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Author (up) A/Rahman, S.H.; Mohamedani, A.A.; Mirgani, E.M.; Ibrahim, A.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Gender aspects and women's participation in the control and management of malaria in central Sudan Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 42 Issue 10 Pages 1433-1446  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Consumer Participation--methods, psychology, statistics & numerical data; Cost of Illness; Developing Countries--economics, statistics & numerical data; Diarrhea--epidemiology, prevention & control; Female; Health Education--manpower, methods; Humans; Insecticides--adverse effects; Malaria, Falciparum--economics, epidemiology, prevention & control; Male; Medicine, Traditional; Middle Aged; Mosquito Control--methods; Prevalence; Program Evaluation; Sanitation; Schistosomiasis--epidemiology, prevention & control; Sudan--epidemiology; Superstitions; Treatment Outcome; Women; Women's Health  
  Abstract This work was designed to study the contribution of women in central Sudan in the control and management of malaria with particular emphasis on gender-related aspects that define women's role and participation. The Blue Nile Health Project (BNHP 1980-1990) was launched in 1980 mainly for control of water associated diseases in central Sudan. The BNHP model was chosen to conduct this work. The study showed that women were actively involved in the implementation of the BNHP strategies as health instructors (murshidat) who constituted 75% of the staff of BNHP unit of health education, as members of village health committees (VHC) where they constituted 40% of the VHC members and also as recipients of the project services. All murshidat were interviewed whereas multistage random sampling for VHC members and recipient women in 40 villages was used to select a sample which was interviewed. The results showed that the murshidat and VHC women members played a major role in the motivation, organization and health education of local communities prior to campaigns of environmental sanitation and vector control. Household commitments and difficulties in communication with the public were the main gender-related factors that contributed negatively to women's activities. Cases of malaria have more considerable socio-economic impact than other common diseases, especially with regard to women's household commitments and work. Recipient women were more concerned with aspects of self protection, management of family cases of malaria and health education programmes. They were less involved in drying mosquito breeding sites and spraying activities of insecticides which had been reluctantly accepted because of allergy and bad odour. Although the majority of women considered antimalarials to be less harmful than effects of malaria itself on pregnancy, they did not realize the role of malaria chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy. This needs more health education. The study showed that the BNHP programme was very successful in recruiting women in control and management programmes. Therefore, health planners are urged to persuade the subordinated communities of women in many African countries like Sudan to play a more active role in the health programmes and welfare of their communities.  
  Call Number Serial 169  
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Author (up) Aarestrup, F.M.; Bager, F.; Jensen, N.E.; Madsen, M.; Meyling, A.; Wegener, H.C. file  url
openurl 
  Title Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food animals to antimicrobial growth promoters and related therapeutic agents in Denmark Type Journal Article
  Year 1998 Publication APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica Abbreviated Journal Apmis  
  Volume 106 Issue 6 Pages 606-622  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology; Bacteria/*drug effects/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Infections/drug therapy/veterinary; Cattle; Cattle Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Cecum/microbiology; Chickens/growth & development; Drug Resistance, Microbial; Feces/microbiology; Meat/*microbiology; Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary; Poultry Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology; Swine/growth & development; Swine Diseases/drug therapy/microbiology  
  Abstract This study was conducted to describe the occurrence of acquired resistance to antimicrobials used for growth promotion among bacteria isolated from swine, cattle and poultry in Denmark. Resistance to structurally related therapeutic agents was also examined. Three categories of bacteria were tested: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). All antimicrobials used as growth promoters in Denmark and some structurally related therapeutic agents (in brackets) were included: Avilamycin, avoparcin (vancomycin), bacitracin, carbadox, flavomycin, monensin, olaquindox, salinomycin, spiramycin (erythromycin, lincomycin), tylosin (erythromycin, lincomycin), and virginiamycin (pristinamycin). Bacterial species intrinsically resistant to an antimicrobial were not tested towards that antimicrobial. Breakpoints for growth promoters were established by population distribution of the bacteria tested. A total of 2,372 bacterial isolates collected during October 1995 to September 1996 were included in the study. Acquired resistance to all currently used growth promoting antimicrobials was found. A frequent occurrence of resistance were observed to avilamycin, avoparcin, bacitracin, flavomycin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin, whereas resistance to carbadox, monensin, olaquindox and salinomycin was less frequent. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. The highest levels of resistance was observed among enterococci, whereas less resistance was observed among zoonotic bacteria and bacteria pathogenic to animals. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed. The results show the present level of resistance to growth promoters in bacteria from food animals in Denmark. They will form the baseline for comparison with future prospective studies, thereby enabling the determination of trends over time.  
