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Author (up) Aveskamp, M.M.; Verkley, G.J.M.; de Gruyter, J.; Murace, M.A.; Perello, A.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W. file  url
  Title DNA phylogeny reveals polyphyly of Phoma section Peyronellaea and multiple taxonomic novelties Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Mycologia Abbreviated Journal Mycologia  
  Volume 101 Issue 3 Pages 363-382  
  Keywords Actins/analysis/genetics; Ascomycota/*classification/cytology/genetics; Biodiversity; DNA, Fungal/*analysis/genetics; DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/analysis/genetics; Genetic Speciation; Genetic Variation; Molecular Sequence Data; *Phylogeny; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Sequence Alignment; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Species Specificity; Tubulin/analysis/genetics  
  Abstract Species of the anamorph genus Phoma are commonly isolated from a wide range of ecological niches. They are notoriously difficult to identify due to the paucity of morphological features and the plasticity of these when cultivated on agar media. Species linked to Phoma section Peyronellaea are typified by the production of dictyochlamydospores and thus have additional characters to use in taxon delineation. However, the taxonomy of this section is still not fully understood. Furthermore the production of such chlamydospores also is known in some other sections of Phoma. DNA sequences were generated from three loci, namely ITS, actin, and 3-tubulin, to clarify the phylogeny of Phoma taxa that produce dictyochlamydospores. Results were unable to support section Peyronellaea as a taxonomic entity. Dictyochlamydospore formation appears to be a feature that developed, or was lost, many times during the evolution of Phoma. Furthermore, based on the multigene analyses, five new Phoma species could be delineated while a further five required taxonomic revision to be consistent with the genetic variation observed.  
  Call Number Serial 1999  
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Author (up) Baustian, J.; Mendelssohn, I.; Lin, Q.; Rapp, J. file  url
  Title In situ burning restores the ecological function and structure of an oil-impacted coastal marsh Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal Environ Manage  
  Volume 46 Issue 5 Pages 781-789  
  Keywords Alkanes/analysis; Biodiversity; Chemical Hazard Release; *Ecosystem; Environmental Monitoring; Environmental Remediation/*methods; Fires; Louisiana; Petroleum/*analysis; Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic/analysis; Soil/chemistry; Soil Pollutants/analysis; Water Pollutants, Chemical/*analysis; *Wetlands  
  Abstract As the use of in situ burning for oil spill remediation in coastal wetlands accelerates, the capacity of this procedure to restore the ecological structure and function of oil-impacted wetlands becomes increasingly important. Thus, our research focused on evaluating the functional and structural recovery of a coastal marsh in South Louisiana to an in situ burn following a Hurricane Katrina-induced oil spill. Permanent sampling plots were set up to monitor marsh recovery in the oiled and burned areas as well as non-oiled and non-burned (reference) marshes. Plots were monitored for species composition, stem density, above- and below ground productivity, marsh resiliency, soil chemistry, soil residual oil, and organic matter decomposition. The burn removed the majority of the oil from the marsh, and structurally the marsh recovered rapidly. Plant biomass and species composition returned to control levels within 9 months; however, species richness remained somewhat lower in the oiled and burned areas compared to the reference areas. Recovery of ecological function was also rapid following the in situ burn. Aboveground and belowground plant productivity recovered within one growing season, and although decomposition rates were initially higher in the oiled areas, over time they became equivalent to those in reference sites. Also, marsh resiliency, i.e., the rate of recovery from our applied disturbances, was not affected by the in situ burn. We conclude that in situ burning is an effective way to remove oil and allow ecosystem recovery in coastal marshes.  
  Call Number Serial 130  
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Author (up) Bhattarai, B.; Beilin, R.; Ford, R. file  url
  Title Gender, Agrobiodiversity, and Climate Change: A Study of Adaptation Practices in the Nepal Himalayas Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication World Development Abbreviated Journal World Development  
  Volume 70 Issue Pages 122-132  
  Keywords gender; agrobiodiversity management; climate change; adaptation; Nepal  
  Abstract Gender is seminal to agrobiodiversity management, and inequities are likely to be exacerbated under a changing climate. Using in-depth interviews with farmers and officials from government and non-government organizations in Nepal, we explore how gender relations are influenced by wider socio-economic changes, and how alterations in gender relations shape responses to climate change. Combining feminist political ecology and critical social-ecological systems thinking, we analyze how gender and adaptation interact as households abandon certain crops, adopt high-yielding varieties and shift to cash crops. We argue that the prevailing development paradigm reinforces inequitable gender structures in agrobiodiversity management, undermining adaptation to the changing climate.  
