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Author (up) Van de Ven, W.J.; Creemers, J.W.; Roebroek, A.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Furin: the prototype mammalian subtilisin-like proprotein-processing enzyme. Endoproteolytic cleavage at paired basic residues of proproteins of the eukaryotic secretory pathway Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Enzyme Abbreviated Journal Enzyme  
  Volume 45 Issue 5-6 Pages 257-270  
  Keywords Animals; Binding Sites; Catalysis; Cloning, Molecular; Drosophila melanogaster; Furin; Humans; Invertebrate Hormones/genetics/metabolism; Mice; Models, Molecular; Multigene Family; Protein Conformation; Protein Precursors/*metabolism; *Protein Processing, Post-Translational; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid; Substrate Specificity; Subtilisins/genetics/*metabolism  
  Abstract Furin, the translational product of the recently discovered fur gene, appears to be the first known mammalian member of the subtilisin family of serine proteases and the first known mammalian proprotein-processing enzyme with cleavage selectivity for paired basic amino acid residues. Structurally and functionally, it resembles the prohormone-processing enzyme, kexin (EC 3.4.21.61), which is encoded by the KEX2 gene of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most likely, furin is primarily involved in the processing of precursors of proteins that are secreted via the constitutive secretory pathway. Here, we review the discovery of the fur gene and describe the isolation of cDNA clones corresponding to human and mouse fur and to two fur-like genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Dfur1 and Dfur2. We also compare the structural organization of the various deduced furin proteins to that of yeast kexin, and of other members of the subtilisin family of serine proteases. Furthermore, the biosynthesis of biologically active human and mouse furin is evaluated. Finally, the cleavage specificity for paired basic amino acid residues of human and mouse furin is demonstrated by the correct processing of the precursor for von Willebrand factor.  
  Call Number Serial 524  
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Author (up) Weaver, T.; Lees, M.; Zaitsev, V.; Zaitseva, I.; Duke, E.; Lindley, P.; McSweeny, S.; Svensson, A.; Keruchenko, J.; Keruchenko, I.; Gladilin, K.; Banaszak, L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Crystal structures of native and recombinant yeast fumarase Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication Journal of Molecular Biology Abbreviated Journal J Mol Biol  
  Volume 280 Issue 3 Pages 431-442  
  Keywords Binding Sites; Crystallography, X-Ray; Fumarate Hydratase/*chemistry; Fungal Proteins/*chemistry; Models, Molecular; Polymers/chemistry; *Protein Conformation; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/*enzymology; Water/chemistry  
  Abstract Crystal structures for both native and recombinant forms of yeast fumarase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been completed to moderate resolution by two separate laboratories. The recombinant form was obtained by the construction of an expression plasmid for Escherichia coli. Despite a high level of amino acid sequence similarity, purification of the eukaryotic enzyme from the wild-type prokaryotic enzyme was feasible. The crystal structure of the native form, NY-fumarase, encompasses residues R22 through M484, while the recombinant form, RY-fumarase, consists of residues S27 through L485. Both crystal structures lack the N-terminal translocation segment. Each subunit of the homo-tetrameric protein has three domains. The active site is formed by segments from each of three polypeptide chains. The results of these studies on the eukaryotic proteins are unique, since the recombinant form was done in the absence of dicarboxylic acid and has an unoccupied active site. As a comparison, native fumarase was crystallized in the presence of the competitive inhibitor, meso-tartrate. Meso-tartrate occupies a position close to that of the bound citrate molecule found in the active site of the E. coli enzyme. This inhibitor participates in hydrogen bonding to an active-site water molecule. The independent determination of the two structures provides further evidence that an active-site water molecule may play an active role in the fumarase-catalyzed reaction.  
  Call Number Serial 1178  
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Author (up) Williams, R.P.; Gott, C.L.; Qadri, S.M.; Scott, R.H. file  url
openurl 
  Title Influence of temperature of incubation and type of growth medium on pigmentation in Serratia marcescens Type Journal Article
  Year 1971 Publication Journal of Bacteriology Abbreviated Journal J Bacteriol  
  Volume 106 Issue 2 Pages 438-443  
  Keywords Anti-Bacterial Agents/*biosynthesis; Bacterial Proteins/biosynthesis; Bacteriological Techniques; Caseins; Cell Division; Chloramphenicol/pharmacology; *Culture Media; Hot Temperature; Hydrogen-Ion Concentration; Oxygen; Pigments, Biological/*biosynthesis; Prodigiosin/biosynthesis; Protein Hydrolysates; Pyrroles/*biosynthesis; Saccharomyces; Serratia marcescens/cytology/drug effects/growth & development/*metabolism; Spectrophotometry; *Temperature; Time Factors  
  Abstract Maximal amounts of prodigiosin were synthesized in either minimal or complete medium after incubation of cultures at 27 C for 7 days. Biosynthesis of prodigiosin began earlier and the range of temperature for formation was greater in complete medium. No prodigiosin was formed in either medium when cultures were incubated at 38 C; however, after a shift to 27 C, pigmentation ensued, provided the period of incubation at 38 C was not longer than 36 hr for minimal medium or 48 hr for complete medium. Washed, nonpigmented cells grown in either medium at 38 C for 72 hr could synthesize prodigiosin when suspended in saline at 27 C when casein hydrolysate was added. These suspensions produced less prodigiosin at a slower rate than did cultures growing in casein hydrolysate at 27 C without prior incubation at 38 C. Optimal concentration of casein hydrolysate for pigment formation by suspensions was 0.4%; optimal temperature was 27 C. Anaerobic incubation, shift back to 38 C, killing cells by heating, or chloramphenicol (25 mug/ml) inhibited pigmentation. Suspensions of washed cells forming pigment reached pH 8.0 to 8.3 rapidly and maintained this pH throughout incubation for 7 days. Measurements of viable count and of protein, plus other data, indicated that cellular multiplication did not occur in suspensions of washed cells during pigment formation. By this procedure utilizing a shift down in temperature, biosynthesis of prodigiosin by washed cells could be separated from multiplication of bacteria.  