  Call Number Serial 1676  
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Author (up) Adachi, R.; Osada, H.; Shingai, R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Phase-dependent preference of thermosensation and chemosensation during simultaneous presentation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication BMC Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal BMC Neurosci  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages 106  
  Keywords Animals; Caenorhabditis elegans; Chemotactic Factors; Chemotaxis--physiology; Choice Behavior; Cold Temperature; Pentanols; Psychomotor Performance--physiology; Sensation; Sensory Receptor Cells--physiology; Sodium Chloride; Thermosensing--physiology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Multi-sensory integration is necessary for organisms to discriminate different environmental stimuli and thus determine behavior. Caenorhabditis elegans has 12 pairs of amphid sensory neurons, which are involved in generating behaviors such as thermotaxis toward cultivation temperature, and chemotaxis toward chemical stimuli. This arrangement of known sensory neurons and measurable behavioral output makes C. elegans suitable for addressing questions of multi-sensory integration in the nervous system. Previous studies have suggested that C. elegans can process different chemoattractants simultaneously. However, little is known about how these organisms can integrate information from stimuli of different modality, such as thermal and chemical stimuli. RESULTS: We studied the behavior of a population of C. elegans during simultaneous presentation of thermal and chemical stimuli. First, we examined thermotaxis within the radial temperature gradient produced by a feedback-controlled thermoregulator. Separately, we examined chemotaxis toward sodium chloride or isoamyl alcohol. Then, assays for simultaneous presentations of 15 degrees C (colder temperature than 20 degrees C room temperature) and chemoattractant were performed with 15 degrees C-cultivated wild-type worms. Unlike the sum of behavioral indices for each separate behavior, simultaneous presentation resulted in a biased migration to cold regions in the first 10 min of the assay, and sodium chloride-regions in the last 40 min. However, when sodium chloride was replaced with isoamyl alcohol in the simultaneous presentation, the behavioral index was very similar to the sum of separate single presentation indices. We then recorded tracks of single worms and analyzed their behavior. For behavior toward sodium chloride, frequencies of forward and backward movements in simultaneous presentation were significantly different from those in single presentation. Also, migration toward 15 degrees C in simultaneous presentation was faster than that in 15 degrees C-single presentation. CONCLUSION: We conclude that worms preferred temperature to chemoattractant at first, but preferred the chemoattractant sodium chloride thereafter. This preference was not seen for isoamyl alcohol presentation. We attribute this phase-dependent preference to the result of integration of thermosensory and chemosensory signals received by distinct sensory neurons.  
  Call Number Serial 262  
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Author (up) Adachi, R.; Wakabayashi, T.; Oda, N.; Shingai, R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Modulation of Caenorhabditis elegans chemotaxis by cultivation and assay temperatures Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Neuroscience Research Abbreviated Journal Neurosci Res  
  Volume 60 Issue 3 Pages 300-306  
  Keywords Ammonium Chloride; Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Caenorhabditis elegans/*physiology; Chemoreceptor Cells/physiology; Chemotaxis/*physiology; Neurons, Afferent/*physiology; Sodium Acetate; Stimulation, Chemical; *Temperature  
  Abstract The chemotaxis behaviors of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans cultivated at various temperatures (15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C) were examined at various temperatures (10 degrees C, 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C) to determine the multi-sensory integration of physical (thermal) and chemical sensory information within its nervous system. Chemotaxis behavior toward sodium acetate and ammonium chloride were differently affected by both assay and cultivation temperatures, suggesting that the temperature effect on chemotaxis is not general, but rather distinctive for each chemosensory pathway. Since thermosensory cues are likely encountered constantly in C. elegans, we supposed that the chemotaxis behaviors of worms are achieved by the integration of chemo- and thermosensory information. To verify the possible contribution of thermosensory function in chemotaxis, we examined the chemotaxis behaviors of ttx-1(p767) mutant worms with defective AFD thermosensory neurons. The chemotaxis behaviors toward sodium acetate or ammonium chloride of mutant worms cultivated at 20 degrees C and 25 degrees C were reduced relative to those of wild-type worms. These results indicate the important role of multi-sensory integration of chemosensory and thermosensory information in chemotaxis behavior of the C. elegans.  
