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Author (up) Alcock, J.; Maley, C.C.; Aktipis, C.A. file  url
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  Title Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Abbreviated Journal Bioessays  
  Volume 36 Issue 10 Pages 940-949  
  Keywords Animals; *Biological Evolution; *Feeding Behavior; Gastrointestinal Tract/*microbiology; Humans; *Microbiota; Models, Biological; Obesity/etiology; Cravings; Evolutionary conflict; Host manipulation; Microbiome; Obesity  
  Abstract Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating.  
  Call Number Serial 2002  
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Author (up) Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; McLaughlin, M.R. file  url
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  Title Microbial ecology, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes in swine manure wastewater as influenced by three swine management systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Water Research Abbreviated Journal Water Res  
  Volume 57 Issue Pages 96-103  
  Keywords Animal Husbandry/*methods; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; Bacteria/drug effects/*genetics/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Drug Resistance, Bacterial/*genetics; Manure/*microbiology; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects/genetics/isolation & purification; *Microbiota; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics/metabolism; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Southeastern United States; Sus scrofa; Waste Water/*microbiology; Antibiotic resistance; Campylobacter; Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO); Lagoon wastewater; Salmonella; Swine; Microbiome  
  Abstract The environmental influence of farm management in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can yield vast changes to the microbial biota and ecological structure of both the pig and waste manure lagoon wastewater. While some of these changes may not be negative, it is possible that CAFOs can enrich antibiotic resistant bacteria or pathogens based on farm type, thereby influencing the impact imparted by the land application of its respective wastewater. The purpose of this study was to measure the microbial constituents of swine-sow, -nursery, and -finisher farm manure lagoon wastewater and determine the changes induced by farm management. A total of 37 farms were visited in the Mid-South USA and analyzed for the genes 16S rRNA, spaQ (Salmonella spp.), Camp-16S (Campylobacter spp.), tetA, tetB, ermF, ermA, mecA, and intI using quantitative PCR. Additionally, 16S rRNA sequence libraries were created. Overall, it appeared that finisher farms were significantly different from nursery and sow farms in nearly all genes measured and in 16S rRNA clone libraries. Nearly all antibiotic resistance genes were detected in all farms. Interestingly, the mecA resistance gene (e.g. methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was below detection limits on most farms, and decreased as the pigs aged. Finisher farms generally had fewer antibiotic resistance genes, which corroborated previous phenotypic data; additionally, finisher farms produced a less diverse 16S rRNA sequence library. Comparisons of Camp-16S and spaQ GU (genomic unit) values to previous culture data demonstrated ratios from 10 to 10,000:1 depending on farm type, indicating viable but not cultivatable bacteria were dominant. The current study indicated that swine farm management schemes positively and negatively affect microbial and antibiotic resistant populations in CAFO wastewater which has future “downstream” implications from both an environmental and public health perspective.  
  Call Number Serial 1943  
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Author (up) Gohir, W.; Ratcliffe, E.M.; Sloboda, D.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Of the bugs that shape us: maternal obesity, the gut microbiome, and long-term disease risk Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Pediatric Research Abbreviated Journal Pediatr Res  
  Volume 77 Issue 1-2 Pages 196-204  
  Keywords Female; Gastrointestinal Tract/growth & development/*microbiology; Humans; *Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; *Maternal-Fetal Exchange; *Microbiota; Obesity/*complications/microbiology; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/immunology/*microbiology; Microbiome  
  Abstract Chronic disease risk is inextricably linked to our early-life environment, where maternal, fetal, and childhood factors predict disease risk later in life. Currently, maternal obesity is a key predictor of childhood obesity and metabolic complications in adulthood. Although the mechanisms are unclear, new and emerging evidence points to our microbiome, where the bacterial composition of the gut modulates the weight gain and altered metabolism that drives obesity. Over the course of pregnancy, maternal bacterial load increases, and gut bacterial diversity changes and is influenced by pre-pregnancy- and pregnancy-related obesity. Alterations in the bacterial composition of the mother have been shown to affect the development and function of the gastrointestinal tract of her offspring. How these microbial shifts influence the maternal-fetal-infant relationship is a topic of hot debate. This paper will review the evidence linking nutrition, maternal obesity, the maternal gut microbiome, and fetal gut development, bringing together clinical observations in humans and experimental data from targeted animal models.  
  Call Number Serial 2080  
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Author (up) Solt, I. file  url
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  Title The human microbiome and the great obstetrical syndromes: a new frontier in maternal-fetal medicine Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Best Practice & Research. Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology Abbreviated Journal Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol  
  Volume 29 Issue 2 Pages 165-175  
  Keywords Chorioamnionitis/microbiology; Diabetes, Gestational/microbiology; Female; Fetal Growth Retardation/microbiology; Humans; Maternal-Fetal Exchange; *Microbiota; Placenta/microbiology; Pre-Eclampsia/microbiology; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications/*microbiology; Premature Birth/microbiology; Syndrome; Uterus/*microbiology; Vagina/*microbiology; bacteria; infection; inflammation; maternal-fetal medicine; microbiome; pregnancy  
  Abstract The emergence of the concept of the microbiome, together with the development of molecular-based techniques, particularly polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, has dramatically increased the detection of microorganisms, the number of known species, and the understanding of bacterial communities that are relevant to maternal-fetal medicine in health and disease. Culture-independent methods enable characterization of the microbiomes of the reproductive tract of pregnant and nonpregnant women, and have increased our understanding of the role of the uterine microbiome in adverse obstetric outcomes. While bacterial ascent from the vaginal tract is recognized as the primary cause of intrauterine infection, the microbiomes of the gastrointestinal, oral, and respiratory tracts are shown to be involved by means of hematogenous spread. The transmission of maternal microbiomes to the neonate, by vaginal delivery or cesarean section, is shown to affect health from birth to adulthood.  
  Call Number Serial 2079  
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Author (up) West, C.E.; Jenmalm, M.C.; Kozyrskyj, A.L.; Prescott, S.L. file  url
openurl 
  Title Probiotics for treatment and primary prevention of allergic diseases and asthma: looking back and moving forward Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Expert Review of Clinical Immunology Abbreviated Journal Expert Rev Clin Immunol  
  Volume 12 Issue 6 Pages 625-639  
  Keywords Animals; Asthma/*therapy; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*therapy; *Immunity, Mucosal; Meta-Analysis as Topic; *Microbiota; Primary Prevention/trends; Probiotics/*therapeutic use; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; *Diversity; *dysbiosis; *eczema; *gut microbiome; *hygiene hypothesis; *primary prevention; *probiotic  
  Abstract Microbial ecosystems cover the surface of the human body and it is becoming increasingly clear that our modern environment has profound effects on microbial composition and diversity. A dysbiotic gut microbiota has been associated with allergic diseases and asthma in cross-sectional and observational studies. In an attempt to restore this dysbiosis, probiotics have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. Here, we review treatment and primary prevention studies, recent meta-analyses, and discuss the current understanding of the role of probiotics in this context. Many meta-analyses have shown a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, whereas there is less evidence of a benefit for other allergic manifestations. Because of very low quality evidence and heterogeneity between studies, specific advice on the most effective regimens cannot yet be given – not even for eczema prevention. To be able to adopt results into specific recommendations, international expert organizations stress the need for well-designed studies.  
  Call Number Serial 1932  
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