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Author (up) Burkart, M.R.; Stoner, J.D. file  url
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  Title Nitrate in aquifers beneath agricultural systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Water Science and Technology : a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research Abbreviated Journal Water Sci Technol  
  Volume 56 Issue 1 Pages 59-69  
  Keywords *Agriculture; Animals; Fertilizers; Inorganic Chemicals; Nitrates/*analysis; Sensitivity and Specificity; Trisaccharides; Water Pollutants, Chemical/*analysis; Water Supply/*analysis  
  Abstract Research from several regions of the world provides spatially anecdotal evidence to hypothesize which hydrologic and agricultural factors contribute to groundwater vulnerability to nitrate contamination. Analysis of nationally consistent measurements from the U.S. Geological Survey's NAWQA program confirms these hypotheses for a substantial range of agricultural systems. Shallow unconfined aquifers are most susceptible to nitrate contamination associated with agricultural systems. Alluvial and other unconsolidated aquifers are the most vulnerable and also shallow carbonate aquifers that provide a substantial but smaller contamination risk. Where any of these aquifers are overlain by permeable soils the risk of contamination is larger. Irrigated systems can compound this vulnerability by increasing leaching facilitated by additional recharge and additional nutrient applications. The system of corn, soybean, and hogs produced significantly larger concentrations of groundwater nitrate than all other agricultural systems because this system imports the largest amount of N-fertilizer per unit production area. Mean nitrate under dairy, poultry, horticulture, and cattle and grains systems were similar. If trends in the relation between increased fertilizer use and groundwater nitrate in the United States are repeated in other regions of the world, Asia may experience increasing problems because of recent increases in fertilizer use. Groundwater monitoring in Western and Eastern Europe as well as Russia over the next decade may provide data to determine if the trend in increased nitrate contamination can be reversed. If the concentrated livestock trend in the United States is global, it may be accompanied by increasing nitrogen contamination in groundwater. Concentrated livestock provide both point sources in the confinement area and intense non-point sources as fields close to facilities are used for manure disposal. Regions where irrigated cropland is expanding, such as in Asia, may experience the greatest impact of this practice on groundwater nitrate.  
  Call Number Serial 117  
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Author (up) Ege, M.J.; Mayer, M.; Normand, A.-C.; Genuneit, J.; Cookson, W.O.C.M.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Heederik, D.; Piarroux, R.; von Mutius, E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Exposure to environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication The New England Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal N Engl J Med  
  Volume 364 Issue 8 Pages 701-709  
  Keywords Adolescent; *Agriculture; Asthma/*epidemiology/immunology; Bacteria/*isolation & purification; Biodiversity; Child; Cross-Sectional Studies; Dust/analysis; Environmental Exposure/*analysis; Female; Fungi/*isolation & purification; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*epidemiology/immunology; Immunoglobulin E/blood; Logistic Models; Male; Microbiome; Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Children who grow up in environments that afford them a wide range of microbial exposures, such as traditional farms, are protected from childhood asthma and atopy. In previous studies, markers of microbial exposure have been inversely related to these conditions. METHODS: In two cross-sectional studies, we compared children living on farms with those in a reference group with respect to the prevalence of asthma and atopy and to the diversity of microbial exposure. In one study--PARSIFAL (Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Lifestyle)--samples of mattress dust were screened for bacterial DNA with the use of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses to detect environmental bacteria that cannot be measured by means of culture techniques. In the other study--GABRIELA (Multidisciplinary Study to Identify the Genetic and Environmental Causes of Asthma in the European Community [GABRIEL] Advanced Study)--samples of settled dust from children's rooms were evaluated for bacterial and fungal taxa with the use of culture techniques. RESULTS: In both studies, children who lived on farms had lower prevalences of asthma and atopy and were exposed to a greater variety of environmental microorganisms than the children in the reference group. In turn, diversity of microbial exposure was inversely related to the risk of asthma (odds ratio for PARSIFAL, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44 to 0.89; odds ratio for GABRIELA, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99). In addition, the presence of certain more circumscribed exposures was also inversely related to the risk of asthma; this included exposure to species in the fungal taxon eurotium (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.76) and to a variety of bacterial species, including Listeria monocytogenes, bacillus species, corynebacterium species, and others (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Children living on farms were exposed to a wider range of microbes than were children in the reference group, and this exposure explains a substantial fraction of the inverse relation between asthma and growing up on a farm. (Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the European Commission.).  
