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Author (up) Aarestrup, F.M.; Bager, F.; Jensen, N.E.; Madsen, M.; Meyling, A.; Wegener, H.C. file  url
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  Title Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food animals to antimicrobial growth promoters and related therapeutic agents in Denmark Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Apmis  
  Volume 106 Issue 6 Pages 606-622  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology; Bacteria/*drug effects/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/veterinary; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Cecum/microbiology; Chickens/growth & development; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Feces/microbiology; Meat/*microbiology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary; Poultry Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Swine/growth & development; Swine Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology  
  Abstract This study was conducted to describe the occurrence of acquired resistance to antimicrobials used for growth promotion among bacteria isolated from swine, cattle and poultry in Denmark. Resistance to structurally related therapeutic agents was also examined. Three categories of bacteria were tested: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). All antimicrobials used as growth promoters in Denmark and some structurally related therapeutic agents (in brackets) were included: Avilamycin, avoparcin (vancomycin), bacitracin, carbadox, flavomycin, monensin, olaquindox, salinomycin, spiramycin (erythromycin, lincomycin), tylosin (erythromycin, lincomycin), and virginiamycin (pristinamycin). Bacterial species intrinsically resistant to an antimicrobial were not tested towards that antimicrobial. Breakpoints for growth promoters were established by population distribution of the bacteria tested. A total of 2,372 bacterial isolates collected during October 1995 to September 1996 were included in the study. Acquired resistance to all currently used growth promoting antimicrobials was found. A frequent occurrence of resistance were observed to avilamycin, avoparcin, bacitracin, flavomycin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin, whereas resistance to carbadox, monensin, olaquindox and salinomycin was less frequent. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. The highest levels of resistance was observed among enterococci, whereas less resistance was observed among zoonotic bacteria and bacteria pathogenic to animals. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed. The results show the present level of resistance to growth promoters in bacteria from food animals in Denmark. They will form the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies, thereby enabling the determination of trends over time.  
  Call Number Serial 1676  
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Author (up) Bandgar, B.P.; Gawande, S.S.; Bodade, R.G.; Gawande, N.M.; Khobragade, C.N. file  url
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  Title Synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of pyrazole chalcones as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial agents Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Abbreviated Journal Bioorg Med Chem  
  Volume 17 Issue 24 Pages 8168-8173  
  Keywords Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Antioxidants/chemical synthesis/pharmacology; Chalcones/*chemical synthesis/chemistry/*pharmacology; Flavonoids; Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors  
  Abstract A novel series of 1-(2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-propenone (3) have been prepared by the Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 1-(2,4-dimethoxy-phenyl)-ethanone (1) and substituted 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes (2). Substituted 1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes (2) were prepared by Vilsmeir-Haack reaction on acetophenonephenylhydrazones to offer the target compounds. The structures of the compounds were established by IR, (1)H NMR and mass spectral analysis. All the compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory (TNF-alpha and IL-6 inhibitory assays), antioxidant (DPPH free radical scavenging assay) and antimicrobial activities (agar diffusion method) against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Of 10 compounds screened, compounds 3a, 3c and 3g exhibited promising IL-6 inhibitory (35-70% inhibition, 10 microM), free radical scavenging (25-35% DPPH activity) and antimicrobial activities (MIC 100 microg/mL and 250 microg/mL) at varied concentrations. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) and in silico drug relevant properties (HBD, HBA, PSA, cLogP, molecular weight, E(HOMO) and E(LUMO)) further confirmed that the compounds are potential lead compounds for future drug discovery study. Toxicity of the compounds was evaluated theoretically and experimentally and revealed to be nontoxic except 3d and 3j.  
