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Author (up) Berndes, G.; Hoogwijk, M.; van den Broek, R. file  url
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  Title The contribution of biomass in the future global energy supply: a review of 17 studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2003 Publication Biomass and Bioenergy Abbreviated Journal Biomass and Bioenergy  
  Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 1-28  
  Keywords Biomass energy; Bioenergy; Potential; Global; Regional; Assessment; Scenario; Review  
  Abstract This paper discusses the contribution of biomass in the future global energy supply. The discussion is based on a review of 17 earlier studies on the subject. These studies have arrived at widely different conclusions about the possible contribution of biomass in the future global energy supply (e.g., from below 100 EJ yr−1 to above 400 EJ yr−1 in 2050). The major reason for the differences is that the two most crucial parameters—land availability and yield levels in energy crop production—are very uncertain, and subject to widely different opinions (e.g., the assessed 2050 plantation supply ranges from below 50 EJ yr−1 to almost 240 EJ yr−1). However, also the expectations about future availability of forest wood and of residues from agriculture and forestry vary substantially among the studies.

The question how an expanding bioenergy sector would interact with other land uses, such as food production, biodiversity, soil and nature conservation, and carbon sequestration has been insufficiently analyzed in the studies. It is therefore difficult to establish to what extent bioenergy is an attractive option for climate change mitigation in the energy sector. A refined modeling of interactions between different uses and bioenergy, food and materials production—i.e., of competition for resources, and of synergies between different uses—would facilitate an improved understanding of the prospects for large-scale bioenergy and of future land-use and biomass management in general.
 
  Call Number Serial 769  
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Author (up) Callaway, R.M.; Brooker, R.W.; Choler, P.; Kikvidze, Z.; Lortie, C.J.; Michalet, R.; Paolini, L.; Pugnaire, F.I.; Newingham, B.; Aschehoug, E.T.; Armas, C.; Kikodze, D.; Cook, B.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Positive interactions among alpine plants increase with stress Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 417 Issue 6891 Pages 844-848  
  Keywords Atmospheric Pressure; Biomass; *Ecosystem; Geography; Plant Development; *Plant Physiological Phenomena; Reproduction; Species Specificity; Temperature; Stress  
  Abstract Plants can have positive effects on each other. For example, the accumulation of nutrients, provision of shade, amelioration of disturbance, or protection from herbivores by some species can enhance the performance of neighbouring species. Thus the notion that the distributions and abundances of plant species are independent of other species may be inadequate as a theoretical underpinning for understanding species coexistence and diversity. But there have been no large-scale experiments designed to examine the generality of positive interactions in plant communities and their importance relative to competition. Here we show that the biomass, growth and reproduction of alpine plant species are higher when other plants are nearby. In an experiment conducted in subalpine and alpine plant communities with 115 species in 11 different mountain ranges, we find that competition generally, but not exclusively, dominates interactions at lower elevations where conditions are less physically stressful. In contrast, at high elevations where abiotic stress is high the interactions among plants are predominantly positive. Furthermore, across all high and low sites positive interactions are more important at sites with low temperatures in the early summer, but competition prevails at warmer sites.  
  Call Number Serial 2154  
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Author (up) Corbett, E.A.; Anderson, R.C.; Rodgers, C.S. file  url
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  Title Prairie Revegetation of a Strip Mine in Illinois: Fifteen Years after Establishment Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Restoration Ecology Abbreviated Journal Restor Ecology  
  Volume 4 Issue 4 Pages 346-354  
  Keywords Prairie; Biomass; Switchgrass; Indian grass; Restoration; C4; C3; Grasses; MIP  
  Abstract We examined the long-term success of prairie planting on a former strip mine in northeastern Illinois. The site was reclaimed and planted with prairie species in the 1970s. Total biomass increased over time, largely as a result of an increase in biomass of non-prairie species. Biomass of prairie species remained unchanged because of an increase in Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) offsetting decreases in Sorghastrum nutans (Indian grass). Total biomass was less than values published for other restored prairies (78 ± 4 g/m2to 298 ± 72 g/m2 for our site, as opposed to 302-489 g/m2 for the Trelease Prairie). Mycorrhizal inoculum potential (MIP) was variable across the site. There were also relatively few species of mycorrhizal fungi present as spores. Gigaspora sp., Scutellospora sp., Glomus sp., Glomus geosporum, and Glomus cf. fasciculatum were identified from spores. On a transect dominated by warm-season (C4) prairie grasses, MIP of rhizosphere soil collected under these species was lower than the MIP of rhizosphere soil collected under exotic cool-season (C3) grasses on a transect dominated by C3 species. On a transect with mixed warm-and cool-season vegetation, however, MIP did not differ under the two vegetation types. These results suggest that within-site patchiness rather than cover type is influencing MIP. Values of MIP were lower than those reported for native Illinois prairie.  
