170 homologue Tip1, onto the microtubule lattice. The interaction of all three proteins is required for the selective tracking of growing microtubule plus ends by both Tea2 and Tip1. Our results dissect the collective interactions of the constituents of this plus-end tracking system and show how these interactions lead to the emergence of its dynamic behaviour. We expect that such in vitro reconstitutions will also be essential for the mechanistic dissection of other plus-end tracking systems.

Subject Heading: Cell-Free System; Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism; Intermediate Filament Proteins/metabolism; Microscopy, Fluorescence; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/*metabolism; Microtubules/*chemistry/*metabolism; *Schizosaccharomyces/chemistry/cytology; Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins/metabolism
 
  Call Number Serial 2223  
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Author (up) Downing, K.J.; Thomson, J.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Introduction of the Serratia marcescens chiA gene into an endophytic Pseudomonas fluorescens for the biocontrol of phytopathogenic fungi Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Canadian Journal of Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Can J Microbiol  
  Volume 46 Issue 4 Pages 363-369  
  Keywords Chitinases/*genetics/metabolism; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Escherichia coli/genetics; Fabaceae/microbiology; *Pest Control, Biological; Plant Diseases/microbiology; Plants, Medicinal; Plasmids/genetics; Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods; Promoter Regions, Genetic; Pseudomonas fluorescens/*enzymology/*genetics/growth & development/isolation & purification; Repressor Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Rhizoctonia/*growth & development; *Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins; Serratia marcescens/enzymology/*genetics; *Telomere-Binding Proteins  
  Abstract An endophytic strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens was isolated from micropropagated apple plantlets and introduced into beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) via their root tips. It was shown to be present as an endophyte in the roots at a level of 1.2 x 10(5) CFU/g fresh weight. The gene coding for the major chitinase of Serratia marcescens, chiA, was cloned under the control of the tac promoter into the broad-host-range plasmid pKT240 and the integration vector pJFF350. Pseudomonas fluorescens carrying tacchiA either on the plasmid or integrated into the chromosome is an effective biocontrol agent of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani on bean seedlings under plant growth chamber conditions.  
  Call Number Serial 1662  
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Author (up) Durieu-Trautmann, O.; Delavier-Klutchko, C. file  url
openurl 
  Title Effect of ammonia and glutamine on macromolecule synthesis and breakdown during sporulation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Type Journal Article
  Year 1977 Publication Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications Abbreviated Journal Biochem Biophys Res Commun  
  Volume 79 Issue 2 Pages 438-442  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The effect of two known inhibitors of sporulation in yeast, ammonia and glutamine, on certain biochemical events during sporogenesis have been studied using sporulating and non sporulating cells. Both strains gave similar results on the increase in dry cell weight, protein and RNA breakdown and the suppression of the intensive RNA and protein syntheses occurring after 4 hours. The inhibitory effect of ammonia and glutamine on RNA and protein syntheses is reversible under the same conditions which do so for sporulation.

Subject Headings: Ammonia/*pharmacology; DNA/biosynthesis; Fungal Proteins/biosynthesis; Glutamine/*pharmacology; Kinetics; RNA/biosynthesis; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects/*metabolism; Spores, Fungal/drug effects/metabolism
 
  Call Number Serial 2319  
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Author (up) Favelukes, G.; Stoppani, A.O. url  openurl
  Title Baker's-yeast fumarase, a thiol enzyme Type Journal Article
  Year 1958 Publication Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Abbreviated Journal Biochim Biophys Acta  
  Volume 28 Issue 3 Pages 654-655  
  Keywords *Hydro-Lyases; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*metabolism; *Hydrases; *SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE/metabolism  
  Abstract  
  Call Number Grinnell @ engelk @ Serial 483  
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Author (up) Gupta, M.L.J.; Carvalho, P.; Roof, D.M.; Pellman, D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Plus end-specific depolymerase activity of Kip3, a kinesin-8 protein, explains its role in positioning the yeast mitotic spindle Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Nature Cell Biology Abbreviated Journal Nat Cell Biol  
  Volume 8 Issue 9 Pages 913-923  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The budding yeast protein Kip3p is a member of the conserved kinesin-8 family of microtubule motors, which are required for microtubule-cortical interactions, normal spindle assembly and kinetochore dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that Kip3p is both a plus end-directed motor and a plus end-specific depolymerase--a unique combination of activities not found in other kinesins. The ATPase activity of Kip3p was activated by both microtubules and unpolymerized tubulin. Furthermore, Kip3p in the ATP-bound state formed a complex with unpolymerized tubulin. Thus, motile kinesin-8s may depolymerize microtubules by a mechanism that is similar to that used by non-motile kinesin-13 proteins. Fluorescent speckle analysis established that, in vivo, Kip3p moved toward and accumulated on the plus ends of growing microtubules, suggesting that motor activity brings Kip3p to its site of action. Globally, and more dramatically on cortical contact, Kip3p promoted catastrophes and pausing, and inhibited microtubule growth. These findings explain the role of Kip3p in positioning the mitotic spindle in budding yeast and potentially other processes controlled by kinesin-8 family members.

