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Author (up) Arai, L. file  url
  Title Peer and neighbourhood influences on teenage pregnancy and fertility: qualitative findings from research in English communities Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Health & Place Abbreviated Journal Health Place  
  Volume 13 Issue 1 Pages 87-98  
  Keywords Abortion, Induced/utilization; Adolescent; Adult; Attitude to Health/*ethnology; Birth Rate; England; Female; Geography; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Mothers/education/psychology; *Peer Group; Pregnancy; Pregnancy in Adolescence/*ethnology/psychology; Qualitative Research; Residence Characteristics/*classification; *Social Class; *Social Conformity; Social Values/ethnology; Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract Geographic variation in teenage pregnancy is attributable to social and cultural, as well as demographic, factors. In some communities and social networks early childbearing may be acceptable, or even normative. It is these places that are the focus of policy initiatives. This paper reports the findings of a qualitative study of neighbourhood and peer influences on the transition from pregnancy to fertility among 15 young mothers in three English locations. Data were also collected from nine local health workers. The findings show that, from the mothers' perspective, there was no evidence that peers influenced behaviour. However, the data did suggest that early childbearing might be normative in some communities.  
  Call Number Serial 1343  
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Author (up) Baber, M.; Chaudhry, S.; Kelly, L.; Ross, C.; Carleton, B.; Berger, H.; Koren, G. file  url
  Title The pharmacogenetics of codeine pain relief in the postpartum period Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication The Pharmacogenomics Journal Abbreviated Journal Pharmacogenomics J  
  Volume 15 Issue 5 Pages 430-435  
  Keywords Adult; Cesarean Section/adverse effects; Codeine/*administration & dosage; Female; Genotype; Glucuronosyltransferase/*genetics; Humans; Pain/drug therapy/*genetics/pathology; Pain Management; Pharmacogenetics; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Postpartum Period; Pregnancy; Receptors, Opioid, mu/*genetics  
  Abstract The objective of this study was to examine interindividual variability in codeine requirements and pain management by examining select genetic polymorphisms in the codeine pharmacological pathway. The study included a nested cohort of 98 women who were prescribed codeine following cesarean section. Participants were genotyped for select polymorphisms of the COMT, ABCB1, CYP2D6, UGT2B7 and OPRM1 genes and instructed to describe their level of pain using the visual analog scale (mm) 1 h following each dose of codeine. Analysis revealed that reported pain increases with maternal age (P=0.041). Asians required more codeine than Caucasians (P=0.048). Significant differences in mean dose consumption were seen among the genotypic groups of the OPRM1 A118G (P=0.001) and UGT2B7 C802T (P=0.015) variants. These variants were found to predict codeine consumption in the cohort overall (P=0.000) and among Caucasians (P=0.001). These findings will assist in customizing therapy to effectively manage postpartum pain.  
  Call Number Serial 1573  
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Author (up) Bailey, A.; Le Couteur, A.; Gottesman, I.; Bolton, P.; Simonoff, E.; Yuzda, E.; Rutter, M. file  url
  Title Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from a British twin study Type Journal Article
  Year 1995 Publication Psychological Medicine Abbreviated Journal Psychol Med  
  Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 63-77  
  Keywords Abnormalities, Multiple/diagnosis/genetics/psychology; Adolescent; Adult; Autistic Disorder/diagnosis/*genetics/psychology; Child; Child, Preschool; Diseases in Twins/*genetics/psychology; Female; Follow-Up Studies; Great Britain; Humans; Infant; Infant, Newborn; Intelligence/genetics; Male; Models, Genetic; Personality Assessment; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects; Risk Factors; Social Adjustment; Social Environment; Twins, Dizygotic/genetics/psychology; Twins, Monozygotic/genetics/psychology  
  Abstract Two previous epidemiological studies of autistic twins suggested that autism was predominantly genetically determined, although the findings with regard to a broader phenotype of cognitive, and possibly social, abnormalities were contradictory. Obstetric and perinatal hazards were also invoked as environmentally determined aetiological factors. The first British twin sample has been re-examined and a second total population sample of autistic twins recruited. In the combined sample 60% of monozygotic (MZ) pairs were concordant for autism versus no dizygotic (DZ) pairs; 92% of MZ pairs were concordant for a broader spectrum of related cognitive or social abnormalities versus 10% of DZ pairs. The findings indicate that autism is under a high degree of genetic control and suggest the involvement of multiple genetic loci. Obstetric hazards usually appear to be consequences of genetically influenced abnormal development, rather than independent aetiological factors. Few new cases had possible medical aetiologies, refuting claims that recognized disorders are common aetiological influences.  