  Call Number Serial 1983  
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Author (up) Luby, E.M.; Moorman, T.B.; Soupir, M.L. file  url
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  Title Fate and transport of tylosin-resistant bacteria and macrolide resistance genes in artificially drained agricultural fields receiving swine manure Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal Sci Total Environ  
  Volume 550 Issue Pages 1126-1133  
  Keywords *Agriculture; Animals; Drug Resistance, Bacterial/*genetics; *Environmental Monitoring; Macrolides/*analysis; Manure; *Soil Microbiology; Swine; Tylosin/analysis; Antibiotic resistance; Enterococcus; Manure; Soil; Swine; Tile drainage; erm genes  
  Abstract Application of manure from swine treated with antibiotics introduces antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes to soil with the potential for further movement in drainage water, which may contribute to the increase in antibiotic resistance in non-agricultural settings. We compared losses of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus and macrolide-resistance (erm and msrA) genes in water draining from plots with or without swine manure application under chisel plow and no till conditions. Concentrations of ermB, ermC and ermF were all >10(9)copies g(-1) in manure from tylosin-treated swine, and application of this manure resulted in short-term increases in the abundance of these genes in soil. Abundances of ermB, ermC and ermF in manured soil returned to levels identified in non-manured control plots by the spring following manure application. Tillage practices yielded no significant differences (p>0.10) in enterococci or erm gene concentrations in drainage water and were therefore combined for further analysis. While enterococci and tylosin-resistant enterococci concentrations in drainage water showed no effects of manure application, ermB and ermF concentrations in drainage water from manured plots were significantly higher (p<0.01) than concentrations coming from non-manured plots. ErmB and ermF were detected in 78% and 44%, respectively, of water samples draining from plots receiving manure. Although ermC had the highest concentrations of the three genes in drainage water, there was no effect of manure application on ermC abundance. MsrA was not detected in manure, soil or water. This study is the first to report significant increases in abundance of resistance genes in waters draining from agricultural land due to manure application.  
  Call Number Serial 1804  
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Author (up) Schwartz, M.W.; Hoeksema, J.D.; Gehring, C.A.; Johnson, N.C.; Klironomos, J.N.; Abbott, L.K.; Pringle, A. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The promise and the potential consequences of the global transport of mycorrhizal fungal inoculum Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Ecology Letters Abbreviated Journal Ecol Lett  
  Volume 9 Issue 5 Pages 501-515  
  Keywords *Agriculture; Classification; Ecology; *Guidelines as Topic; Mycorrhizae/*growth & development/*pathogenicity; Population Dynamics; Research/trends; Risk Assessment; Symbiosis  
  Abstract Advances in ecology during the past decade have led to a much more detailed understanding of the potential negative consequences of species' introductions. Moreover, recent studies of mycorrhizal symbionts have led to an increased knowledge of the potential utility of fungal inoculations in agricultural, horticultural and ecological management. The intentional movement of mycorrhizal fungal species is growing, but the concomitant potential for negative ecological consequences of invasions by mycorrhizal fungi is poorly understood. We assess the degree to which introductions of mycorrhizal fungi may lead to unintended negative, and potentially costly, consequences. Our purpose is to make recommendations regarding appropriate management guidelines and highlight top priority research needs. Given the difficulty in discerning invasive species problems associated with mycorrhizal inoculations, we recommend the following. First, careful assessment documenting the need for inoculation, and the likelihood of success, should be conducted prior to inoculation because inoculations are not universally beneficial. Second, invasive species problems are costly and often impossible to control by the time they are recognized. We recommend using local inoculum sources whenever possible. Third, non-sterile cultures of inoculum can result in the movement of saprobes and pathogens as well as mutualists. We recommend using material that has been produced through sterile culture when local inoculum is not available. Finally, life-history characteristics of inoculated fungi may provide general guidelines relative to the likelihood of establishment and spread. We recommend that, when using non-local fungi, managers choose fungal taxa that carry life-history traits that may minimize the likelihood of deleterious invasive species problems. Additional research is needed on the potential of mycorrhizal fungi to spread to non-target areas and cause ecological damage.  