  Call Number Serial 1466  
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Author (up) Bercik, P. file  url
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  Title The microbiota-gut-brain axis: learning from intestinal bacteria? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Gut Abbreviated Journal Gut  
  Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 288-289  
  Keywords Animals; Bacterial Infections/*psychology; Cognition Disorders/*microbiology; Humans; Intestinal Diseases/microbiology/*psychology; Intestines/*microbiology; Mice; Symbiosis; Microbiome  
  Abstract The intestinal microbiota is a diverse and dynamic ecosystem,1 which has developed a mutualistic relationship with its host and plays a crucial role in the development of the host's innate and adaptive immune responses.2 This ecosystem serves the host by protecting against pathogens, harvesting otherwise inaccessible nutrients, aiding in neutralisation of drugs and carcinogens, and affecting the metabolism of lipids.3 Gut bacteria modulate intestinal motility, barrier function and visceral perception.4

An interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system (CNS) may seem difficult to conceive at first sight, but clinicians are well aware of the benefit of oral antibiotics and laxatives in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy.5 Data accumulated from animal studies indicate that there is central sensing of gastrointestinal infections. For example, acute infection with Campylobacter jejuni results in anxiety-like behaviour and rapid activation of vagal pathways prior to onset of immune responses,6 while chronic Helicobacter pylori infection in mice leads to abnormal feeding behaviour and upregulation of tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) in the median eminence of the hypothalamus.7 Rapid and sustained gut�brain communication may confer a significant advantage to the host, as central activation in response to changes in commensals or pathogens would allow better control of gut function and immunity.
 
  Call Number Serial 2096  
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Author (up) Borre, Y.E.; Moloney, R.D.; Clarke, G.; Dinan, T.G.; Cryan, J.F. file  url
openurl 
  Title The impact of microbiota on brain and behavior: mechanisms & therapeutic potential Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Abbreviated Journal Adv Exp Med Biol  
  Volume 817 Issue Pages 373-403  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; *Behavior; Brain/*physiology; Brain Diseases/therapy; Cognition; Humans; Intestines/microbiology; Microbiome; Microbiota/*physiology; Probiotics/pharmacology; Signal Transduction; Tryptophan/metabolism  
  Abstract There is increasing evidence that host-microbe interactions play a key role in maintaining homeostasis. Alterations in gut microbial composition is associated with marked changes in behaviors relevant to mood, pain and cognition, establishing the critical importance of the bi-directional pathway of communication between the microbiota and the brain in health and disease. Dysfunction of the microbiome-brain-gut axis has been implicated in stress-related disorders such as depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. Bacterial colonization of the gut is central to postnatal development and maturation of key systems that have the capacity to influence central nervous system (CNS) programming and signaling, including the immune and endocrine systems. Moreover, there is now expanding evidence for the view that enteric microbiota plays a role in early programming and later response to acute and chronic stress. This view is supported by studies in germ-free mice and in animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotic agents or antibiotics. Although communication between gut microbiota and the CNS are not fully elucidated, neural, hormonal, immune and metabolic pathways have been suggested. Thus, the concept of a microbiome-brain-gut axis is emerging, suggesting microbiota-modulating strategies may be a tractable therapeutic approach for developing novel treatments for CNS disorders.  
  Call Number Serial 2003  
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Author (up) Brackett, R.E. file  url
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  Title Incidence, contributing factors, and control of bacterial pathogens in produce Type Journal Article
  Year 1999 Publication Postharvest Biology and Technology Abbreviated Journal Postharvest Biology and Technology  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages 305-311. *Strategian Select*  
  Keywords Fresh produce; Food safety; Bacterial pathogens; Food poisoning  
  Abstract The importance of bacterial pathogens in the transmission of foodborne illness has become apparent in recent years. Several large, well-publicized outbreaks of foodborne illness have been linked to cantaloupe, tomatoes, lettuce, alfalfa sprouts, and both apple and orange juices. In addition, numerous other smaller scale outbreaks linked to these and other commodities have also been reported. Although contributing factors have not been determined in all cases, several notable causes have been proposed. In particular, cross contamination with fecal matter of both domestic as well as wild animals have been suggested. In addition, contact with contaminated water has also been identified as a source of contamination. However, the use of untreated manure or sewage, lack of field sanitation, poorly or unsanitized transportation vehicles, and contamination by handlers are also suggested as potential contributing factors. Control of foodborne pathogens in produce must begin before produce is even planted by avoiding fields which have been subjected to flooding, on which animals have been recently grazed, or have otherwise been contaminated with manure. After planting, only clean potable water should be used for irrigation and harvesting equipment should be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized. Both field workers and packinghouse and processing plant personnel should be instructed in proper personal hygiene and provided with adequate sanitary and handwashing facilities. Vehicles transporting finished products should be sanitized, properly loaded to provide adequate air circulation, and maintained at proper temperatures. Likewise, retail display cases must be kept clean and at proper refrigeration temperatures. Finally, consumers should be informed as to proper handling of produce, particularly in the case of new generation products such as modified atmosphere packaged produce.  
  Call Number Serial 1673  
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