  Call Number Serial 1025  
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Author (up) Addis, P.R.; Lawson, S.E.M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The role of tendon stiffness in development of equine locomotion with age Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Equine Veterinary Journal. Supplement Abbreviated Journal Equine Vet J Suppl  
  Volume Issue 38 Pages 556-560  
  Keywords Aging--physiology; Animals; Biomechanical Phenomena; Female; Horses--physiology; Locomotion--physiology; Male; Tendons--physiology  
  Abstract REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The flexor tendons support the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints during stance phase and since tendon stiffness and strain changes with age, it is likely that kinematics are also age-dependent. HYPOTHESIS: Maximum MCP and DIP angles decrease in the young horse, plateau in the mature horse and increase towards senescence. METHODS: The distal limbs of 57 walking horses age 3-212 months were filmed and digitised with an automated tracking system. Maximum MCP and DIP angles during stance phase were used to calculate strain in the superficial and deep digital flexor tendons. Horses were divided into 3 age groups; young (3-35 months), mature (36-99 months) and older horses (100-212 months). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to determine the relationship between age and kinematics. RESULTS: Tendon strain decreased in young horses, stayed constant in mature horses and increased in older horses. Joint angles showed significant negative correlation in young horses, with coefficients of -0.88 (MCP) and -0.81 (DIP). In mature horses, correlations were not significant (P = 0.2 for MCP; P = 0.5 for DIP). In older horses, angles showed significant positive correlation, with coefficients of 0.62 (MCP) and 0.48 (DIP). CONCLUSIONS: Joint angles decreased in the young horse as tendon stiffness increases, remained constant in the mature horse where tendon stiffness is constant and increased in older horses as tendons weakens and stiffness decreases. Strain patterns were similar to those found in vitro. POTENTIAL RELEVANCE: Changing tendon stiffness appeared to influence the development and degeneration of gait. This has implications for studying musculoskeletal development, especially for identification of normal and pathological development.  
  Call Number Serial 108  
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Author (up) Akhurst, R.J.; Hata, A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Targeting the TGFbeta signalling pathway in disease Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Drug Discov  
  Volume 11 Issue 10 Pages 790-811  
  Keywords Animals; Drug Delivery Systems/*methods; Humans; Protein Binding/physiology; Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism; Signal Transduction/drug effects/*physiology; Transforming Growth Factor beta/*antagonists & inhibitors/*physiology  
  Abstract Many drugs that target transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) signalling have been developed, some of which have reached Phase III clinical trials for a number of disease applications. Preclinical and clinical studies indicate the utility of these agents in fibrosis and oncology, particularly in augmentation of existing cancer therapies, such as radiation and chemotherapy, as well as in tumour vaccines. There are also reports of specialized applications, such as the reduction of vascular symptoms of Marfan syndrome. Here, we consider why the TGFbeta signalling pathway is a drug target, the potential clinical applications of TGFbeta inhibition, the issues arising with anti-TGFbeta therapy and how these might be tackled using personalized approaches to dosing, monitoring of biomarkers as well as brief and/or localized drug-dosing regimens.  
  Call Number Serial 1548  
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Author (up) Albuquerque, E.X.; Pereira, E.F.R.; Alkondon, M.; Rogers, S.W. file  url
openurl 
  Title Mammalian nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from structure to function Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Physiological Reviews Abbreviated Journal Physiol Rev  
  Volume 89 Issue 1 Pages 73-120  
  Keywords Alzheimer Disease/physiopathology; Animals; Brain/physiology; Disease Models, Animal; Gene Expression Regulation/physiology; Humans; Parkinson Disease/physiopathology; Receptors, Nicotinic/*chemistry/*physiology  
  Abstract The classical studies of nicotine by Langley at the turn of the 20th century introduced the concept of a “receptive substance,” from which the idea of a “receptor” came to light. Subsequent studies aided by the Torpedo electric organ, a rich source of muscle-type nicotinic receptors (nAChRs), and the discovery of alpha-bungarotoxin, a snake toxin that binds pseudo-irreversibly to the muscle nAChR, resulted in the muscle nAChR being the best characterized ligand-gated ion channel hitherto. With the advancement of functional and genetic studies in the late 1980s, the existence of nAChRs in the mammalian brain was confirmed and the realization that the numerous nAChR subtypes contribute to the psychoactive properties of nicotine and other drugs of abuse and to the neuropathology of various diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and schizophrenia, has since emerged. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these findings and the more recent revelations of the impact that the rich diversity in function and expression of this receptor family has on neuronal and nonneuronal cells throughout the body. Despite these numerous developments, our understanding of the contributions of specific neuronal nAChR subtypes to the many facets of physiology throughout the body remains in its infancy.  