  Call Number Serial 1126  
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Author (up) von Mutius, E.; Radon, K. file  url
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  Title Living on a farm: impact on asthma induction and clinical course Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America Abbreviated Journal Immunol Allergy Clin North Am  
  Volume 28 Issue 3 Pages 631-47, ix-x  
  Keywords Adult; *Agriculture; Animals; Animals, Domestic; Asthma/*prevention & control; Child; *Environmental Exposure; Humans; Hypersensitivity/prevention & control; Microbiome; Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal/prevention & control; *Rural Health; Rural Population  
  Abstract Exposure to a farming environment protects individuals from respiratory allergy. The timing and duration of exposure seem to play critical roles. The largest reduction in risk of developing respiratory allergies is seen among those who are exposed prenatally and continuously thereafter. Contact with farm animals, at least in childhood, likely confers protection; other factors have not been completely identified. Also, the consumption of milk directly from the farm during childhood has been shown to be beneficial with respect to childhood asthma and allergies. Increased levels of microbial substances may contribute to the protective effects. The mechanisms by which such environmental exposures confer protection from respiratory allergies are not well understood. A number of gene-by-environment interactions have been observed with polymorphisms in genes of innate immunity receptors and exposure to farming environments. Increased levels of microbial exposures recognized by innate immune responses may affect adaptive immune responses resulting in decreased levels of atopic sensitization and asthma.  
  Call Number Serial 1992  
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Author (up) Wlasiuk, G.; Vercelli, D. file  url
openurl 
  Title The farm effect, or: when, what and how a farming environment protects from asthma and allergic disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology Abbreviated Journal Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol  
  Volume 12 Issue 5 Pages 461-466  
  Keywords *Agriculture; Allergens/immunology; Animals; Asthma/epidemiology/immunology/*prevention & control; Cattle; Environmental Exposure; Humans; Hypersensitivity, Immediate/epidemiology/immunology/*prevention & control; Metagenome; Mice; Microbiome  
  Abstract PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Multiple studies have shown that the prevalence of asthma and atopy is reduced in children raised on traditional dairy farms. This article discusses the temporal constraints for the protective farm effect, the components of a farming environment that are associated with protection, and novel mechanisms that may underlie protection from asthma and atopy in farming populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Protection from asthma and allergy is strongest when exposure occurs in utero or early in life, but the protective effects can persist into adulthood. Just three exposures (contact with cows and straw and consumption of unprocessed cow's milk) account for virtually all the protective farm effect for asthma but not atopy. Whey proteins appear to be critical for the protective effects of farm milk, whereas the high microbial diversity existing in a farm environment is strongly and inversely associated with asthma, but only weakly associated with atopy. Therefore, distinct mechanisms are likely to mediate protection from asthma and atopy. The biological significance of microbial diversity is still unclear, but multiple lines of evidence link the asthma-protective and allergy-protective effects of farming to immune responses and the microbiome. Work in mouse models is revealing novel cellular and molecular mechanisms through which the microbiota may modulate immune responses and allergic inflammation, and thus contribute to the farm effect. The role of the host's genetic makeup, on the contrary, remains poorly understood. SUMMARY: The discovery of the central role played by microbial diversity in the asthma-protective and allergy-protective effects of farming warrants metagenomic studies that concertedly and longitudinally investigate the microbiome, the genome, and the immune system of farmers and the farms they live on.  
  Call Number Serial 1984  
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