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Author (up) Besson, M.; Schon, D. file  url
  Title Comparison between language and music Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences Abbreviated Journal Ann N Y Acad Sci  
  Volume 930 Issue Pages 232-258  
  Keywords Brain/*physiology; Humans; *Language; Mental Processes/*physiology; *Music  
  Abstract Similarities and differences between language and music processing are examined from an evolutionary and a cognitive perspective. Language and music cannot be considered single entities; they need to be decomposed into different component operations or levels of processing. The central question concerns one of the most important claims of the generative grammar theory, that is, the specificity of language processing: do the computations performed to process language rely on specific linguistic processes or do they rely on general cognitive principles? Evidence from brain imaging results is reviewed, noting that this field is currently in need of metanalysis of the available results to precisely evaluate this claim. A series of experiments, mainly using the event-related brain potentials method, were conducted to compare different levels of processing in language and music. Overall, results favor language specificity when certain aspects of semantic processing in language are compared with certain aspects of melodic and harmonic processing in music. By contrast, results support the view that general cognitive principles are involved when aspects of syntactic processing in language are compared with aspects of harmonic processing in music. Moreover, analysis of the temporal structure led to similar effects in language and music. These tentative conclusions must be supported by other brain imaging results to shed further light on the spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain structure-function relationship.  
  Call Number Serial 476  
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Author (up) Bialystok, E.; Feng, X. file  url
  Title Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Brain and Language Abbreviated Journal Brain Lang  
  Volume 109 Issue 2-3 Pages 93-100  
  Keywords Adult; Brain/*physiology; Child; Female; Humans; *Language; Male; Mental Recall/*physiology; *Multilingualism; *Proactive Inhibition; Vocabulary  
  Abstract Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.  
  Call Number Serial 942  
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Author (up) Borre, Y.E.; Moloney, R.D.; Clarke, G.; Dinan, T.G.; Cryan, J.F. file  url
  Title The impact of microbiota on brain and behavior: mechanisms & therapeutic potential Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology Abbreviated Journal Adv Exp Med Biol  
  Volume 817 Issue Pages 373-403  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; *Behavior; Brain/*physiology; Brain Diseases/therapy; Cognition; Humans; Intestines/microbiology; Microbiome; Microbiota/*physiology; Probiotics/pharmacology; Signal Transduction; Tryptophan/metabolism  
  Abstract There is increasing evidence that host-microbe interactions play a key role in maintaining homeostasis. Alterations in gut microbial composition is associated with marked changes in behaviors relevant to mood, pain and cognition, establishing the critical importance of the bi-directional pathway of communication between the microbiota and the brain in health and disease. Dysfunction of the microbiome-brain-gut axis has been implicated in stress-related disorders such as depression, anxiety and irritable bowel syndrome and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism. Bacterial colonization of the gut is central to postnatal development and maturation of key systems that have the capacity to influence central nervous system (CNS) programming and signaling, including the immune and endocrine systems. Moreover, there is now expanding evidence for the view that enteric microbiota plays a role in early programming and later response to acute and chronic stress. This view is supported by studies in germ-free mice and in animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotic agents or antibiotics. Although communication between gut microbiota and the CNS are not fully elucidated, neural, hormonal, immune and metabolic pathways have been suggested. Thus, the concept of a microbiome-brain-gut axis is emerging, suggesting microbiota-modulating strategies may be a tractable therapeutic approach for developing novel treatments for CNS disorders.  
  Call Number Serial 2003  
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Author (up) Linden, D.J. file  url
  Title Long-term synaptic depression in the mammalian brain Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Neuron Abbreviated Journal Neuron  
  Volume 12 Issue 3 Pages 457-472  
  Keywords Animals; Brain/*physiology; Cerebellum/physiology; Humans; Learning/physiology; Long-Term Potentiation; Mammals; Synapses/*physiology; Time Factors  
  Abstract A generally accepted hypothesis in neurobiology has been that at the cellular level, memories are stored, at least in part, as long-term alterations in the strength of synaptic tranmission. In recent years, considerable attention has been paid to persistent, use-dependent mechanisms that increase synaptic strength, which are collectively referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP). This review shall examine the opposite phenomenon, use-dependent decreases in synaptic strength, or long-term depression (LTD). LTD is a broad term that is used to describe synaptic depression according to several different learning rules and in a wide variety of brain structures.  
