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Author (up) A/Rahman, S.H.; Mohamedani, A.A.; Mirgani, E.M.; Ibrahim, A.M. file  url
openurl 
  Title Gender aspects and women's participation in the control and management of malaria in central Sudan Type Journal Article
  Year 1996 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med  
  Volume 42 Issue 10 Pages 1433-1446  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Consumer Participation--methods, psychology, statistics & numerical data; Cost of Illness; Developing Countries--economics, statistics & numerical data; Diarrhea--epidemiology, prevention & control; Female; Health Education--manpower, methods; Humans; Insecticides--adverse effects; Malaria, Falciparum--economics, epidemiology, prevention & control; Male; Medicine, Traditional; Middle Aged; Mosquito Control--methods; Prevalence; Program Evaluation; Sanitation; Schistosomiasis--epidemiology, prevention & control; Sudan--epidemiology; Superstitions; Treatment Outcome; Women; Women's Health  
  Abstract This work was designed to study the contribution of women in central Sudan in the control and management of malaria with particular emphasis on gender-related aspects that define women's role and participation. The Blue Nile Health Project (BNHP 1980-1990) was launched in 1980 mainly for control of water associated diseases in central Sudan. The BNHP model was chosen to conduct this work. The study showed that women were actively involved in the implementation of the BNHP strategies as health instructors (murshidat) who constituted 75% of the staff of BNHP unit of health education, as members of village health committees (VHC) where they constituted 40% of the VHC members and also as recipients of the project services. All murshidat were interviewed whereas multistage random sampling for VHC members and recipient women in 40 villages was used to select a sample which was interviewed. The results showed that the murshidat and VHC women members played a major role in the motivation, organization and health education of local communities prior to campaigns of environmental sanitation and vector control. Household commitments and difficulties in communication with the public were the main gender-related factors that contributed negatively to women's activities. Cases of malaria have more considerable socio-economic impact than other common diseases, especially with regard to women's household commitments and work. Recipient women were more concerned with aspects of self protection, management of family cases of malaria and health education programmes. They were less involved in drying mosquito breeding sites and spraying activities of insecticides which had been reluctantly accepted because of allergy and bad odour. Although the majority of women considered antimalarials to be less harmful than effects of malaria itself on pregnancy, they did not realize the role of malaria chemoprophylaxis during pregnancy. This needs more health education. The study showed that the BNHP programme was very successful in recruiting women in control and management programmes. Therefore, health planners are urged to persuade the subordinated communities of women in many African countries like Sudan to play a more active role in the health programmes and welfare of their communities.  
  Call Number Serial 169  
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Author (up) Beiter, R.; Nash, R.; McCrady, M.; Rhoades, D.; Linscomb, M.; Clarahan, M.; Sammut, S. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title The prevalence and correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of college students Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Affective Disorders Abbreviated Journal J Affect Disord  
  Volume 173 Issue Pages 90-96  
  Keywords Adolescent; Anxiety/*epidemiology; Depression/*epidemiology; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Male; Ohio/epidemiology; Prevalence; Stress, Psychological/*epidemiology; Students/*psychology; *Universities; Young Adult; Anxiety; College students; Dass; Depression; Mental health; Stress  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Over the past four years, the Franciscan University Counseling Center has reported a 231% increase in yearly visits, as well as a 173% increase in total yearly clients. This trend has been observed at many universities as mental health issues pose significant problems for many college students. The objective of this study was to investigate potential correlates of depression, anxiety, and stress in a sample of college students. METHODS: The final analyzed sample consisted of 374 undergraduate students between the ages of 18 and 24 attending Franciscan University, Steubenville, Ohio. Subjects completed a survey consisting of demographic questions, a section instructing participants to rate the level of concern associated with challenges pertinent to daily life (e.g. academics, family, sleep), and the 21 question version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS21). RESULTS: The results indicated that the top three concerns were academic performance, pressure to succeed, and post-graduation plans. Demographically, the most stressed, anxious, and depressed students were transfers, upperclassmen, and those living off-campus. CONCLUSIONS: With the propensity for mental health issues to hinder the success of college students, it is vital that colleges continually evaluate the mental health of their students and tailor treatment programs to specifically target their needs.  
