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Author Hausfather, Z.; Cowtan, K.; Clarke, D.C.; Jacobs, P.; Richardson, M.; Rohde, R. url  openurl
  Title Assessing recent warming using instrumentally homogeneous sea surface temperature records Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Sci Adv  
  Volume 3 Issue 1 Pages e1601207  
  Keywords Climate change; homogeneity; sea surface temperature  
  Abstract Sea surface temperature (SST) records are subject to potential biases due to changing instrumentation and measurement practices. Significant differences exist between commonly used composite SST reconstructions from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Extended Reconstruction Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), the Hadley Centre SST data set (HadSST3), and the Japanese Meteorological Agency's Centennial Observation-Based Estimates of SSTs (COBE-SST) from 2003 to the present. The update from ERSST version 3b to version 4 resulted in an increase in the operational SST trend estimate during the last 19 years from 0.07 degrees to 0.12 degrees C per decade, indicating a higher rate of warming in recent years. We show that ERSST version 4 trends generally agree with largely independent, near-global, and instrumentally homogeneous SST measurements from floating buoys, Argo floats, and radiometer-based satellite measurements that have been developed and deployed during the past two decades. We find a large cooling bias in ERSST version 3b and smaller but significant cooling biases in HadSST3 and COBE-SST from 2003 to the present, with respect to most series examined. These results suggest that reported rates of SST warming in recent years have been underestimated in these three data sets.  
  Call Number Serial 1667  
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Author Duan, H. file  url
openurl 
  Title Emissions and temperature benefits: The role of wind power in China Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environ Res  
  Volume 152 Issue Pages 342-350  
  Keywords Air Pollution/*prevention & control; China; *Climate Change; Coal/analysis; Global Warming/prevention & control; Greenhouse Effect/*prevention & control; Models, Economic; Models, Theoretical; Power Plants; Renewable Energy; *Wind; *Climate integrated model; *Fossil fuel substitution; *Temperature benefits; *Wind energy  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: As a non-fossil technology, wind power has an enormous advantage over coal because of its role in climate change mitigation. Therefore, it is important to investigate how substituting wind power for coal-fired electricity will affect emission reductions, changes in radiative forcing and rising temperatures, particularly in the context of emission limits. METHODS: We developed an integrated methodology that includes two parts: an energy-economy-environmental (3E) integrated model and an emission-temperature response model. The former is used to simulate the dynamic relationships between economic output, wind energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; the latter is used to evaluate changes in radiative forcing and warming. RESULTS: Under the present development projection, wind energy cannot serve as a major force in curbing emissions, even under the strictest space-restraining scenario. China's temperature contribution to global warming will be up to 21.76% if warming is limited to 2 degrees. With the wind-for-coal power substitution, the corresponding contribution to global radiative forcing increase and temperature rise will decrease by up to 10% and 6.57%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Substituting wind power for coal-fired electricity has positive effects on emission reductions and warming control. However, wind energy alone is insufficient for climate change mitigation. It forms an important component of the renewable energy portfolio used to combat global warming.  
  Call Number Serial 2104  
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Author file  url
openurl 
  Title Projected Economic Effect of Climate Change on Counties in the United States Type Miscellaneous
  Year (down) 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Climate change; Economic damage; Economic effect; United States; Counties  
  Abstract This graphic represents the projected economic effects of climate change on counties in the United States by 2080-2099. Areas in shades of red are counties that will lose a percentage of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP), while areas in shades of green are counties that may actually increase their GDP.  
  Call Number Serial 1865  
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Author Sun, X.; Zhang, B.; Tang, X.; McLellan, B.; Höök, M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Sustainable Energy Transitions in China: Renewable Options and Impacts on the Electricity System Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Energies Abbreviated Journal Energies  
  Volume 9 Issue 12 Pages 980  
  Keywords EnergyPLAN; energy transition; renewable energy mix; sustainability assessment  
  Abstract Chinese energy consumption has been dominated by coal for decades, but this needs to change to protect the environment and mitigate anthropogenic climate change. Renewable energy development is needed to fulfil the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC) for the post-2020 period, as stated on the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris. This paper reviews the potential of renewable energy in China and how it could be utilised to meet the INDC goals. A business-as-usual case and eight alternative scenarios with 40% renewable electricity are explored using the EnergyPLAN model to visualise out to the year 2030. Five criteria (total cost, total capacity, excess electricity, CO2 emissions, and direct job creation) are used to assess the sustainability of the scenarios. The results indicate that renewables can meet the goal of a 20% share of non-fossil energy in primary energy and 40%50% share of non-fossil energy in electricity power. The low nuclear-hydro power scenario is the most optimal scenario based on the used evaluation criteria. The Chinese government should implement new policies aimed at promoting integrated development of wind power and solar PV.  
  Call Number Serial 2103  
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Author Lee, A.H.; Eme, J.; Mueller, C.A.; Manzon, R.G.; Somers, C.M.; Boreham, D.R.; Wilson, J.Y. file  url
openurl 
  Title The effects of increased constant incubation temperature and cumulative acute heat shock exposures on morphology and survival of Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2016 Publication Journal of Thermal Biology Abbreviated Journal J Therm Biol  
  Volume 57 Issue Pages 11-20  
  Keywords Climate change; Coregonus clupeaformis; Great Lakes; Heat shock; Morphology; Survival; Temperature; Thermal effluent  
  Abstract Increasing incubation temperatures, caused by global climate change or thermal effluent from industrial processes, may influence embryonic development of fish. This study investigates the cumulative effects of increased incubation temperature and repeated heat shocks on developing Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) embryos. We studied the effects of three constant incubation temperatures (2 degrees C, 5 degrees C or 8 degrees C water) and weekly, 1-h heat shocks (+3 degrees C) on hatching time, survival and morphology of embryos, as these endpoints may be particularly susceptible to temperature changes. The constant temperatures represent the predicted magnitude of elevated water temperatures from climate change and industrial thermal plumes. Time to the pre-hatch stage decreased as constant incubation temperature increased (148d at 2 degrees C, 92d at 5 degrees C, 50d at 8 degrees C), but weekly heat shocks did not affect time to hatch. Mean survival rates and embryo morphometrics were compared at specific developmental time-points (blastopore, eyed, fin flutter and pre-hatch) across all treatments. Constant incubation temperatures or +3 degrees C heat-shock exposures did not significantly alter cumulative survival percentage (~50% cumulative survival to pre-hatch stage). Constant warm incubation temperatures did result in differences in morphology in pre-hatch stage embryos. 8 degrees C and 5 degrees C embryos were significantly smaller and had larger yolks than 2 degrees C embryos, but heat-shocked embryos did not differ from their respective constant temperature treatment groups. Elevated incubation temperatures may adversely alter Lake Whitefish embryo size at hatch, but weekly 1-h heat shocks did not affect size or survival at hatch. These results suggest that intermittent bouts of warm water effluent (e.g., variable industrial emissions) are less likely to negatively affect Lake Whitefish embryonic development than warmer constant incubation temperatures that may occur due to climate change.  
  Call Number Serial 1227  
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