  Call Number Serial 1586  
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Author (up) Diamond, S.E.; Sorger, D.M.; Hulcr, J.; Pelini, S.L.; Toro, I.D.; Hirsch, C.; Oberg, E.; Dunn, R.R. file  url
  Title Who likes it hot? A global analysis of the climatic, ecological, and evolutionary determinants of warming tolerance in ants Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Global Change Biology Abbreviated Journal Glob Change Biol  
  Volume 18 Issue 2 Pages 448-456  
  Keywords Biodiversity; Formicidae; Global Warming; Insect; Physiology; Temperature  
  Abstract Effects of climate warming on wild populations of organisms are expected to be greatest at higher latitudes, paralleling greater anticipated increases in temperature in these regions. Yet, these expectations assume that populations in different regions are equally susceptible to the effects of warming. This is unlikely to be the case. Here, we develop a series of predictive models for physiological thermal tolerances in ants based on current and future climates. We found that tropical ants have lower warming tolerances, a metric of susceptibility to climate warming, than temperate ants despite greater increases in temperature at higher latitudes. Using climatic, ecological and phylogenetic data, we refine our predictions of which ants (across all regions) were most susceptible to climate warming. We found that ants occupying warmer and more mesic forested habitats at lower elevations are the most physiologically susceptible to deleterious effects of climate warming. Phylogenetic history was also a strong indicator of physiological susceptibility. In short, we find that ants that live in the canopies of hot, tropical forest are the most at risk, globally, from climate warming. Unfortunately this is where many, perhaps most, ant and other species on Earth live.  
  Call Number Serial 583  
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Author (up) Ege, M.J.; Mayer, M.; Normand, A.-C.; Genuneit, J.; Cookson, W.O.C.M.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Heederik, D.; Piarroux, R.; von Mutius, E. file  url
  Title Exposure to environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication The New England Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal N Engl J Med  
  Volume 364 Issue 8 Pages 701-709  
  Keywords Adolescent; *Agriculture; Asthma/*epidemiology/immunology; Bacteria/*isolation & purification; Biodiversity; Child; Cross-Sectional Studies; Dust/analysis; Environmental Exposure/*analysis; Female; Fungi/*isolation & purification; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*epidemiology/immunology; Immunoglobulin E/blood; Logistic Models; Male; Microbiome; Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Children who grow up in environments that afford them a wide range of microbial exposures, such as traditional farms, are protected from childhood asthma and atopy. In previous studies, markers of microbial exposure have been inversely related to these conditions. METHODS: In two cross-sectional studies, we compared children living on farms with those in a reference group with respect to the prevalence of asthma and atopy and to the diversity of microbial exposure. In one study--PARSIFAL (Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Lifestyle)--samples of mattress dust were screened for bacterial DNA with the use of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses to detect environmental bacteria that cannot be measured by means of culture techniques. In the other study--GABRIELA (Multidisciplinary Study to Identify the Genetic and Environmental Causes of Asthma in the European Community [GABRIEL] Advanced Study)--samples of settled dust from children's rooms were evaluated for bacterial and fungal taxa with the use of culture techniques. RESULTS: In both studies, children who lived on farms had lower prevalences of asthma and atopy and were exposed to a greater variety of environmental microorganisms than the children in the reference group. In turn, diversity of microbial exposure was inversely related to the risk of asthma (odds ratio for PARSIFAL, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44 to 0.89; odds ratio for GABRIELA, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99). In addition, the presence of certain more circumscribed exposures was also inversely related to the risk of asthma; this included exposure to species in the fungal taxon eurotium (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.76) and to a variety of bacterial species, including Listeria monocytogenes, bacillus species, corynebacterium species, and others (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Children living on farms were exposed to a wider range of microbes than were children in the reference group, and this exposure explains a substantial fraction of the inverse relation between asthma and growing up on a farm. (Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the European Commission.).  
