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Author (up) Coleman, C.; Copetti, D.; Cipriani, G.; Hoffmann, S.; Kozma, P.; Kovacs, L.; Morgante, M.; Testolin, R.; Di Gaspero, G. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The powdery mildew resistance gene REN1 co-segregates with an NBS-LRR gene cluster in two Central Asian grapevines Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication BMC Genetics Abbreviated Journal BMC Genet  
  Volume 10 Issue Pages 89  
  Keywords *Evolution, Molecular; Genetic Markers; Genome, Plant; Multigene Family; Phenotype; Phylogeny; Plant Diseases/*genetics/microbiology; Plant Proteins/*genetics; Segmental Duplications, Genomic; Vitis/*genetics  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Grape powdery mildew is caused by the North American native pathogen Erysiphe necator. Eurasian Vitis vinifera varieties were all believed to be susceptible. REN1 is the first resistance gene naturally found in cultivated plants of Vitis vinifera. RESULTS: REN1 is present in 'Kishmish vatkana' and 'Dzhandzhal kara', two grapevines documented in Central Asia since the 1920's. These cultivars have a second-degree relationship (half sibs, grandparent-grandchild, or avuncular), and share by descent the chromosome on which the resistance allele REN1 is located. The REN1 interval was restricted to 1.4 cM using 38 SSR markers distributed across the locus and the segregation of the resistance phenotype in two progenies of collectively 461 offspring, derived from either resistant parent. The boundary markers delimit a 1.4-Mbp sequence in the PN40024 reference genome, which contains 27 genes with known functions, 2 full-length coiled-coil NBS-LRR genes, and 9 NBS-LRR pseudogenes. In the REN1 locus of PN40024, NBS genes have proliferated through a mixture of segmental duplications, tandem gene duplications, and intragenic recombination between paralogues, indicating that the REN1 locus has been inherently prone to producing genetic variation. Three SSR markers co-segregate with REN1, the outer ones confining the 908-kb array of NBS-LRR genes. Kinship and clustering analyses based on genetic distances with susceptible cultivars representative of Central Asian Vitis vinifera indicated that 'Kishmish vatkana' and 'Dzhandzhal kara' fit well into local germplasm. 'Kishmish vatkana' also has a parent-offspring relationship with the seedless table grape 'Sultanina'. In addition, the distant genetic relatedness to rootstocks, some of which are derived from North American species resistant to powdery mildew and have been used worldwide to guard against phylloxera since the late 1800's, argues against REN1 being infused into Vitis vinifera from a recent interspecific hybridisation. CONCLUSION: The REN1 gene resides in an NBS-LRR gene cluster tightly delimited by two flanking SSR markers, which can assist in the selection of this DNA block in breeding between Vitis vinifera cultivars. The REN1 locus has multiple layers of structural complexity compared with its two closely related paralogous NBS clusters, which are located some 5 Mbp upstream and 4 Mbp downstream of the REN1 interval on the same chromosome.  
  Call Number Serial 193  
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Author (up) Harris, A.K.P.; Williamson, N.R.; Slater, H.; Cox, A.; Abbasi, S.; Foulds, I.; Simonsen, H.T.; Leeper, F.J.; Salmond, G.P.C. file  url
openurl 
  Title The Serratia gene cluster encoding biosynthesis of the red antibiotic, prodigiosin, shows species- and strain-dependent genome context variation Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Microbiology (Reading, England) Abbreviated Journal Microbiology  
  Volume 150 Issue Pt 11 Pages 3547-3560  
  Keywords Bacterial Proteins/genetics; Blotting, Southern; DNA Fingerprinting; DNA, Bacterial/chemistry/isolation & purification; DNA-Binding Proteins/genetics; Gene Order; *Genes, Bacterial; *Genetic Variation; Molecular Sequence Data; Multigene Family; Open Reading Frames; Peptide Synthases/genetics; Polyketide Synthases/genetics; Prodigiosin/*biosynthesis; Sequence Analysis, DNA; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid; Serratia/*genetics/*metabolism; Streptomyces coelicolor/genetics  
  Abstract The prodigiosin biosynthesis gene cluster (pig cluster) from two strains of Serratia (S. marcescens ATCC 274 and Serratia sp. ATCC 39006) has been cloned, sequenced and expressed in heterologous hosts. Sequence analysis of the respective pig clusters revealed 14 ORFs in S. marcescens ATCC 274 and 15 ORFs in Serratia sp. ATCC 39006. In each Serratia species, predicted gene products showed similarity to polyketide synthases (PKSs), non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) and the Red proteins of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). Comparisons between the two Serratia pig clusters and the red cluster from Str. coelicolor A3(2) revealed some important differences. A modified scheme for the biosynthesis of prodigiosin, based on the pathway recently suggested for the synthesis of undecylprodigiosin, is proposed. The distribution of the pig cluster within several Serratia sp. isolates is demonstrated and the presence of cryptic clusters in some strains shown. The pig cluster of Serratia marcescens ATCC 274 is flanked by cueR and copA homologues and this configuration is demonstrated in several S. marcescens strains, whilst these genes are contiguous in strains lacking the pig cluster.  