  Call Number Serial 1158  
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Author (up) Buu, M.M.C.; Sanders, L.M.; Mayo, J.A.; Milla, C.E.; Wise, P.H. file  url
openurl 
  Title Assessing Differences in Mortality Rates and Risk Factors Between Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Patients With Cystic Fibrosis in California Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Chest Abbreviated Journal Chest  
  Volume 149 Issue 2 Pages 380-389  
  Keywords Adolescent; California/epidemiology; Child; Child, Preschool; Cystic Fibrosis/*mortality; *European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Follow-Up Studies; *Hispanic Americans; Humans; Infant; Male; Outcome Assessment (Health Care)/*methods; Prevalence; Registries; Retrospective Studies; Risk Factors; Socioeconomic Factors; Survival Rate/trends; cystic fibrosis; ethnicity; health disparities; pediatric pulmonology  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Over the past 30 years, therapeutic advances have extended the median lifespan of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Hispanic patients are a vulnerable subpopulation with a high prevalence of risk factors for worse health outcomes. The consequences of these differences on health outcomes have not been well described. The objective of this study was to characterize the difference in health outcomes, including mortality rate, between Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients with CF. METHODS: This study is a retrospective analysis of CF Foundation Patient Registry data of California residents with CF, diagnosed during or after 1991, from 1991 to 2010. Ethnicity was self-reported. The primary outcome was mortality. Hazard ratios were estimated from a Cox regression model, stratified by sex, and adjusted for socioeconomic status, clinical risk factors, and year of diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 1,719 patients, 485 (28.2%) self-identified as Hispanic. Eighty-five deaths occurred, with an overall mortality rate of 4.9%. The unadjusted mortality rate was higher among Hispanic patients than among non-Hispanic patients (9.1% vs 3.3%, P < .0001). Compared with non-Hispanic patients, Hispanic patients had a lower survival rate 18 years after diagnosis (75.9% vs 91.5%, P < .0001). Adjusted for socioeconomic status and clinical risk factors, Hispanic patients had an increased rate of death compared with non-Hispanic patients (hazard ratio, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.70-4.63). CONCLUSIONS: Hispanic patients with CF have a higher mortality rate than do non-Hispanic patients, even after adjusting for socioeconomic status and clinical severity. Further investigation into the mechanism for the measured difference in lung function will help inform interventions and improve the health of all patients with CF.  
  Call Number Serial 1377  
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Author (up) Ege, M.J.; Mayer, M.; Normand, A.-C.; Genuneit, J.; Cookson, W.O.C.M.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Heederik, D.; Piarroux, R.; von Mutius, E. file  url
openurl 
  Title Exposure to environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication The New England Journal of Medicine Abbreviated Journal N Engl J Med  
  Volume 364 Issue 8 Pages 701-709  
  Keywords Adolescent; *Agriculture; Asthma/*epidemiology/immunology; Bacteria/*isolation & purification; Biodiversity; Child; Cross-Sectional Studies; Dust/analysis; Environmental Exposure/*analysis; Female; Fungi/*isolation & purification; Humans; Hypersensitivity/*epidemiology/immunology; Immunoglobulin E/blood; Logistic Models; Male; Microbiome; Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational; Prevalence; Risk Factors; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Children who grow up in environments that afford them a wide range of microbial exposures, such as traditional farms, are protected from childhood asthma and atopy. In previous studies, markers of microbial exposure have been inversely related to these conditions. METHODS: In two cross-sectional studies, we compared children living on farms with those in a reference group with respect to the prevalence of asthma and atopy and to the diversity of microbial exposure. In one study--PARSIFAL (Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in Children Related to Farming and Anthroposophic Lifestyle)--samples of mattress dust were screened for bacterial DNA with the use of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses to detect environmental bacteria that cannot be measured by means of culture techniques. In the other study--GABRIELA (Multidisciplinary Study to Identify the Genetic and Environmental Causes of Asthma in the European Community [GABRIEL] Advanced Study)--samples of settled dust from children's rooms were evaluated for bacterial and fungal taxa with the use of culture techniques. RESULTS: In both studies, children who lived on farms had lower prevalences of asthma and atopy and were exposed to a greater variety of environmental microorganisms than the children in the reference group. In turn, diversity of microbial exposure was inversely related to the risk of asthma (odds ratio for PARSIFAL, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.44 to 0.89; odds ratio for GABRIELA, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.99). In addition, the presence of certain more circumscribed exposures was also inversely related to the risk of asthma; this included exposure to species in the fungal taxon eurotium (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.76) and to a variety of bacterial species, including Listeria monocytogenes, bacillus species, corynebacterium species, and others (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: Children living on farms were exposed to a wider range of microbes than were children in the reference group, and this exposure explains a substantial fraction of the inverse relation between asthma and growing up on a farm. (Funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and the European Commission.).  