  Call Number Serial 1876  
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Author (up) Alcock, J.; Maley, C.C.; Aktipis, C.A. file  url
openurl 
  Title Is eating behavior manipulated by the gastrointestinal microbiota? Evolutionary pressures and potential mechanisms Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Abbreviated Journal Bioessays  
  Volume 36 Issue 10 Pages 940-949  
  Keywords Animals; *Biological Evolution; *Feeding Behavior; Gastrointestinal Tract/*microbiology; Humans; *Microbiota; Models, Biological; Obesity/etiology; Cravings; Evolutionary conflict; Host manipulation; Microbiome; Obesity  
  Abstract Microbes in the gastrointestinal tract are under selective pressure to manipulate host eating behavior to increase their fitness, sometimes at the expense of host fitness. Microbes may do this through two potential strategies: (i) generating cravings for foods that they specialize on or foods that suppress their competitors, or (ii) inducing dysphoria until we eat foods that enhance their fitness. We review several potential mechanisms for microbial control over eating behavior including microbial influence on reward and satiety pathways, production of toxins that alter mood, changes to receptors including taste receptors, and hijacking of the vagus nerve, the neural axis between the gut and the brain. We also review the evidence for alternative explanations for cravings and unhealthy eating behavior. Because microbiota are easily manipulatable by prebiotics, probiotics, antibiotics, fecal transplants, and dietary changes, altering our microbiota offers a tractable approach to otherwise intractable problems of obesity and unhealthy eating.  
  Call Number Serial 2002  
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Author (up) Allen, S.L.; Lundberg, A.S. file  url
openurl 
  Title Amonafide: a potential role in treating acute myeloid leukemia Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs Abbreviated Journal Expert Opin Investig Drugs  
  Volume 20 Issue 7 Pages 995-1003  
  Keywords Animals; Antineoplastic Agents--pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use; Clinical Trials as Topic--methods; DNA Topoisomerases, Type II--metabolism; Drug Resistance, Neoplasm; Enzyme Inhibitors--pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use; Humans; Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute--drug therapy, enzymology, mortality; Naphthalimides--pharmacokinetics, therapeutic use; Survival Rate--trends; Treatment Outcome  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Amonafide is a novel topoisomerase II (Topo II) inhibitor and DNA intercalator that induces apoptotic signaling by blocking the binding of Topo II to DNA. Amonafide retains cytotoxic activity even in the presence of P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR), a major contributor to clinical treatment failure. AREAS COVERED: In vitro, Pgp-mediated transport (efflux) of amonafide from myeloblasts obtained from patients with secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML) was significantly less than efflux of daunorubicin. Amonafide has shown efficacy in patients with sAML, as well as in patients with poor prognostic characteristics such as older age and unfavorable cytogenetics, all associated with MDR. Improved antileukemic activity is observed when amonafide is given together with cytarabine, rather than as monotherapy, with a complete remission rate of approximately 40% in a recent Phase II trial in sAML. The efficacy of amonafide was maintained among poor-risk subsets of patients, including older patients and patients who had previous myelodysplastic syndrome or previous leukemogenic therapy. The safety profile was acceptable and manageable. EXPERT OPINION: Amonafide plus cytarabine may have clinical utility in patients with sAML and in other poor-risk subgroups of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Ongoing trials will help define the role for amonafide in the treatment of poor-risk AML.  
  Call Number Serial 199  
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Author (up) Alvarez, J.; Fadic, R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Assembly and disassembly of axonal microtubules of the toad Xenopus laevis under the effect of temperature Type Journal Article
  Year 1992 Publication The Journal of Experimental Zoology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool  
  Volume 264 Issue 3 Pages 261-266  
  Keywords Animals; Axons/*physiology; Cytoplasm/metabolism; Kinetics; Microtubules/*physiology; Seasons; *Temperature; Tubulin/metabolism; Xenopus laevis  
  Abstract In toads Xenopus laevis living at 11 degrees (winter), the microtubular density of 4-microns myelinated axons of lumbosacral nerves was assessed with the electron microscope. In controls, the density was 11.2 microtubules/microns2. In nerves incubated at 0 degrees, microtubules decreased following a simple exponential curve with a half time of 4.7 min (k = 0.149 min-1); residual microtubules were 4.5%. After rewarming, the full complement of microtubules reappeared within 60 min. In steady state, the microtubular density exhibited a linear relationship with temperature (range: 0-22 degrees; slope 0.94 microtubules/microns 2 per degree; r, 0.96). After heating the nerve by 11 degrees above the physiological temperature, microtubules increased by 83%, whereby the pool of unpolymerized tubulin was at least 2.7 mg/ml of axoplasm. A seasonal variation of the microtubular density was observed which accorded with the environmental temperature. The macroscopic kinetics of microtubule disassembly in the axoplasm is similar to that reported for purified tubulin but that of assembly is slower. Microtubules of peripheral axons of Xenopus are cold-labile and vary during the annual cycle.  
  Call Number Serial 1174  
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