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Author (up) Adachi, R.; Osada, H.; Shingai, R. file  url
openurl 
  Title Phase-dependent preference of thermosensation and chemosensation during simultaneous presentation assay in Caenorhabditis elegans Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication BMC Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal BMC Neurosci  
  Volume 9 Issue Pages 106  
  Keywords Animals; Caenorhabditis elegans; Chemotactic Factors; Chemotaxis--physiology; Choice Behavior; Cold Temperature; Pentanols; Psychomotor Performance--physiology; Sensation; Sensory Receptor Cells--physiology; Sodium Chloride; Thermosensing--physiology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Multi-sensory integration is necessary for organisms to discriminate different environmental stimuli and thus determine behavior. Caenorhabditis elegans has 12 pairs of amphid sensory neurons, which are involved in generating behaviors such as thermotaxis toward cultivation temperature, and chemotaxis toward chemical stimuli. This arrangement of known sensory neurons and measurable behavioral output makes C. elegans suitable for addressing questions of multi-sensory integration in the nervous system. Previous studies have suggested that C. elegans can process different chemoattractants simultaneously. However, little is known about how these organisms can integrate information from stimuli of different modality, such as thermal and chemical stimuli. RESULTS: We studied the behavior of a population of C. elegans during simultaneous presentation of thermal and chemical stimuli. First, we examined thermotaxis within the radial temperature gradient produced by a feedback-controlled thermoregulator. Separately, we examined chemotaxis toward sodium chloride or isoamyl alcohol. Then, assays for simultaneous presentations of 15 degrees C (colder temperature than 20 degrees C room temperature) and chemoattractant were performed with 15 degrees C-cultivated wild-type worms. Unlike the sum of behavioral indices for each separate behavior, simultaneous presentation resulted in a biased migration to cold regions in the first 10 min of the assay, and sodium chloride-regions in the last 40 min. However, when sodium chloride was replaced with isoamyl alcohol in the simultaneous presentation, the behavioral index was very similar to the sum of separate single presentation indices. We then recorded tracks of single worms and analyzed their behavior. For behavior toward sodium chloride, frequencies of forward and backward movements in simultaneous presentation were significantly different from those in single presentation. Also, migration toward 15 degrees C in simultaneous presentation was faster than that in 15 degrees C-single presentation. CONCLUSION: We conclude that worms preferred temperature to chemoattractant at first, but preferred the chemoattractant sodium chloride thereafter. This preference was not seen for isoamyl alcohol presentation. We attribute this phase-dependent preference to the result of integration of thermosensory and chemosensory signals received by distinct sensory neurons.  
  Call Number Serial 262  
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Author (up) Binder, E.; Droste, S.K.; Ohl, F.; Reul, J.M.H.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Regular voluntary exercise reduces anxiety-related behaviour and impulsiveness in mice Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res  
  Volume 155 Issue 2 Pages 197-206  
  Keywords Adaptation, Psychological; Animals; Anxiety/*psychology; *Choice Behavior; *Exploratory Behavior; Impulsive Behavior/*psychology; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Physical Conditioning, Animal/*psychology  
  Abstract We embarked on a study to delineate the behavioural changes in mice after 4 weeks of voluntary exercise. As an initial behavioural characterization, we exposed the control and exercising mice to a modified hole board and an open field test. As compared to control mice, exercising animals showed clear signs of increased behavioural inhibition (e.g. a longer latency to enter unprotected areas), suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In addition, the exercising mice were reluctant to spend time in the open field's centre during the beginning of the 30-min open field test, but compensated for this at later times. Paradoxically, the exercising animals showed more rearings on the board of the modified hole board, indicating decreased anxiety. Thus, the behavioural inhibition seen in exercising mice is likely to represent decreased stress responsiveness at the behavioural level which can also be interpreted as reduced impulsiveness. To clarify whether voluntary exercise evolves in more or less anxiety-related behaviour, we exposed animals to the elevated plus-maze and the dark-light box, two selective tests for unconditioned anxiety. Clearly, compared to the control animals, exercising mice spent significantly more time on the open arm of the plus-maze and spent double the amount of time in the light compartment of the dark-light box. Taken together, we conclude that long-term voluntary exercise appears to result in decreased anxiety-related behaviour and impulsiveness. Thus, our observations fit into the concept that regular exercise strengthens endogenous stress coping mechanisms, thereby protecting the organism against the deleterious effects of stress.  