Subject headings: Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism; Cell Cycle/physiology; Kinesin/*metabolism; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/*physiology; Microtubules/*physiology; Molecular Motor Proteins/*physiology; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/*physiology; Spindle Apparatus/*physiology; Tubulin/metabolism
 
  Call Number Serial 2212  
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Author (up) Gupta, M.L.J.; Carvalho, P.; Roof, D.M.; Pellman, D. file  url
openurl 
  Title Plus end-specific depolymerase activity of Kip3, a kinesin-8 protein, explains its role in positioning the yeast mitotic spindle Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Nature Cell Biology Abbreviated Journal Nat Cell Biol  
  Volume 8 Issue 9 Pages 913-923  
  Keywords  
  Abstract The budding yeast protein Kip3p is a member of the conserved kinesin-8 family of microtubule motors, which are required for microtubule-cortical interactions, normal spindle assembly and kinetochore dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that Kip3p is both a plus end-directed motor and a plus end-specific depolymerase--a unique combination of activities not found in other kinesins. The ATPase activity of Kip3p was activated by both microtubules and unpolymerized tubulin. Furthermore, Kip3p in the ATP-bound state formed a complex with unpolymerized tubulin. Thus, motile kinesin-8s may depolymerize microtubules by a mechanism that is similar to that used by non-motile kinesin-13 proteins. Fluorescent speckle analysis established that, in vivo, Kip3p moved toward and accumulated on the plus ends of growing microtubules, suggesting that motor activity brings Kip3p to its site of action. Globally, and more dramatically on cortical contact, Kip3p promoted catastrophes and pausing, and inhibited microtubule growth. These findings explain the role of Kip3p in positioning the mitotic spindle in budding yeast and potentially other processes controlled by kinesin-8 family members.

Subject Headings: Adenosine Triphosphatases/metabolism; Cell Cycle/physiology; Kinesin/*metabolism; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/*physiology; Microtubules/*physiology; Molecular Motor Proteins/*physiology; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/*physiology; Spindle Apparatus/*physiology; Tubulin/metabolism
 