  Call Number Serial 1112  
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Author (up) Bernhardt, B.A.; Soucier, D.; Hanson, K.; Savage, M.S.; Jackson, L.; Wapner, R.J. file  url
  Title Women's experiences receiving abnormal prenatal chromosomal microarray testing results Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Genetics in Medicine : Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics Abbreviated Journal Genet Med  
  Volume 15 Issue 2 Pages 139-145  
  Keywords Adult; Chromosome Aberrations; Chromosome Disorders--diagnosis, genetics, psychology; Female; Genetic Counseling--methods, psychology; Genetic Testing--methods; Humans; Pilot Projects; Pregnancy; Prenatal Diagnosis--methods, psychology; Truth Disclosure  
  Abstract PURPOSE: Genomic microarrays can detect copy-number variants not detectable by conventional cytogenetics. This technology is diffusing rapidly into prenatal settings even though the clinical implications of many copy-number variants are currently unknown. We conducted a qualitative pilot study to explore the experiences of women receiving abnormal results from prenatal microarray testing performed in a research setting. METHODS: Participants were a subset of women participating in a multicenter prospective study “Prenatal Cytogenetic Diagnosis by Array-based Copy Number Analysis.” Telephone interviews were conducted with 23 women receiving abnormal prenatal microarray results. RESULTS: We found that five key elements dominated the experiences of women who had received abnormal prenatal microarray results: an offer too good to pass up, blindsided by the results, uncertainty and unquantifiable risks, need for support, and toxic knowledge. CONCLUSION: As prenatal microarray testing is increasingly used, uncertain findings will be common, resulting in greater need for careful pre- and posttest counseling, and more education of and resources for providers so they can adequately support the women who are undergoing testing.  
  Call Number Serial 560  
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Author (up) Brabin, B.J.; Romagosa, C.; Abdelgalil, S.; Menendez, C.; Verhoeff, F.H.; McGready, R.; Fletcher, K.A.; Owens, S.; D'Alessandro, U.; Nosten, F.; Fischer, P.R.; Ordi, J. file  url
  Title The sick placenta-the role of malaria Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Placenta Abbreviated Journal Placenta  
  Volume 25 Issue 5 Pages 359-378  
  Keywords Cytokines/immunology; Female; Fetal Growth Retardation/etiology/parasitology; Fetal Weight; Humans; Immunity, Cellular/immunology; Immunity, Maternally-Acquired/immunology; Immunohistochemistry; Infant, Low Birth Weight; Infant, Newborn; Malaria/immunology/*pathology; Malaria, Falciparum/immunology/*pathology; Malaria, Vivax/immunology/pathology; Placenta/immunology/pathology/physiopathology; Placenta Diseases/immunology/*pathology; Pregnancy; Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic; Premature Birth/epidemiology/etiology/parasitology  
  Abstract The human placenta is an ideal site for the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites, and as a consequence serious health problems arise for the mother and her baby. The pathogenesis of placental malaria is only partially understood, but it is clear that it leads to a distinct epidemiological pattern of malaria during pregnancy. The objectives of this review are: (1) To review recent data on the epidemiology of malaria in pregnancy, with emphasis on placental malaria; (2) to describe the pathological changes and immunological factors related to placental malaria; and (3) to discuss briefly the functional consequences of this infection for the mother and her baby. The review attempts to bring together local events at the maternal-fetal interface which encompass immunological and pathological processes which relate to the epidemiological pattern of malaria in pregnancy in areas of both high and low malaria transmission. An integrated understanding of the epidemiological, immunological and pathological processes must be achieved in order to understand how to control malaria in pregnancy. The yearly exposure of at least 50 million pregnancies to malaria infection makes it the commonest and most recurrent parasitic infection directly affecting the placenta. These statistics and our limited understanding of its pathogenesis suggest the research priorities on this subject.  