  Call Number Serial 983  
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Author (up) Demirbas, M.F.; Balat, M.; Balat, H. file  url
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  Title Potential contribution of biomass to the sustainable energy development Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Energy Conversion and Management Abbreviated Journal Energy Conversion and Management  
  Volume 50 Issue 7 Pages 1746-1760  
  Keywords Biomass resources; Bio-electricity; Biofuel; Biofuel economy; Environmental impact  
  Abstract Biomass is a renewable energy source and its importance will increase as national energy policy and strategy focuses more heavily on renewable sources and conservation. Biomass is considered the renewable energy source with the highest potential to contribute to the energy needs of modern society for both the industrialized and developing countries worldwide. The most important biomass energy sources are wood and wood wastes, agricultural crops and their waste byproducts, municipal solid waste, animal wastes, waste from food processing, and aquatic plants and algae. Biomass is one potential source of renewable energy and the conversion of plant material into a suitable form of energy, usually electricity or as a fuel for an internal combustion engine, can be achieved using a number of different routes, each with specific pros and cons. Currently, much research has been focused on sustainable and environmental friendly energy from biomass to replace conventional fossil fuels. The main objective of the present study is to investigate global potential and use of biomass energy and its contribution to the sustainable energy development by presenting its historical development.  
  Call Number Serial 768  
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Author (up) García-Palacios, P.; Maestre, F.T.; Bradford, M.A.; Reynolds, J.F. file  url
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  Title Earthworms modify plant biomass and nitrogen capture under conditions of soil nutrient heterogeneity and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Soil Biology and Biochemistry Abbreviated Journal Soil Biology and Biochemistry  
  Volume 78 Issue Pages 182-188  
  Keywords Aboveground–belowground interactions; Earthworms; 15N plant material; Plant biomass; Plant resource use strategy; Resource quality  
  Abstract Earthworms modify the way roots respond to soil nutrient patchiness. However, few studies have evaluated the joint effects of earthworms and soil heterogeneity on plant community biomass and species dominance, and none of them have assessed the influence of different patch features and environmental conditions on such effects. We evaluated how soil nutrient heterogeneity, earthworms (Eisenia fetida), organic material quality (15N-labelled leaves and roots of contrasting C: N ratios) and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations (phytotron chambers) affected the resource-use strategy, biomass and species dominance of mixtures formed by Lolium perenne L. and Plantago lanceolata L. Soil heterogeneity decreased N capture from the organic material, especially in the presence of earthworms. Mixtures experienced a 26 and 36% decrease in shoot and root biomass when earthworms were added to the heterogeneous microcosms, but only with high quality organic material. The dominance of L. perenne was lower under conditions of elevated CO2, nutrient heterogeneity and earthworms. Our data suggest that earthworms can neutralize positive plant growth responses to soil heterogeneity by exacerbating decreases in the supply of N to the plant. Specifically, earthworms foraging for high quality patches may stimulate microbial N immobilization, translating into lower N capture by plants. Increases in casting activity under elevated CO2, and hence in microbial N immobilization, may also explain why earthworms modulated the effects of soil heterogeneity and CO2 concentrations on plant community structure. We show that earthworms, absent from most soil nutrient heterogeneity studies, mediate plant biomass responses to nutrient patchiness by affecting N capture. Future plant-foraging behaviour studies should consider the roles played by soil engineers such as earthworms, so that results can be better extrapolated to natural communities.  
  Call Number Serial 1191  
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