  Call Number Serial 1983  
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Author (up) Ghimire, S.R.; Charlton, N.D.; Bell, J.D.; Krishnamurthy, Y.L.; Craven, K.D. url  doi
  Title Biodiversity of fungal endophyte communities inhabiting switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) growing in the native tallgrass prairie of northern Oklahoma Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Fungal Diversity Abbreviated Journal Fungal Diversity  
  Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 19-27  
  Keywords Biodiversity; Bioenergy; Endophyte; Hypocreales; Mutualism; Symbiosis  
  Abstract This study was conducted to explore fungal endophyte communities inhabiting native switchgrass plants from the tallgrass prairie of northern Oklahoma. The primary focus was to isolate these endophytes in pure culture from surface-sterilized plant tissues and provide taxonomic identifications based on comparative analysis of ITS rDNA gene sequences. From these data, we evaluated the biodiversity of these potentially beneficial endosymbionts from this rapidly disappearing habitat of the Great Plains. While important from a strictly conservationist standpoint, this survey further allowed us to identify candidate endophytes for introduction into commercial switchgrass cultivars for biomass enhancement. A total of 210 whole plant samples were collected at early vegetative, full reproductive and senescence stages. Fungal endophytes were isolated, identified to species level when possible, and grouped into communities based on plant part, collection month and part of the prairie from which the plants were collected. Species diversity for each community was estimated by Shannon diversity index, and differences in diversity indices were compared using a t-test. The presence of fungal species representing at least 18 taxonomic orders suggests a high level of diversity in switchgrass endophyte communities. The fungal communities from shoot tissue had significantly higher species diversity than communities from the root tissue. The abundance of taxa assigned to the order Hypocreales (to which mutualistic, clavicipitaceous endophytes of cool-season grasses belong) found in shoot (64%) and root tissues (39%) throughout the growing season suggests great potential for utilizing these endophytes for enhancing biomass production and stress resistance of this important bioenergy crop.  
  Call Number Serial 977  
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Author (up) Holmstrup, M.; Maraldo, K.; Krogh, P.H. file  url
  Title Combined effect of copper and prolonged summer drought on soil microarthropods in the field Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) Abbreviated Journal Environ Pollut  
  Volume 146 Issue 2 Pages 525-533  
  Keywords Acari--physiology; Animals; Arthropods--physiology; Biodiversity; Copper--toxicity; Disasters; Insects--physiology; Seasons; Soil--analysis; Soil Pollutants--toxicity; Temperature; Water  
  Abstract Soil microarthropods experience a large range of natural stressors in their natural environment, e.g. variations in temperature and soil moisture, but also anthropogenic stressors such as soil pollutants. In the present study the combined effect of drought stress and copper pollution on microarthropods was investigated in a field study. We hypothesised that microarthropods in copper polluted soil would be more susceptible to drought than animals in control soil. Surprisingly, the abundance of microarthropods in autumn was positively affected by summer drought and copper pollution did not influence the effect of drought in a negative way. The stimulation was mainly seen as an increase of Acari, but also groups of Collembola were positively affected. We suggest that the positive effect of the enforced summer drought could be due to a rapid recovery, which further is accelerated by an increase of food resources (microbes) which have not been utilized during the drought.  
  Call Number Serial 39  
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Author (up) Morris, D.W.; Dupuch, A. file  url
  Title Habitat change and the scale of habitat selection: shifting gradients used by coexisting Arctic rodents Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Oikos Abbreviated Journal Oikos  
  Volume 121 Issue 6 Pages 975-984  
  Keywords Biodiversity; Climate Change; Habitat; Fitness; Arctic; Rodents  
  Abstract The conservation and understanding of biodiversity requires development and testing of models that illustrate how climate change and other anthropogenic effects alter habitat and its selection at different spatial scales. Models of fitness along a habitat gradient illustrate the connection between fine-scale variation in fitness and the selection of habitat as discontinuous patches in the landscape. According to these models, climate change can increase fitness values of static habitats, shift the fitness value of habitat patches along underlying gradients of habitat quality, or alter both fitness and habitat quality. It should be possible to differentiate amongst these scenarios by associating differences in the abundance and distribution of species with metrics of habitat that document the gradient while controlling for changes in density at larger scales of analysis. Comparisons of habitat selection by two species of lemmings, over an interval of 15 years, are consistent with the theory. The pattern of habitat selection at the scale of wet versus dry tundra habitats changed through time. The change in habitat selection was reflected by different, but nevertheless density-dependent, patterns of association with the structure and composition of habitat. Abundant collared lemmings abandoned stations where altered habitat characteristics caused a shift to new locations along the wet-to-dry gradient. The confirmation of scale-dependent theory provides new insights into how one might begin to forecast future habitat selection under different scenarios of climate and habitat change.  