  Call Number Serial 147  
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Author (up) de Jong, A.; Dondorp, W.J.; Frints, S.G.M.; de Die-Smulders, C.E.M.; de Wert, G.M.W.R. file  url
  Title Advances in prenatal screening: the ethical dimension Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Nature Reviews. Genetics Abbreviated Journal Nat Rev Genet  
  Volume 12 Issue 9 Pages 657-663  
  Keywords Abortion, Eugenic; Aneuploidy; Child; *Chromosome Aberrations; Ethics, Medical; Female; Genetic Association Studies/*methods; Genetic Testing; Humans; Infant, Newborn; Karyotyping; Neonatal Screening/*ethics; Patient Rights/ethics; Pregnancy; Prenatal Diagnosis/ethics/methods; Sequence Analysis, DNA  
  Abstract Prenatal screening strategies are undergoing rapid changes owing to the introduction of new testing techniques. The overall tendency is towards broadening the scope of prenatal testing through increasingly sensitive ultrasound scans and genome-wide molecular tests. In addition, non-invasive prenatal diagnosis is likely to be introduced in the near future. These developments raise important ethical questions concerning meaningful reproductive choice, the autonomy rights of future children, equity of access and the proportionality of testing.  
  Call Number Serial 1356  
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Author (up) Dzialowski, E.M.; Sirsat, T.; van der Sterren, S.; Villamor, E. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Prenatal cardiovascular shunts in amniotic vertebrates Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Abbreviated Journal Respir Physiol Neurobiol  
  Volume 178 Issue 1 Pages 66-74  
  Keywords Animals; Cardiovascular System/*embryology; Female; Fetal Heart/*embryology/physiology; Fetus/blood supply/physiology; Humans; Pregnancy; Vertebrates/*embryology  
  Abstract During amniotic vertebrate development, the embryo and fetus employ a number of cardiovascular shunts. These shunts provide a right-to-left shunt of blood and are essential components of embryonic life ensuring proper blood circulation to developing organs and fetal gas exchanger, as well as bypassing the pulmonary circuit and the unventilated, fluid filled lungs. In this review we examine and compare the embryonic shunts available for fetal mammals and embryonic reptiles, including lizards, crocodilians, and birds. These groups have either a single ductus arteriosus (mammals) or paired ductus arteriosi that provide a right-to-left shunt of right ventricular output away from the unventilated lungs. The mammalian foramen ovale and the avian atrial foramina function as a right-to-left shunt of blood between the atria. The presence of atrial shunts in non-avian reptiles is unknown. Mammals have a venous shunt, the ductus venosus that diverts umbilical venous return away from the liver and towards the inferior vena cava and foramen ovale. Reptiles do not have a ductus venosus during the latter two thirds of development. While the fetal shunts are well characterized in numerous mammalian species, much less is known about the developmental physiology of the reptilian embryonic shunts. In the last years, the reactivity and the process of closure of the ductus arteriosus have been characterized in the chicken and the emu. In contrast, much less is known about embryonic shunts in the non-avian reptiles. It is possible that the single ventricle found in lizards, snakes, and turtles and the origin of the left aorta in the crocodilians play a significant role in the right-to-left embryonic shunt in these species.  
  Call Number Serial 1130  
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Author (up) Gohir, W.; Ratcliffe, E.M.; Sloboda, D.M. file  url
  Title Of the bugs that shape us: maternal obesity, the gut microbiome, and long-term disease risk Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Pediatric Research Abbreviated Journal Pediatr Res  
  Volume 77 Issue 1-2 Pages 196-204  
  Keywords Female; Gastrointestinal Tract/growth & development/*microbiology; Humans; *Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; *Maternal-Fetal Exchange; *Microbiota; Obesity/*complications/microbiology; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/immunology/*microbiology; Microbiome  
  Abstract Chronic disease risk is inextricably linked to our early-life environment, where maternal, fetal, and childhood factors predict disease risk later in life. Currently, maternal obesity is a key predictor of childhood obesity and metabolic complications in adulthood. Although the mechanisms are unclear, new and emerging evidence points to our microbiome, where the bacterial composition of the gut modulates the weight gain and altered metabolism that drives obesity. Over the course of pregnancy, maternal bacterial load increases, and gut bacterial diversity changes and is influenced by pre-pregnancy- and pregnancy-related obesity. Alterations in the bacterial composition of the mother have been shown to affect the development and function of the gastrointestinal tract of her offspring. How these microbial shifts influence the maternal-fetal-infant relationship is a topic of hot debate. This paper will review the evidence linking nutrition, maternal obesity, the maternal gut microbiome, and fetal gut development, bringing together clinical observations in humans and experimental data from targeted animal models.  