  Call Number Serial 948  
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Author (up) Malter Cohen, M.; Tottenham, N.; Casey, B.J. file  url
  Title Translational developmental studies of stress on brain and behavior: implications for adolescent mental health and illness? Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
  Volume 249 Issue Pages 53-62  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Behavior/*physiology/psychology; Animals; Brain/*physiology; Humans; Mental Disorders/genetics/*metabolism/psychology; *Mental Health; Stress, Psychological/genetics/*metabolism/psychology; Translational Medical Research/*methods; Bdnf; BDNFmet; Mri; Met; P; Pi; Scr; Val; Val66met; adolescence; anxiety; brain-derived neurotrophic factor; emotion regulation; fMRI; fear; functional magnetic resonance imaging; magnetic resonance imaging; methionine; methionine in codon 66 of the BDNF protein; postnatal day; previously institutionalized; skin conductance response; stress; valine; valine-to-methionine substitution at codon 66; ventromedial prefrontal cortex; vmPFC  
  Abstract Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, with onset marked by puberty and the offset by relative independence from parents. Across species, it is a time of incredible change that carries increased risks and rewards. The ability of the individual to respond adequately to the mental, physical and emotional stresses of life during this time is a function of both their early environment and their present state. In this article, we focus on the effects that acute threat and chronic stress have on the brain and behavior in humans and rodents. First, we highlight developmental changes in frontolimbic function as healthy individuals transition into and out of adolescence. Second, we examine genetic factors that may enhance susceptibility to stress in one individual over another using translation from genetic mouse models to human neuroimaging. Third, we examine how the timing and nature of stress varies in its impact on brain and behavior. These findings are discussed in the context of implications for adolescent mental health and illness.  
  Call Number Serial 1971  
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Author (up) Miranda, R.A.; Ullman, M.T. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Double dissociation between rules and memory in music: an event-related potential study Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication NeuroImage Abbreviated Journal Neuroimage  
  Volume 38 Issue 2 Pages 331-345  
  Keywords Brain/*physiology; Culture; *Electroencephalography; Evoked Potentials/*physiology; Female; Humans; Language; *Learning; Male; Memory/*physiology; *Music; United States  
  Abstract Language and music share a number of characteristics. Crucially, both domains depend on both rules and memorized representations. Double dissociations between the neurocognition of rule-governed and memory-based knowledge have been found in language but not music. Here, the neural bases of both of these aspects of music were examined with an event-related potential (ERP) study of note violations in melodies. Rule-only violations consisted of out-of-key deviant notes that violated tonal harmony rules in novel (unfamiliar) melodies. Memory-only violations consisted of in-key deviant notes in familiar well-known melodies; these notes followed musical rules but deviated from the actual melodies. Finally, out-of-key notes in familiar well-known melodies constituted violations of both rules and memory. All three conditions were presented, within-subjects, to healthy young adults, half musicians and half non-musicians. The results revealed a double dissociation, independent of musical training, between rules and memory: both rule violation conditions, but not the memory-only violations, elicited an early, somewhat right-lateralized anterior-central negativity (ERAN), consistent with previous studies of rule violations in music, and analogous to the early left-lateralized anterior negativities elicited by rule violations in language. In contrast, both memory violation conditions, but not the rule-only violation, elicited a posterior negativity that might be characterized as an N400, an ERP component that depends, at least in part, on the processing of representations stored in long-term memory, both in language and in other domains. The results suggest that the neurocognitive rule/memory dissociation extends from language to music, further strengthening the similarities between the two domains.  