  Call Number Serial 837  
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Author (up) Pellerin, A.; Lacelle, D.; Fortin, D.; Clark, I.D.; Lauriol, B. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Microbial diversity in endostromatolites (cf. Fissure Calcretes) and in the surrounding permafrost landscape, Haughton impact structure region, Devon Island, Canada Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Astrobiology Abbreviated Journal Astrobiology  
  Volume 9 Issue 9 Pages 807-822  
  Keywords Actinobacteria/genetics; Arctic Regions; Bacteria/classification/isolation & purification; *Biodiversity; Calcium Carbonate/*chemistry; Canada; Clone Cells; Desert Climate; Exobiology; Geography; *Ice; Microscopy, Electron, Scanning; Phylogeny; Proteobacteria/genetics; Soil Microbiology  
  Abstract In recent years, endostromatolites, which consist of finely laminated calcite columns that grow orthogonally within millimeter- to centimeter-thick fissures in limestone bedrock outcrops, have been discovered in dolomitic outcrops in the Haughton impact structure region, Devon Island, Canada. The growth mechanism of the endostromatolites is believed to be very slow and possibly intertwined with biotic and abiotic processes. Therefore, to discern how endostromatolites form in this polar desert environment, the composition of the microbial community of endostromatolites was determined by means of molecular phylogenetic analysis and compared to the microbial communities found in the surrounding soils. The microbial community present within endostromatolites can be inferred to be (given the predominant metabolic traits of related organisms) mostly aerobic and chemoheterotrophic, and belongs in large part to the phylum Actinobacteria and the subphylum Alphaproteobacteria. The identification of these bacteria suggests that the conditions within the fissure were mostly oxidizing during the growth of endostromatolite. The DNA sequences also indicate that a number of bacteria that closely resemble Rubrobacter radiotolerans are abundant in the endostromatolites as well as other Actinobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. Some of these taxa have been associated with calcite precipitation, which suggests that the endostromatolites might in fact be microbially mediated. Bacterial communities from nearby permanently frozen soils were more diverse and harbored all the phyla found in the endostromatolites with additional taxa. This study on the microbial communities preserved in potentially microbially mediated secondary minerals in the Arctic could help in the search for evidence of life-forms near the edge of habitability on other planetary bodies.  
  Call Number Serial 221  
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Author (up) Pothakos, V.; Snauwaert, C.; De Vos, P.; Huys, G.; Devlieghere, F. file  url
  Title Monitoring psychrotrophic lactic acid bacteria contamination in a ready-to-eat vegetable salad production environment Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication International Journal of Food Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Food Microbiol  
  Volume 185 Issue Pages 7-16  
  Keywords Biodiversity; Capsicum/microbiology; Colony Count, Microbial; DNA Fingerprinting; Food Industry/*methods/standards; *Food Microbiology; Genes, Bacterial/genetics; Leuconostoc/genetics/*isolation & purification; Vegetables/*microbiology; Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum; Psychrotrophic LAB; Source tracking; Spoilage; Vegetable salads  
  Abstract A study monitoring lactic acid bacteria contamination was conducted in a company producing fresh, minimally processed, packaged and ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetable salads (stored at 4 degrees C) in order to investigate the reason for high psychrotrophic LAB levels in the products at the end of shelf-life. Initially, high microbial counts exceeding the established psychrotrophic thresholds (>10(7)-10(8)CFU/g) and spoilage manifestations before the end of the shelf-life (7days) occurred in products containing an assortment of sliced and diced vegetables, but within a one year period these spoilage defects became prevalent in the entire processing plant. Environmental sampling and microbiological analyses of the raw materials and final products throughout the manufacturing process highlighted the presence of high numbers of Leuconostoc spp. in halved and unseeded, fresh sweet bell peppers provided by the supplier. A combination of two DNA fingerprinting techniques facilitated the assessment of the species diversity of LAB present in the processing environment along with the critical point of their introduction in the production facility. Probably through air mediation and surface adhesion, mainly members of the strictly psychrotrophic species Leuconostoc gelidum subsp. gasicomitatum and L. gelidum subsp. gelidum were responsible for the cross-contamination of every vegetable handled within the plant.  
  Call Number Serial 1670  
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