more information
Search within Results:

Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print
  Records Links
Author (up) Ege, M.J.; Mayer, M.; Normand, A.-C.; Genuneit, J.; Cookson, W.O.C.M.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Heederik, D.; Piarroux, R.; von Mutius, E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Exposure to environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication The New England Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal N Engl J Med  
  Volume 364 Issue 8 Pages 701-709  
  Keywords Adolescent; *Agriculture; Asthma/*epidemiology/immunology; Bacteria/*isolation & purification; Biodiversity; Child; Cross-Sectional Studies; Dust/analysis; Environmental Exposure/*analysis; Female; Fungi/*isolation & purification; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*epidemiology/immunology; Immunoglobulin E/blood; Logistic Models; Male; Microbiome; Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Children who grow up in environments that afford them a wide range of microbial exposures, such as traditional farms, are protected from childhood asthma and atopy. In previous studies, markers of microbial exposure have been inversely related to these conditions. METHODS: In two cross-sectional studies, we compared children living on farms with those in a reference group with respect to the prevalence of asthma and atopy and to the diversity of microbial exposure. In one study--PARSIFAL (Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Lifestyle)--samples of mattress dust were screened for bacterial DNA with the use of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses to detect environmental bacteria that cannot be measured by means of culture techniques. In the other study--GABRIELA (Multidisciplinary Study to Identify the Genetic and Environmental Causes of Asthma in the European Community [GABRIEL] Advanced Study)--samples of settled dust from children's rooms were evaluated for bacterial and fungal taxa with the use of culture techniques. RESULTS: In both studies, children who lived on farms had lower prevalences of asthma and atopy and were exposed to a greater variety of environmental microorganisms than the children in the reference group. In turn, diversity of microbial exposure was inversely related to the risk of asthma (odds ratio for PARSIFAL, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44 to 0.89; odds ratio for GABRIELA, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99). In addition, the presence of certain more circumscribed exposures was also inversely related to the risk of asthma; this included exposure to species in the fungal taxon eurotium (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.76) and to a variety of bacterial species, including Listeria monocytogenes, bacillus species, corynebacterium species, and others (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Children living on farms were exposed to a wider range of microbes than were children in the reference group, and this exposure explains a substantial fraction of the inverse relation between asthma and growing up on a farm. (Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the European Commission.).  
  Call Number Serial 1983  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author (up) Suryanarayanan, T.S.; Wittlinger, S.K.; Faeth, S.H. file  url
openurl 
  Title Endophytic fungi associated with cacti in Arizona Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Mycological Research Abbreviated Journal Mycol Res  
  Volume 109 Issue Pt 5 Pages 635-639  
  Keywords Agriculture; Arizona; Cactaceae/*microbiology; Fungi/*isolation & purification; Plant Components, Aerial/microbiology; Species Specificity  
  Abstract 21 cactus species occurring in various localities within Arizona were screened for the presence of fungal endophytes. 900 endophyte isolates belonging to 22 fungal species were isolated. Cylindropuntia fulgida had the maximum endophyte species diversity, while C. ramosissima harboured the maximum number of endophyte isolates. Alternaria sp., Aureobasidium pullulans, and Phoma spp. were isolated from several cactus species. The diversity of the endophyte assemblages was low and no host specificity among endophytes was observed. However, the frequencies of colonization of the few endophyte species recovered were high and comparable to those reported for tropical plant hosts. Species of Colletotrichum, Phomopsis, and Phyllosticta, which are commonly isolated as endophytes from plants of more mesic habitats, were absent from these cacti.  
  Call Number Serial 1619  
Permanent link to this record
Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print

Save Citations: