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Author (up) Aertsen, A.; Michiels, C.W. file  url
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  Title SulA-dependent hypersensitivity to high pressure and hyperfilamentation after high-pressure treatment of Escherichia coli lon mutants Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Research in Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Res Microbiol  
  Volume 156 Issue 2 Pages 233-237  
  Keywords Colony Count, Microbial; Culture Media; Escherichia coli--genetics, growth & development; Escherichia coli Proteins--genetics, metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial; Hydrostatic Pressure; Mutation; Protease La--genetics; SOS Response (Genetics); Ultraviolet Rays  
  Abstract High-pressure treatment (>100 MPa) is known to induce several heat shock proteins as well as an SOS response in Escherichia coli. In the current work, we have investigated properties with respect to high-pressure treatment of mutants-deficient in Lon, a pressure-induced ATP-dependent protease that belongs to the heat shock regulon but that also has a link to the SOS regulon. We report that lon mutants show increased pressure sensitivity and exhibit hyperfilamentation during growth after high-pressure treatment. Both phenotypes could be entirely attributed to the action of the SOS protein SulA, a potent inhibitor of the cell division ring protein FtsZ and a specific target of the Lon protease, since they were suppressed by knock-out of SulA. Introduction of the lexA1 allele, which effectively blocks the entire SOS response, also suppressed the high pressure hypersensitivity of lon mutants, but not their UV hypersensitivity. These results indicate the existence of a SulA-dependent pathway of high-pressure-induced cell filamentation, and suggest involvement of the SOS response, and particularly of SulA, in high-pressure-mediated cell death in E. coli strains which are compromised in Lon function.  
  Call Number Serial 301  
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Author (up) Borgers, M.; Van den Bossche, H.; De Brabander, M. file  url
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  Title The mechanism of action of the new antimycotic ketoconazole Type Journal Article
  Year 1983 Publication The American Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal Am J Med  
  Volume 74 Issue 1b Pages 2-8  
  Keywords Animals; *Antifungal Agents; Candida albicans/drug effects/growth & development/metabolism; Cell Membrane Permeability/drug effects; Culture Media; Ergosterol/biosynthesis; Fatty Acids/biosynthesis; Fungi/drug effects/growth & development/metabolism/ultrastructure; Humans; Imidazoles/*pharmacology; Ketoconazole; Phagocytes/drug effects; Phospholipids/biosynthesis; Piperazines/*pharmacology; Rats; Sterols/biosynthesis; Triglycerides/biosynthesis  
  Abstract Ketoconazole is one of the new members of the imidazole series with a broad-spectrum antifungal profile. Although sharing its basic active principles with the other imidazoles, ketoconazole obtains its superior in vivo activity mainly from its good oral absorption and its lower degree of inactivation once absorbed. Its selective toxicity for yeasts and fungi is found to be primarily linked to the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis and to interference with other membrane lipids. In vitro growth studies revealed that ketoconazole's activity was more pronounced against the invasive morphogenetic form than against the saprophytic form of Candida albicans, which at least partly explains its prominent in vivo potency. At extremely low concentrations (10 ng/ml-1) ketoconazole prevents the development of the very form that is responsible for the expression of clinical symptoms. In contrast to other imidazoles, ketoconazole's action on the morphogenesis of the organism is not influenced by serum. The synergistic action with host defense cells, as demonstrated in culture systems, is another inherent property of this drug and may have a great impact on the eradication of systemic fungal infections. These effects of ketoconazole have been studied in a variety of fungal organisms with the aid of phase-contrast, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy in order to characterize ketoconazole's profile in comparison to the other imidazole derivatives.  