  Call Number Serial 1607  
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Author (up) Ling, L.L.; Schneider, T.; Peoples, A.J.; Spoering, A.L.; Engels, I.; Conlon, B.P.; Mueller, A.; Schaberle, T.F.; Hughes, D.E.; Epstein, S.; Jones, M.; Lazarides, L.; Steadman, V.A.; Cohen, D.R.; Felix, C.R.; Fetterman, K.A.; Millett, W.P.; Nitti, A.G.; Zullo, A.M.; Chen, C.; Lewis, K. file  url
openurl 
  Title A new antibiotic kills pathogens without detectable resistance Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 517 Issue 7535 Pages 455-459  
  Keywords Animals; Anti-Bacterial Agents/biosynthesis/chemistry/isolation & purification/*pharmacology; Betaproteobacteria/chemistry/genetics; Biological Products/chemistry/isolation & purification/pharmacology; Cell Wall/chemistry/drug effects/metabolism; Depsipeptides/biosynthesis/chemistry/isolation & purification/*pharmacology; Disease Models, Animal; *Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics; Female; Mice; Microbial Sensitivity Tests; Microbial Viability/*drug effects; Molecular Sequence Data; Multigene Family/genetics; Mycobacterium tuberculosis/cytology/*drug effects/genetics; Peptidoglycan/biosynthesis; Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy/microbiology; Staphylococcus aureus/chemistry/cytology/*drug effects/genetics; Teichoic Acids/biosynthesis; Time Factors  
  Abstract Antibiotic resistance is spreading faster than the introduction of new compounds into clinical practice, causing a public health crisis. Most antibiotics were produced by screening soil microorganisms, but this limited resource of cultivable bacteria was overmined by the 1960s. Synthetic approaches to produce antibiotics have been unable to replace this platform. Uncultured bacteria make up approximately 99% of all species in external environments, and are an untapped source of new antibiotics. We developed several methods to grow uncultured organisms by cultivation in situ or by using specific growth factors. Here we report a new antibiotic that we term teixobactin, discovered in a screen of uncultured bacteria. Teixobactin inhibits cell wall synthesis by binding to a highly conserved motif of lipid II (precursor of peptidoglycan) and lipid III (precursor of cell wall teichoic acid). We did not obtain any mutants of Staphylococcus aureus or Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to teixobactin. The properties of this compound suggest a path towards developing antibiotics that are likely to avoid development of resistance.  