  Call Number Serial 396  
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Author (up) Bruckmuller, S.; Branscombe, N.R. file  url
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  Title The glass cliff: when and why women are selected as leaders in crisis contexts Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication The British Journal of Social Psychology / the British Psychological Society Abbreviated Journal Br J Soc Psychol  
  Volume 49 Issue Pt 3 Pages 433-451  
  Keywords Achievement; *Career Mobility; Choice Behavior; Efficiency, Organizational/*economics; Employee Performance Appraisal; Female; *Gender Identity; Humans; Judgment; *Leadership; Male; Organizational Innovation/*economics; Power (Psychology); Prejudice; Stereotyping; Women, Working/*psychology  
  Abstract The glass cliff refers to women being more likely to rise to positions of organizational leadership in times of crisis than in times of success, and men being more likely to achieve those positions in prosperous times. We examine the role that (a) a gendered history of leadership and (b) stereotypes about gender and leadership play in creating the glass cliff. In Expt 1, participants who read about a company with a male history of leadership selected a male future leader for a successful organization, but chose a female future leader in times of crisis. This interaction--between company performance and gender of the preferred future leader--was eliminated for a counter-stereotypic history of female leadership. In Expt 2, stereotypically male attributes were most predictive of leader selection in a successful organization, while stereotypically female attributes were most predictive in times of crisis. Differences in the endorsement of these stereotypes, in particular with regard to the ascription of lower stereotypically female attributes to the male candidate mediated the glass cliff effect. Overall, results suggest that stereotypes about male leadership may be more important for the glass cliff effect than stereotypes about women and leadership.  
  Call Number Serial 269  
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Author (up) Izquierdo, A.; Darling, C.; Manos, N.; Pozos, H.; Kim, C.; Ostrander, S.; Cazares, V.; Stepp, H.; Rudebeck, P.H. file  url
openurl 
  Title Basolateral amygdala lesions facilitate reward choices after negative feedback in rats Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal J Neurosci  
  Volume 33 Issue 9 Pages 4105-4109  
  Keywords Amygdala/injuries/*physiology; Analysis of Variance; Animals; Choice Behavior/*physiology; Conditioning, Operant/*physiology; Discrimination Learning/drug effects/physiology; Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists/toxicity; *Feedback/drug effects; Food Preferences/drug effects/physiology; Ibotenic Acid/toxicity; Male; Photic Stimulation; Prefrontal Cortex/injuries/physiology; Rats; Rats, Long-Evans; Reversal Learning; *Reward  
  Abstract The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) constitute part of a neural circuit important for adaptive, goal-directed learning. One task measuring flexibility of response to changes in reward is discrimination reversal learning. Damage to OFC produces well documented impairments on various forms of reversal learning in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Recent reports show that BLA, though highly interconnected with OFC, may be differentially involved in reversal learning. In the present experiment, we compared the effects of bilateral, ibotenic acid lesions of OFC or BLA (or SHAM) on visual discrimination and reversal learning. Specifically, we used pairwise visual discrimination methods, as is commonly administered in non-human primate studies, and analyzed how animals use positive and negative trial-by-trial feedback, domains not previously explored in a rat study. As expected, OFC lesions displayed significantly slower reversal learning than SHAM and BLA rats across sessions. Rats with BLA lesions, conversely, showed facilitated reversal learning relative to SHAM and OFC groups. Furthermore, a trial-by-trial analysis of the errors committed showed the BLA group benefited more from incorrectly performed trials (or negative feedback) on future choices than either SHAM or OFC rats. This provides evidence that BLA and OFC are involved in updating responses to changes in reward contingency and that the roles are distinct. Our results are discussed in relation to a competitive framework model for OFC and BLA in reward processing.  
  Call Number Serial 1970  
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Author (up) Rothgerber, H. file  url
openurl 
  Title Underlying differences between conscientious omnivores and vegetarians in the evaluation of meat and animals Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Appetite Abbreviated Journal Appetite  
  Volume 87 Issue Pages 251-258  
  Keywords Adult; Animal Welfare/ethics; Animals; Choice Behavior; Culture; *Diet; *Diet, Vegetarian; Female; Food Habits/*ethics; Food Preferences; Guilt; Humans; Male; *Meat; Middle Aged; Taste; Conscientious omnivores; Ethical meat eating; Humane meat; Meat disgust; Vegetarians; vegans  
  Abstract As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important options for those reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism/veganism (i.e., veg*nism), the avoidance of animal flesh/all animal products; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has recently received much attention in the social science literature, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as COs have been virtually nonexistent. The present research sought to investigate possible underlying attitudinal differences between the two groups. Results indicated that relative to veg*ns, COs evaluated animals less favorably, meat more favorably, and were lower in idealism, misanthropy, and ingroup identification. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences between COs and veg*ns in the perceived acceptability of killing animals for food were mediated by beliefs about animals and meat. The discussion largely speculates on the causal direction of these effects.  
  Call Number Serial 1287  
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