  Call Number Serial 1032  
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Author (up) Burlina, A.P.; Skaper, S.D.; Mazza, M.R.; Ferrari, V.; Leon, A.; Burlina, A.B. file  url
openurl 
  Title N-acetylaspartylglutamate selectively inhibits neuronal responses to N-methyl-D-aspartic acid in vitro Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Journal of Neurochemistry Abbreviated Journal J Neurochem  
  Volume 63 Issue 3 Pages 1174-1177  
  Keywords Animals; Aspartic Acid/analogs & derivatives/pharmacology; Canavan Disease; Cell Survival/drug effects; Cells, Cultured; Cerebellum/cytology/drug effects; Culture Media; Dipeptides/*pharmacology; Kainic Acid/pharmacology; Mice; Mice, Inbred BALB C; N-Methylaspartate/*pharmacology; Neurons/*drug effects/physiology  
  Abstract Canavan's disease is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a deficiency of aspartoacylase and accumulation of N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA), leading to a severe leukodystrophy and spongy degeneration of the brain. N-Acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG), the presumed product of NAA, also accumulates in this disease. The endogenous dipeptide NAAG has been suggested to have low potency at NMDA receptors. Here we have tested the actions of NAAG and NAA on NMDA-evoked responses in cultured cerebellar granule cells. In differentiating granule cells grown in low-K+ medium, NAAG negated the survival-promoting effects of NMDA but not K+ depolarization. Neither NAAG nor NAA alone promoted cell survival in low-K+ medium. The modest trophic action of 50 microM kainic acid in low-K+ medium was reinforced by the NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine maleate and by NAAG. In K(+)-differentiated granule cells, NAAG raised the threshold of NMDA neurotoxicity but not that of kainate. The observed activities of NAAG were overcome by excess NMDA and were not mimicked by NAA. These data raise the possibility that disruption of NMDA receptor processes by NAAG may be of pathophysiological relevance.  
  Call Number Serial 103  
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Author (up) Edwards, R.G. file  url
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  Title Maturation in vitro of mouse, sheep, cow, pig, rhesus monkey and human ovarian oocytes Type Journal Article
  Year 1965 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 208 Issue 5008 Pages 349-351  
  Keywords Animals; Cattle; *Cell Division; Culture Media; Female; Haplorhini; Humans; In Vitro Techniques; Mice; *Ovum; Sheep; Swine  
  Abstract “The investigation of early development in many mammalian species is restricted by the difficulty of obtaining sufficient numbers of oocytes and embryos at particular stages of development.”  
  Call Number Serial 1159  
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Author (up) Henn, A.; Lund, S.; Hedtjarn, M.; Schrattenholz, A.; Porzgen, P.; Leist, M. file  url
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  Title The suitability of BV2 cells as alternative model system for primary microglia cultures or for animal experiments examining brain inflammation Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Altex Abbreviated Journal Altex  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 83-94  
  Keywords Animal Testing Alternatives/*methods; Animals; Astrocytes/physiology; Brain/*pathology; Cell Line; Culture Media, Conditioned; Cytokines/metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation/physiology; Inflammation/*pathology; Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity; Mice; Microglia/*cytology/*physiology; NF-kappa B/metabolism; Nitrites/metabolism; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism  
  Abstract The role of microglia in neurodegeneration, toxicology and immunity is an expanding area of biomedical research requiring large numbers of animals. Use of a microglia-like cell line would accelerate many research programmes and reduce the necessity of continuous cell preparations and animal experimentation, provided that the cell line reproduces the in vivo situation or primary microglia (PM) with high fidelity. The immortalised murine microglial cell line BV-2 has been used frequently as a substitute for PM, but recently doubts were raised as to their suitability. Here, we re-evaluated strengths and potential short-comings of BV-2 cells. Their response to lipopolysaccharide was compared with the response of microglia in vitro and in vivo. Transcriptome (480 genes) and proteome analyses after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide indicated a reaction pattern of BV-2 with many similarities to that of PM, although the average upregulation of genes was less pronounced. The cells showed a normal regulation of NO production and a functional response to IFN-gamma, important parameters for appropriate interaction with T cells and neurons. BV-2 were also able to stimulate other glial cells. They triggered the translocation of NF-kappaB, and a subsequent production of IL-6 in astrocytes. Thus, BV-2 cells appear to be a valid substitute for PM in many experimental settings, incuding complex cell-cell interaction studies.  
  Call Number Serial 163  
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