  Call Number Serial 1893  
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Author (up) Thacker, C.; Rose, A.M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title A look at the Caenorhabditis elegans Kex2/Subtilisin-like proprotein convertase family Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology Abbreviated Journal Bioessays  
  Volume 22 Issue 6 Pages 545-553  
  Keywords Animals; Caenorhabditis elegans/*enzymology/genetics; Genes, Helminth; Humans; Multigene Family; Mutation; Phylogeny; *Proprotein Convertases; *Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins; Subtilisins/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism  
  Abstract Significant advances have recently been made in our understanding of the mechanisms of activation of proteins that require processing. Often this involves endoproteolytic cleavage of precursor forms at basic residues, and is carried out by a group of serine endoproteinases, termed the proprotein convertases. In mammals, seven different convertases have been identified to date. These act in both the regulated secretory pathway for the processing of prohormones and proneuropeptides and in the constitutive secretory pathway, in which a variety of proproteins are activated endoproteolytically. The recently completed sequence of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans genome affords a unique opportunity to examine the entire proprotein convertase family in a multicellular organism. Here we review the nature of the family, emphasising the structural features, characteristic of the four nematode genes, that supply all of the necessary functions unique to this group of serine endoproteinases. Studies of the C. elegans genes not only provide important information about the evaluation of this gene family but should help to illuminate the roles of these proteins in mammalian systems. BioEssays 22:545-553, 2000.  
  Call Number Serial 522  
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Author (up) Van de Ven, W.J.; Creemers, J.W.; Roebroek, A.J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Furin: the prototype mammalian subtilisin-like proprotein-processing enzyme. Endoproteolytic cleavage at paired basic residues of proproteins of the eukaryotic secretory pathway Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Enzyme Abbreviated Journal Enzyme  
  Volume 45 Issue 5-6 Pages 257-270  
  Keywords Animals; Binding Sites; Catalysis; Cloning, Molecular; Drosophila melanogaster; Furin; Humans; Invertebrate Hormones/genetics/metabolism; Mice; Models, Molecular; Multigene Family; Protein Conformation; Protein Precursors/*metabolism; *Protein Processing, Post-Translational; Sequence Homology, Amino Acid; Substrate Specificity; Subtilisins/genetics/*metabolism  
  Abstract Furin, the translational product of the recently discovered fur gene, appears to be the first known mammalian member of the subtilisin family of serine proteases and the first known mammalian proprotein-processing enzyme with cleavage selectivity for paired basic amino acid residues. Structurally and functionally, it resembles the prohormone-processing enzyme, kexin (EC 3.4.21.61), which is encoded by the KEX2 gene of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most likely, furin is primarily involved in the processing of precursors of proteins that are secreted via the constitutive secretory pathway. Here, we review the discovery of the fur gene and describe the isolation of cDNA clones corresponding to human and mouse fur and to two fur-like genes of Drosophila melanogaster, Dfur1 and Dfur2. We also compare the structural organization of the various deduced furin proteins to that of yeast kexin, and of other members of the subtilisin family of serine proteases. Furthermore, the biosynthesis of biologically active human and mouse furin is evaluated. Finally, the cleavage specificity for paired basic amino acid residues of human and mouse furin is demonstrated by the correct processing of the precursor for von Willebrand factor.  
  Call Number Serial 524  
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Author (up) Williamson, N.R.; Fineran, P.C.; Leeper, F.J.; Salmond, G.P.C. file  url
openurl 
  Title The biosynthesis and regulation of bacterial prodiginines Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Nature Reviews. Microbiology Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Microbiol  
  Volume 4 Issue 12 Pages 887-899  
  Keywords Antineoplastic Agents/classification/pharmacology; Bacteria/*genetics/metabolism; Cues; Environment; Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial/*physiology; Gene Order/genetics; Gene Transfer, Horizontal; Immunosuppressive Agents/classification/pharmacology; Multigene Family/genetics; Prodigiosin/*analogs & derivatives/biosynthesis/classification/pharmacology; Quorum Sensing/physiology; Signal Transduction/physiology  
  Abstract The red-pigmented prodiginines are bioactive secondary metabolites produced by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Recently, these tripyrrole molecules have received renewed attention owing to reported immunosuppressive and anticancer properties. The enzymes involved in the biosynthetic pathways for the production of two of these molecules, prodigiosin and undecylprodigiosin, are now known. However, the biochemistry of some of the reactions is still poorly understood. The physiology and regulation of prodiginine production in Serratia and Streptomyces are now well understood, although the biological role of these pigments in the producer organisms remains unclear. However, research into the biology of pigment production will stimulate interest in the bioengineering of strains to synthesize useful prodiginine derivatives.  
  Call Number Serial 1640  
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