  Call Number Serial 1983  
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Author (up) Ehringer, M.A.; Rhee, S.H.; Young, S.; Corley, R.; Hewitt, J.K. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Genetic and environmental contributions to common psychopathologies of childhood and adolescence: a study of twins and their siblings Type
  Year 2006 Publication Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology Abbreviated Journal J Abnorm Child Psychol  
  Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 1-17  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adolescent Psychology/methods; Adult; Biometry/methods; Child; Child Psychology/methods; Colorado/epidemiology; Female; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*psychology; Humans; Internal-External Control; Male; Mental Disorders/epidemiology/*genetics/*psychology; Prevalence; Self Disclosure; Sex Factors; Siblings/*psychology; *Social Environment  
  Abstract We report findings based on analyses of self-reports of six common adolescent psychopathologies (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; conduct disorder, CD; oppositional defiant disorder, ODD; generalized anxiety disorder, GAD; separation anxiety disorder, SAD; and major depressive disorder, MDD) in a sample of 1,162 male and female adolescent (12-19 years) twin pairs and 426 siblings. Prevalence statistics for past year and lifetime reports confirm differences between genders for CD, GAD, SAD, and MDD, and a lack of differences between twins and their non-twin siblings. Biometrical modeling was conducted to ascertain the relative influences of genes, and shared and non-shared environments contributing to these disorders. A more robust estimate of these parameters was obtained by including non-twin siblings. Age-specific thresholds were integrated into the analyses to appropriately model the developmental patterns of behavior. We found evidence for both genetic and non-shared environmental influences for all disorders. Shared environmental influences also seem to be important for MDD and lifetime GAD.  
  Call Number Serial 98  
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Author (up) Laveist, T.A.; Thorpe, R.J.J.; Mance, G.A.; Jackson, J. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Overcoming confounding of race with socio-economic status and segregation to explore race disparities in smoking Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Addiction (Abingdon, England) Abbreviated Journal Addiction  
  Volume 102 Suppl 2 Issue Pages 65-70  
  Keywords Adult; African Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Baltimore/epidemiology; Cross-Sectional Studies; European Continental Ancestry Group/statistics & numerical data; Humans; *Prejudice; Prevalence; Smoking/epidemiology/*ethnology; *Socioeconomic Factors  
  Abstract AIMS: We examined the nature of racial disparities in smoking status within a sample that accounts for two major confounding factors in health disparities research--racial segregation and socio-economic status. Also, we sought to determine the generalizability of our sample. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study based on data from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study in south-west Baltimore, MD (EHDIC-SWB) and a subsample of respondents in the 2002 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) that was matched to EHIDC-SWB. The final matched data set sample size was 2948 adults (1474 EHDIC-SWB; 1474 matched NHIS). MEASUREMENTS: Our outcome variables were life-time and current smoking status and number of cigarettes smoked daily. Independent variables include race, age gender, educational attainment and income. FINDINGS: In the adjusted models, whites had greater odds than blacks of current smoking and reported smoking more cigarettes in the EHDIC-SWB sample, but there were no race differences in current smoking status or in the number of cigarettes smoked per day in the NHIS. The prevalence rates for both life-time and current smoking were substantially greater in the EHDIC-SWB sample, but in comparisons of blacks and whites across samples we found that the magnitude of the difference between the samples was greatest for whites. CONCLUSIONS: Unadjusted national estimates of race disparities as reported in national reports may be biased because of differential risk exposure among people of different race groups. Race differences in social and environmental contexts account partially for racial differences in smoking patterns.  
  Call Number Serial 373  
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Author (up) Lo, C.C.; Cheng, T.C. file  url
openurl 
  Title The impact of childhood maltreatment on young adults' substance abuse Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Abbreviated Journal Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse  
  Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 139-146  
  Keywords Adult; Child; Child Abuse/*statistics & numerical data; Child Abuse, Sexual/statistics & numerical data; Chronic Disease; Demography; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Female; Humans; Male; Prevalence; Substance-Related Disorders/*epidemiology; Surveys and Questionnaires  
  Abstract Designed to establish a causal relationship between childhood victimization and young adults' substance abuse, this study also examined depression's role as mediator in that causal relationship. The study employs child-abuse measures that weigh both the type (sexual, physical) and the persistence of abuse. The study took as its substance-abuse measures the DSM-IV criteria for current alcohol abuse, current marijuana abuse, and current drug abuse. Data from the first 5 waves of the National Youth Survey (NYS) was employed, along with data from its 7th wave, to establish the temporal order needed to determine causal relationship. Childhood physical abuse proved a strong predictor of young adults' current substance abuse, although sexual abuse did not. Depression was shown to mediate the relationship of physical abuse to current alcohol abuse and current drug abuse, but not to current marijuana abuse.  