  Call Number Serial 2080  
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Author (up) Henzl, M.R.; Corson, S.L.; Moghissi, K.; Buttram, V.C.; Berqvist, C.; Jacobson, J. file  url
  Title Administration of nasal nafarelin as compared with oral danazol for endometriosis. Type Journal Article
  Year 1988 Publication The New England Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal N Engl J Med  
  Volume 318 Issue 8 Pages 485-489  
  Keywords Administration, Intranasal; Administration, Oral; Adolescent; Adult; Clinical Trials as Topic; Danazol/administration & dosage/therapeutic use; Double-Blind Method; Endometriosis/*drug therapy; Estradiol/blood; Female; Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone/administration & dosage/adverse effects/*analogs & derivatives; Humans; Middle Aged; Nafarelin; Pregnancy/drug effects; Progesterone/blood; Prospective Studies; Uterine Neoplasms/*drug therapy  
  Abstract Treatment with nafarelin, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, reversibly inhibits ovarian function and induces hypoestrogenemia. To determine the efficacy of such hormonal manipulation in the treatment of endometriosis, we randomly assigned 213 patients with laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis to receive, for six months, either nafarelin by nasal spray (400 or 800 micrograms per day) or oral danazol (800 mg per day). Placebo nasal spray and placebo tablets were used to double blind the study. Pretreatment and post-treatment laparoscopies were compared by means of the American Fertility Society's scoring system. More than 80 percent of the patients in each treatment group had a reduction in the extent of disease as assessed by laparoscopy. The mean laparoscopic scores decreased from 21.9 to 12.6 with 800 micrograms of nafarelin, from 20.4 to 11.7 with 400 micrograms of nafarelin, and from 18.4 to 10.5 with danazol (P = 0.0001 within each group; there were no statistically significant differences between the groups). The percentage of women with severely painful symptoms of endometriosis decreased from about 40 percent to 5 to 10 percent, whereas the percentage with no or minimal discomfort rose from 25 to 70 percent. Of the 149 patients who tried to become pregnant, 58 (39 percent) succeeded after the completion of treatment; similar rates of pregnancy applied to the three treatment groups. Danazol use decreased high-density lipoprotein levels and increased low-density lipoprotein levels. These changes were not observed in nafarelin users, but a higher percentage of them reported hot flashes and decreased libido. We conclude that nafarelin is an effective agent for treating endometriosis and has few side effects other than hypoestrogenism.  
  Call Number Serial 1028  
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Author (up) Huang, D.J.; Mergenthaler-Gatfield, S.; Hahn, S.; Holzgreve, W.; Zhong, X.Y. file  url
  Title Isolation of cell-free DNA from maternal plasma using manual and automated systems Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.) Abbreviated Journal Methods Mol Biol  
  Volume 444 Issue Pages 203-208  
  Keywords Automation; Cell-Free System; DNA/*blood/isolation & purification; Female; Fetus/*metabolism; Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental; *Genetic Testing; Humans; Maternal-Fetal Exchange; Molecular Diagnostic Techniques; Pregnancy; Prenatal Diagnosis/*methods; Reagent Kits, Diagnostic  
  Abstract Cell-free fetal DNA present in the maternal circulation holds great potential for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis and analysis of fetal genetic traits. However, only approximately 3-6% of total DNA in the maternal plasma is of fetal origin. Because of its scarcity in the maternal circulation, various methods have been developed and tested to optimize the extraction of this rare material from plasma. Here, we first describe the commonly used protocol for separating plasma from whole blood samples. We also describe two commercially available methods for the extraction of cell-free DNA from maternal plasma, which we have found particularly straightforward and easy to use: a manual method using the High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit (Roche Diagnostics) and an automated system using the MagNA Pure LC instrument (Roche Diagnostics). Use of the methods described here will help to ensure maximum yield and purity of cell-free fetal DNA extracted from maternal plasma samples for downstream analyses.  
  Call Number Serial 932  
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