  Call Number Serial 477  
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Author (up) Persinger, M.A.; Healey, F. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Experimental facilitation of the sensed presence: possible intercalation between the hemispheres induced by complex magnetic fields Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease Abbreviated Journal J Nerv Ment Dis  
  Volume 190 Issue 8 Pages 533-541  
  Keywords Adult; Analysis of Variance; Awareness/*physiology; Bereavement; Brain/*physiology; Dreams/physiology/psychology; Electromagnetic Fields; Female; Functional Laterality/*physiology; Humans; *Magnetics; Male; Memory/physiology; Parapsychology/*methods; Parietal Lobe/physiology; Sensation/physiology; Sex Factors; Temporal Lobe/physiology  
  Abstract This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that the sensed presence, the feeling of a proximal sentient being, can be evoked within the laboratory. Under double-blind conditions, 48 university men and women were exposed to weak (100 nT to 1 muT), complex, pulsed magnetic fields that were applied primarily over the right temporoparietal region, primarily over the left temporoparietal region, or equally across both hemispheres (one treatment per group) for 20 minutes while wearing opaque goggles in a very quiet room. A fourth group was exposed to a sham-field condition. Subjects who received greater stimulation over the right hemisphere or equal stimulation across both hemispheres reported more frequent incidences of presences, fears, and odd smells than did the subjects who received greater stimulation over the left hemisphere or who were exposed to the sham-field condition. The results suggest that the sensed presence is subject to experimental manipulation. This experimental procedure could be employed to explore the idea that the experience of a sensed presence is a resident property of the human brain and may be the fundamental source for phenomena attributed to visitations by gods, spirits, and other ephemeral phenomena.  
  Call Number Serial 559  
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Author (up) Roy, M.; Mailhot, J.-P.; Gosselin, N.; Paquette, S.; Peretz, I. file  url
  Title Modulation of the startle reflex by pleasant and unpleasant music Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Psychophysiol  
  Volume 71 Issue 1 Pages 37-42  
  Keywords Acoustic Stimulation; Adult; Auditory Perception/*physiology; Brain/*physiology; Discriminant Analysis; Electroencephalography/methods; Emotions/*physiology; Female; Humans; Male; Multivariate Analysis; *Music; Reaction Time/physiology; Reflex, Startle/*physiology; Young Adult  
  Abstract The issue of emotional feelings to music is the object of a classic debate in music psychology. Emotivists argue that emotions are really felt in response to music, whereas cognitivists believe that music is only representative of emotions. Psychophysiological recordings of emotional feelings to music might help to resolve the debate, but past studies have failed to show clear and consistent differences between musical excerpts of different emotional valence. Here, we compared the effects of pleasant and unpleasant musical excerpts on the startle eye blink reflex and associated body markers (such as the corrugator and zygomatic activity, skin conductance level and heart rate). The startle eye blink amplitude was larger and its latency was shorter during unpleasant compared with pleasant music, suggesting that the defensive emotional system was indeed modulated by music. Corrugator activity was also enhanced during unpleasant music, whereas skin conductance level was higher for pleasant excerpts. The startle reflex was the response that contributed the most in distinguishing pleasant and unpleasant music. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that emotions were felt in response to music, supporting the emotivist stance.  
  Call Number Serial 1747  
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Author (up) Shamay-Tsoory, S.G. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The neural bases for empathy Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication The Neuroscientist : a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Neuroscientist  
  Volume 17 Issue 1 Pages 18-24  
  Keywords Brain/*physiology; Empathy/*physiology; Humans; Neural Pathways/*physiology  
  Abstract Human empathy relies on the ability to share emotions as well as the ability to understand the other's thoughts, desires, and feelings. Recent evidence points to 2 separate systems for empathy: an emotional system that supports our ability to empathize emotionally and a cognitive system that involves cognitive understanding of the other's perspective. Converging evidence from neuroimaging and lesion studies shows that a neural network that includes the inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule is necessary for emotion recognition and emotional contagion. On the other hand, the involvement of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, temporoparietal junction, and the medial temporal lobe in self-reflection and autobiographical memory places these key regions as necessary for cognitive empathy. The proposed dissociation between these systems is supported by recent neurochemical experiments involving administration of oxytocin as well as by ethological, psychiatric, and developmental studies. Finally, although the emotional and cognitive systems appear to work independently, every empathic response may still evoke both components to some extent, depending on the social context.  
  Call Number Serial 529  
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