  Call Number Serial 2260  
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Author (up) Heinisch, J.J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Baker's yeast as a tool for the development of antifungal kinase inhibitors--targeting protein kinase C and the cell integrity pathway Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Abbreviated Journal Biochim Biophys Acta  
  Volume 1754 Issue 1-2 Pages 171-182  
  Keywords Antifungal Agents/*chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology; Cell Cycle/*drug effects; Cell Wall/drug effects/metabolism; Enzyme Inhibitors/*chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology; Humans; MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects; Models, Biological; Protein Kinase C/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/drug effects/metabolism; Protein Kinases/genetics/metabolism; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry/*metabolism; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/chemistry/enzymology/*metabolism; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/*antagonists & inhibitors/chemistry/drug effects/metabolism  
  Abstract Today, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is probably the best-studied eukaryotic organism. This review first focuses on the signaling process which is mediated by the unique yeast protein kinase C (Pkc1p) and a downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade. This pathway ensures cellular integrity by sensing cell surface stress and controlling cell wall biosynthesis and progression through the cell cycle. The domain structure of Pkc1p is conserved from yeast to humans. A yeast system for heterologous expression of specific domains in a chimeric yeast/mammalian PKC enzyme (“domain shuffling”) is depicted. It is also proposed how this system could be employed for the study of protein kinase inhibitors in high-throughput screens. Moreover, a reporter assay that allows a quantitative readout of the activity of the cell integrity signaling pathway is introduced. Since a variety of protein kinases take part in the signal transduction, this broadens the range of targets for potential inhibitors.  
  Call Number Serial 554  
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Author (up) Leskovac, V.; Trivic, S.; Anderson, B.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Use of competitive dead-end inhibitors to determine the chemical mechanism of action of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 178 Issue 1-2 Pages 219-227  
  Keywords yeast; alcohol; dehydrogenase; dead-end inhibitors; mechanism of action; dehydrogenases  
  Abstract In this work, we have postulated a comprehensive and unified chemical mechanism of action for yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.1, constitutive, cytoplasmic), isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The chemical mechanism of yeast enzyme is based on the integrity of the proton relay system: His-51....NAD+....Thr-48....R.CH2OH(H2>O)....Zn<math>++, stretching from His-51 on the surface of enzyme to the active site zinc atom in the substrate-binding site of enzyme. Further, it is based on extensive studies of steady-state kinetic properties of enzyme which were published recently. In this study, we have reported the pH-dependence of dissociation constants for several competitive dead-end inhibitors of yeast enzyme from their binary complexes with enzyme, or their ternary complexes with enzyme and NAD+ or NADH; inhibitors include: pyrazole, acetamide, sodium azide, 2-fluoroethanol, and 2,2,2-trifluorethanol. The unified mechanism describes the structures of four dissociation forms of apoenzyme, two forms of the binary complex E.NAD+, three forms of the ternary complex E.NAD+.alcohol, two forms of the ternary complex E.NADH.aldehyde and three binary complexes E.NADH. Appropriate pKa values have been ascribed to protonation forms of most of the above mentioned complexes of yeast enzyme with coenzymes and substrates.  
  Call Number Serial 1414  
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Author (up) Mazzoni, C.; Falcone, C. file  url
openurl 
  Title Caspase-dependent apoptosis in yeast Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Biochimica et Biophysica Acta Abbreviated Journal Biochim Biophys Acta  
  Volume 1783 Issue 7 Pages 1320-1327  
  Keywords Apoptosis--genetics, physiology; Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins--metabolism; Caspases--metabolism; Mitochondria--metabolism; Saccharomyces cerevisiae--genetics, physiology; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins--metabolism; Signal Transduction  
  Abstract Damaging environment, certain intracellular defects or heterologous expression of pro-apoptotic genes induce death in yeast cells exhibiting typical markers of apoptosis. In mammals, apoptosis can be directed by the activation of groups of proteases, called caspases, that cleave specific substrates and trigger cell death. In addition, in plants, fungi, Dictyostelium and metazoa, paracaspases and metacaspases have been identified that share some homologies with caspases but showing different substrate specificity. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a gene (MCA1/YCA1) has been identified coding for a metacaspase involved in the induction of cell death. Metacaspases are not biochemical, but sequence and functional homologes of caspases, as deletion of them rescues entirely different death scenarios. In this review we will summarize the current knowledge in S. cerevisiae on apoptotic processes, induced by internal and external triggers, which are dependent on the metacaspase gene YCA1.  
  Call Number Serial 850  
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Author (up) McPheeters, D.S.; Wise, J.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Measurement of in vivo RNA synthesis rates Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Methods in Enzymology Abbreviated Journal Methods Enzymol  
  Volume 530 Issue Pages 117-135  
  Keywords Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal; RNA, Fungal/*genetics; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*genetics; Schizosaccharomyces/*genetics; Transcription, Genetic; Immobilized DNA/RNA; Immobilized probes; In vivo RNA synthesis rates; Labeled RNA; Nascent transcripts  
  Abstract A technique is described to directly measure ongoing transcription from individual genes in permeabilized cells of either the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae or the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Transcription run-on (TRO) analysis is used to compare the relative rates of synthesis for specific transcripts in cells grown under different environmental conditions or harvested at different stages of development. As the amount of an individual RNA species present at any given time is determined by its net rate of synthesis and degradation, an accurate picture of transcription per se can be obtained only by directly measuring de novo synthesis of RNA (if you are interested in RNA degradation, see Method for measuring mRNA decay rate in Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Most techniques employed to measure changes in the relative levels of individual transcripts present under different conditions, including Northern analysis (see Northern blotting), RT-PCR (see Reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR)), nuclease protection assays (see Explanatory Chapter: Nuclease Protection Assays), and genome-wide assays, such as microarray analysis and high throughput RNA sequencing, measure changes in the steady-state level of a transcript, which may or may not reflect the actual changes in transcription of the gene. Recent studies carried out in fission yeast have demonstrated that increases in the steady-state level (accumulation) of many individual mRNAs occur without any significant changes in transcription rates (McPheeters et al., 2009), highlighting the important role of regulated RNA stability in determining gene expression programs (Harigaya et al., 2006).  
  Call Number Serial 1345  
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