  Call Number Serial 1615  
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Author (up) Wiltzius, J.J.W.; Hohl, M.; Fleming, J.C.; Petrini, J.H.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title The Rad50 hook domain is a critical determinant of Mre11 complex functions Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Nature Structural & Molecular Biology Abbreviated Journal Nat Struct Mol Biol  
  Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages 403-407  
  Keywords Cell Division; DNA, Fungal/genetics/metabolism; DNA-Binding Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism; Endodeoxyribonucleases/*metabolism; Exodeoxyribonucleases/*metabolism; Ligands; Meiosis/genetics; Mutation/genetics; Phenotype; Protein Binding; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Recombination, Genetic/genetics; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics/*metabolism; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/*chemistry/genetics/*metabolism; Telomere/metabolism  
  Abstract The Mre11 complex (in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Mre11, Rad50 and Xrs2) influences multiple facets of chromosome break metabolism. A conserved feature of the Mre11 complex is a zinc-coordinating motif in Rad50 called the Rad50 hook. We established a diploid yeast strain, rad50(hook), in which Rad50 is encoded in halves, one from each of the two RAD50 alleles, with the residues constituting the hook deleted. In all respects, rad50(hook) phenocopies complete Rad50 deficiency. Replacing the hook domain with a ligand-inducible FKBP dimerization cassette partially mitigated all phenotypes in a ligand-dependent manner. The data indicate that the Rad50 hook is critical for Mre11 complex-dependent DNA repair, telomere maintenance and meiotic double-strand break formation. Sister chromatid cohesion was unaffected by Rad50 deficiency, suggesting that molecular bridging required for recombinational DNA repair is qualitatively distinct from cohesin-mediated sister chromatid cohesion.  
  Call Number Serial 1716  
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Author (up) Yogev, O.; Yogev, O.; Singer, E.; Shaulian, E.; Goldberg, M.; Fox, T.D.; Pines, O. file  url
openurl 
  Title Fumarase: a mitochondrial metabolic enzyme and a cytosolic/nuclear component of the DNA damage response Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication PLoS Biology Abbreviated Journal PLoS Biol  
  Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages e1000328  
  Keywords Cell Nucleus/*metabolism; Cytosol/*metabolism; *DNA Damage; Fumarate Hydratase/genetics/*metabolism; Fumarates/metabolism; Gene Knockdown Techniques; HeLa Cells; Histones/genetics/metabolism; Humans; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism; Isoenzymes/genetics/*metabolism; Kidney Neoplasms/enzymology/genetics; Leiomyomatosis/enzymology/genetics; Mitochondria/*enzymology; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology/genetics; Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Tumor Suppressor Proteins/genetics/metabolism  
  Abstract In eukaryotes, fumarase (FH in human) is a well-known tricarboxylic-acid-cycle enzyme in the mitochondrial matrix. However, conserved from yeast to humans is a cytosolic isoenzyme of fumarase whose function in this compartment remains obscure. A few years ago, FH was surprisingly shown to underlie a tumor susceptibility syndrome, Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC). A biallelic inactivation of FH has been detected in almost all HLRCC tumors, and therefore FH was suggested to function as a tumor suppressor. Recently it was suggested that FH inhibition leads to elevated intracellular fumarate, which in turn acts as a competitive inhibitor of HPH (HIF prolyl hydroxylase), thereby causing stabilization of HIF (Hypoxia-inducible factor) by preventing proteasomal degradation. The transcription factor HIF increases the expression of angiogenesis regulated genes, such as VEGF, which can lead to high microvessel density and tumorigenesis. Yet this mechanism does not fully explain the large cytosolic population of fumarase molecules. We constructed a yeast strain in which fumarase is localized exclusively to mitochondria. This led to the discovery that the yeast cytosolic fumarase plays a key role in the protection of cells from DNA damage, particularly from DNA double-strand breaks. We show that the cytosolic fumarase is a member of the DNA damage response that is recruited from the cytosol to the nucleus upon DNA damage induction. This function of fumarase depends on its enzymatic activity, and its absence in cells can be complemented by high concentrations of fumaric acid. Our findings suggest that fumarase and fumaric acid are critical elements of the DNA damage response, which underlies the tumor suppressor role of fumarase in human cells and which is most probably HIF independent. This study shows an exciting crosstalk between primary metabolism and the DNA damage response, thereby providing a scenario for metabolic control of tumor propagation.  
  Call Number Serial 1880  
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