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Author (up) Brooks, J.P.; Adeli, A.; McLaughlin, M.R. file  url
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  Title Microbial ecology, bacterial pathogens, and antibiotic resistant genes in swine manure wastewater as influenced by three swine management systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Water Research Abbreviated Journal Water Res  
  Volume 57 Issue Pages 96-103  
  Keywords Animal Husbandry/*methods; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology; Bacteria/drug effects/*genetics/*isolation & purification; Bacterial Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Drug Resistance, Bacterial/*genetics; Manure/*microbiology; Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects/genetics/isolation & purification; *Microbiota; RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics/metabolism; Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction; Southeastern United States; Sus scrofa; Waste Water/*microbiology; Antibiotic resistance; Campylobacter; Confined animal feeding operation (CAFO); Lagoon wastewater; Salmonella; Swine; Microbiome  
  Abstract The environmental influence of farm management in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO) can yield vast changes to the microbial biota and ecological structure of both the pig and waste manure lagoon wastewater. While some of these changes may not be negative, it is possible that CAFOs can enrich antibiotic resistant bacteria or pathogens based on farm type, thereby influencing the impact imparted by the land application of its respective wastewater. The purpose of this study was to measure the microbial constituents of swine-sow, -nursery, and -finisher farm manure lagoon wastewater and determine the changes induced by farm management. A total of 37 farms were visited in the Mid-South USA and analyzed for the genes 16S rRNA, spaQ (Salmonella spp.), Camp-16S (Campylobacter spp.), tetA, tetB, ermF, ermA, mecA, and intI using quantitative PCR. Additionally, 16S rRNA sequence libraries were created. Overall, it appeared that finisher farms were significantly different from nursery and sow farms in nearly all genes measured and in 16S rRNA clone libraries. Nearly all antibiotic resistance genes were detected in all farms. Interestingly, the mecA resistance gene (e.g. methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus) was below detection limits on most farms, and decreased as the pigs aged. Finisher farms generally had fewer antibiotic resistance genes, which corroborated previous phenotypic data; additionally, finisher farms produced a less diverse 16S rRNA sequence library. Comparisons of Camp-16S and spaQ GU (genomic unit) values to previous culture data demonstrated ratios from 10 to 10,000:1 depending on farm type, indicating viable but not cultivatable bacteria were dominant. The current study indicated that swine farm management schemes positively and negatively affect microbial and antibiotic resistant populations in CAFO wastewater which has future “downstream” implications from both an environmental and public health perspective.  
  Call Number Serial 1943  
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Author (up) Heuer, H.; Schmitt, H.; Smalla, K. file  url
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  Title Antibiotic resistance gene spread due to manure application on agricultural fields Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Current Opinion in Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Curr Opin Microbiol  
  Volume 14 Issue 3 Pages 236-243  
  Keywords Agriculture/*methods; Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/*pharmacology; Bacteria/*drug effects/*genetics; *Drug Resistance, Bacterial; Gene Transfer, Horizontal; Humans; Interspersed Repetitive Sequences; Manure/*microbiology; Selection, Genetic  
  Abstract The usage of antibiotics in animal husbandry has promoted the development and abundance of antibiotic resistance in farm environments. Manure has become a reservoir of resistant bacteria and antibiotic compounds, and its application to agricultural soils is assumed to significantly increase antibiotic resistance genes and selection of resistant bacterial populations in soil. The genome location of resistance genes is likely to shift towards mobile genetic elements such as broad-host-range plasmids, integrons, and transposable elements. Horizontal transfer of these elements to bacteria adapted to soil or other habitats supports their environmental transmission independent of the original host. The human exposure to soil-borne resistance has yet to be determined, but is likely to be severely underestimated.  
  Call Number Serial 1955  
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Author (up) Rahube, T.O.; Yost, C.K. file  url
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  Title Characterization of a mobile and multiple resistance plasmid isolated from swine manure and its detection in soil after manure application Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Journal of Applied Microbiology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Microbiol  
  Volume 112 Issue 6 Pages 1123-1133  
  Keywords Animals; Bacteria/genetics/metabolism; Culture Media/chemistry; *Drug Resistance, Multiple; Erythromycin/metabolism; Manure/*microbiology; Plasmids/analysis/*genetics; *Soil Microbiology; *Sus scrofa; Tetracycline Resistance  
  Abstract AIMS: To isolate and characterize multiple antibiotic resistance plasmids found in swine manure and test for plasmid-associated genetic markers in soil following manure application to an agricultural field. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasmids were isolated from an erythromycin enrichment culture that used liquid swine manure as an inoculant. Plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli DH10beta for subsequent characterization. We isolated and DNA sequenced a 22 102-bp plasmid (pMC2) that confers macrolide, and tetracycline resistances, and carries genes predicted to code for mercury and chromium resistance. Conjugation experiments using an pRP4 derivative as a helper plasmid confirm that pMC2 has a functional mobilization unit. PCR was used to detect genetic elements found on pMC2 in DNA extracted from manure amended soil. CONCLUSIONS: The pMC2 plasmid has a tetracycline-resistant core and has acquired additional resistance genes by insertion of an accessory region (12 762 bp) containing macrolide, mercury and chromium resistance genes, which was inserted between the truncated DDE motifs within the Tn903/IS102 mobile element. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Liquid swine manure used for manure spreading contains multiple antibiotic resistance plasmids that can be detected in soil following manure application.  
  Call Number Serial 1958  
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