  Call Number Serial 1684  
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Author (up) Loeber, R.; Burke, J.D.; Lahey, B.B.; Winters, A.; Zera, M. file  url
doi  openurl
  Title Oppositional defiant and conduct disorder: a review of the past 10 years, part I Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry  
  Volume 39 Issue 12 Pages 1468-1484  
  Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Age of Onset; *Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Child; Comorbidity; *Conduct Disorder/diagnosis/epidemiology/psychology; Diagnosis, Differential; Female; Humans; Male; Prevalence; Prognosis; Sex Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: To review empirical findings on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD). METHOD: Selected summaries of the literature over the past decade are presented. RESULTS: Evidence supports a distinction between the symptoms of ODD and many symptoms of CD, but there is controversy about whether aggressive symptoms should be considered to be part of ODD or CD. CD is clearly heterogenous, but further research is needed regarding the most useful subtypes. Some progress has been made in documenting sex differences. Symptoms that are more serious, more atypical for the child's sex, or more age-atypical appear to be prognostic of serious dysfunction. Progress has been made in the methods for assessment of ODD and CD, but some critical issues, such as combined information from different informants, remains to be addressed. A proportion of children with ODD later develop CD, and a proportion of those with CD later meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder. ODD and CD frequently co-occur with other psychiatric conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Although major advances in the study of the prevalence and course of ODD and CD have occurred in the past decade, some key issues remain unanswered.  
  Call Number Serial 101  
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Author (up) Maughan, B.; Rowe, R.; Messer, J.; Goodman, R.; Meltzer, H. file  url
openurl 
  Title Conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder in a national sample: developmental epidemiology Type Journal Article
  Year 2004 Publication Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines Abbreviated Journal J Child Psychol Psychiatry  
  Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 609-621  
  Keywords Adolescent; Anxiety/epidemiology; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology; Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Child; Child, Preschool; Comorbidity; Conduct Disorder/*diagnosis/epidemiology; Depression/epidemiology; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders; Female; Humans; Male; Prevalence  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Despite an expanding epidemiological evidence base, uncertainties remain over key aspects of the epidemiology of the 'antisocial' disorders in childhood and adolescence. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data on a nationally representative sample of 10,438 5-15-year-olds drawn from the 1999 British Child Mental Health Survey to examine age trends, gender ratios and patterns of comorbidity in DSM-IV Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD). RESULTS: CD was significantly more common in boys than girls, and increased in prevalence with age. Among children who met diagnostic criteria for CD, status violations and other non-aggressive conduct problems increased with age, while aggressive symptoms became less common. Gender differences in ODD varied by reporter. Estimates of age trends in ODD depended heavily on treatment of overlaps with CD. Following DSM-IV guidelines (where ODD is not diagnosed in the presence of CD), rates of ODD fell with age; if that constraint was released, clinically significant rates of oppositionality persisted at similar levels from early childhood to middle adolescence. CD and ODD showed high levels of overlap, and both diagnoses showed substantial comorbidity with other non-antisocial disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this large-scale study confirm and extend previous findings in the epidemiology of the disruptive behaviour disorders.  
  Call Number Serial 99  
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Author (up) O'Donnell, M.L.; Bryant, R.A.; Creamer, M.; Carty, J. file  url
openurl 
  Title Mental health following traumatic injury: toward a health system model of early psychological intervention Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Clinical Psychology Review Abbreviated Journal Clin Psychol Rev  
  Volume 28 Issue 3 Pages 387-406  
  Keywords Cognitive Therapy/methods; Delivery of Health Care/*methods; Disease Susceptibility/diagnosis/psychology; Follow-Up Studies; Hospitalization; Humans; Interviews as Topic; Life Change Events; *Models, Theoretical; Prevalence; Psychotherapy/*methods; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis/epidemiology/*therapy; Stress, Psychological/etiology/psychology/therapy; Survivors/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Trauma Severity Indices; United States/epidemiology; Wounds and Injuries/complications/*psychology  
  Abstract In 2005, over 2 million people in the United States of America were hospitalised following non-fatal injuries. The frequency with which severe injury occurs renders it a leading cause of posttraumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related psychopathology. In order to develop a health system model of early psychological intervention for this population, we review the literature that pertains to mental health early intervention. The relevant domains include prevalence of psychopathology following traumatic injury, the course of symptoms, screening, and early intervention strategies. On the basis of available evidence, we propose a health system model of early psychological intervention following traumatic injury. The model involves screening for vulnerability within the hospital setting, follow-up screening for persistent symptoms at one month posttrauma, and early psychological intervention for those who are experiencing clinical impairment. Recommendations are made to facilitate tailoring early intervention psychological therapies to the special needs of the injury population.  
  Call Number Serial 1163  
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